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Traffic refers to the movement of persons, goods, or vehicle, either powered by combustion system or animal drawn, from one place to another for the purpose of travel.

Historical Background of Land Transportation


Refers to the movement or conveying of persons and goods from one location to another.

NOMAD to pasture, was originally used to refer to pastoralists group that migrate in established pattern to find pasture lands for their domestic livestock.

However the term has been generalized to include all non-settled populations.

3 types of Nomads

Foraging populations Pastoral nomads Gypsies

It is believed that early human beings traveled to places by foot, carrying their loads on their backs or on their heads, while others pulled crude sleds.

Various ancient modes of transportation

Manpower early man, who had no domesticated animals, carried his own burdens.

Carrying pole Back load and tumpline Sledge rollers Sledge on runners travois

Animal power the domestication of animals greatly increased the potential power available for transportation. Pack animals were introduced as conveyances mainly to save labor. Ox Reindeer Dog Donkey Llama Elephant Horse Camel Yak




Wind power man realized the energy from the mass of moving air and learned to utilize such powers to lift rather than to drag.

Ancient Chinese Kite DaVincis Ornithopter Montgolfier Balloon Siemens Rocket Plane Lilienthal Glider Santos Dumonts airship Wright Brothers Flying Machine Lindberghs Spirit of St. Louis

Da Vincis Ornithopter

Montgolfier balloon

Lilienthal glider

History of Wheels, Roads, and Vehicles


Was invented in Western Asia The invention was a milestone and a great step forward in transportation. Enabled man to transport burdens beyond the capability of man or animals to carry or drag. Wheels, crude carts and wagons began to appear in Tigris-Euphrates Valley about 3500 BC and later in Crete, Egypt and China.

Earliest types of wheeled carts

Solid wheels on fixed axle Sumerian Chariot with flank wheels Greek quadrica with spoke wheels Roman carpentum Italian cocchio

Roman carpentum

Sumerian chariot

Greek quadrica


3000 BC Civilization of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus valley develop roads first for animals and then wheeled vehicles.

But the Romans were the major road builders in the ancient world. The Romans road network reached a total of about 50,000 miles (80,000 kms), with feeder roads branching out of the main highways.

1717 John Metcalfe, built about 180 miles of roads in Yorkshire, England (even though he was blind). His well drained roads were built with three layers: large stones; excavated road material; and a layer of gravel.

Modern traffic control in response to "the great inconvenience and mischiefs which happen by the disorderly leading and driving of cars, carts, coaches, and other carriages over the London Bridge,

18th century Advancement in engineering paved the way for the construction of modern roads and streets.

Also during this period the introduction of road toll fee was develop for road construction.

1824 The first road use of asphalt was utilized.

1838 Kirk Patrick Macmillan, a Scottish blacksmith, made the first machine with pedals, which were attached to and drove the rear wheel by means of cranks.

Frenchman Etienne Lenior (1860s to 70s)

Introduction of motorized carriages (Internal Combustion engine)

John Boyd Dunlop (1888)

Introduced wheels inflated by air (pneumatic tires)

19th century The invention of bicycle served as the nursery of automobile builders

Nicolaus Otto and Gottlieb Daimler

Pioneered the manufacture of gas engines. And later Daimler became a successful automobile manufacturer

Rudolf Diesel

A German engineer who developed an internal combustion engine which is similar with the gasoline engine but requires no electrical ignition system or carburetor and uses other form of liquid fuel, the DIESEL fuel.

Henry Ford (1908)

Introduced the model T, which becomes popular by 1914,

Felix Wankel (1956)

A German mathematician who developed an advanced type of engine, named after him, that operates very differently from gas and diesel.

Historical background of land transportation in PH

As early as 1910, few motor vehicles were seen operating in the public highways in Manila and suburbs.
Better means of transportation were invented and introduced in the country. Gradually, the Filipinos learned to use cars, trucks, jeeps and other types of vehicles. The means of transportation became better and powerful and the laws governing land travel became more formal and sophisticated.

On February 6, 1912, Legislative Act No. 2159 was enacted to regulate motor vehicles in the Philippine Islands and to provide for the regulation and licensing of operators. This was the first formal law on land transportation. This law created an Automobile Section under the Administrative Division of the Bureau of Public Works. The Section was tasked to take charge of motor vehicles and drivers' services. Later on, Legislative Act 2159 was amended by 2256, 2389, 2587, 2639 and 2925.

In 1922, Act No. 3045 was passed into law compiling and incorporating all laws governing motor vehicles. The Automobile Section was upgraded to the Automobile Division still under the Bureau of Public Works.

On January 1, 1933, Act No. 3992 0therwise known as the "Revised Motor Vehicle Law" was enacted amending Act No. 3045. The Automobile Division was renamed Division of Motor Vehicles. The Chief of the Division was called the Superintendent of Division of Motor Vehicles. Act No. 3992 was amended by Commonwealth Act Nos. 123, 548, 556, 652 and Republic Act No. 314, 587 and 2383.

On June 2, 1945, Department Order No. 4 was issued by the Department of Public Works and Highways reorganizing the Division. This took effect after the liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese invasion. In 1947, Executive Order No. 94 was promulgated reorganizing the different executive departments, bureaus and offices. Under Section 82 of this E.O., the Division of Motor Vehicles was upgraded into the Motor Vehicles Office (MVO) with the category of the Bureau. The Chief of the MVO enjoyed the rights and privileges of a Bureau Director.

On June 20, 1964, R.A. No. 4136, otherwise known as the "Land Transportation and Traffic Code" was enacted abolishing the Motor Vehicle Office and creating the Land Transportation Commission. This law likewise partially repealed Act No. 3992. The Code provided that the Land Transportation Commission shall "control as far as they apply, the registration and operation of motor vehicles and the licensing of owners, dealers, conductors, drivers and similar matters." To effectively carry out its mandate, the Land Transportation Commission established regional offices in various parts of the country.

On July 23, 1979, Executive Order No. 546 was promulgated creating the Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC). This marked another reorganization. The Land Transportation Commission was renamed as the Bureau of Land Transportation and was absorbed by MOTC.

On March 20, 1985, Executive Order 1011 was promulgated. This Executive Order nullified the Board of Transportation and the Bureau of Land Transportation and established the Land Transportation Commission. The defunct BOT and BLT were merged and their powers, functions and responsibilities were transferred to the Land Transportation Commission (LTC) headed by a Chairman assisted by four Commissioners. The LTC was tasked to perform functions such as registering motor vehicles, licensing of drivers and conductors, franchising of public utility vehicles and enforcing land transportation rules and regulations.

On January 30, 1987, the land Transportation Commission was abolished and two offices were created, namely: Land Transportation Office (LTO) and the land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB). The LTO took over the functions of the former BLT and the LTFRB took over the functions of the BOT. The MOTC was likewise renamed as the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC). All these changes took effect with the promulgation of Executive Order No. 125 which was later on amended by Executive Order No. 125-A dated April 13, 1987 and 226 dated July 25, 1987.

Traffic Management

Roadway refers to that part of the traffic way over which motor vehicles pass Shoulder refers to either side of the roadway, especially along highways Traffic refers to the movement of persons, goods or vehicle either powered by combustion system or animal drawn, from one place to another for the purpose of travel.

TRAFIQUE (Obsolete French) TRAFFICO (Old Italian) TRAFFICARE

To carry on trade

Traffic way refers to the entire width between boundary lines of every way or place of which any part is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular traffic as a matter of right or custom.

Major causes of traffic congestion

Physical inadequacy Poor control measures Human errors Poor maintenance

Scope of traffic management

1. all public surface facilities traversing and parking all types of conveyances for the movement of persons and things. 2. all agencies having responsibilities for ascertaining traffic flow requirements, planning, approving, funding, construction and/or maintaining these public facilities for such movements. 3. all agencies responsible for licensing, approving, restricting, stopping, prohibiting or controlling the use of these facilities.

Agencies involved in traffic management

DOTC City or Municipal Engineers office Department of public works and highways Legislative Philippine national police Academic institution Courts Public information offices Citizen support groups media

The pillars of traffic

Traffic Traffic Traffic Traffic Traffic

engineering education enforcement ecology or traffic environment economy

Traffic engineering

It is the science of measuring traffic and travel the study of the basic laws relative to the traffic law and generation; the application of this knowledge to the professional practice of planning, deciding and operating traffic system to achieve safe and efficient transportation of persons and goods.

Functions of traffic engineering

Fact-finding, surveys and recommendations of traffic rules and regulations Supervision and maintenance to the application of traffic control devices Planning of traffic regulations

Agencies under traffic engineering

DPWH its scope is national which includes the responsibility of determining traffic law, pattern, draw origin, and destinations, studies of persons and things, planning, approving, funding and construction of:

National roads Yearly maintenance and repair

Provincial government municipalities w/in the province. Municipal governments streets and roads w/in barangays Chartered cities streets and roads w/in cities.

Objectives of traffic engineering

To achieve efficient, free and rapid flow of traffic To prevent traffic accident To simplify police enforcement actions and performance To show that good police actions and performance makes engineering plans effective To present the close relationship of the pillars of traffic in the improvement of traffic problems.

Traffic education

It is the process of training and practice in the actual application of traffic safety knowledge.

Agencies responsible for traffic education

Schools Public information programs Citizen support groups

Traffic enforcement

Deals mostly on the implementation and enforcement of traffic laws and rules and regulations

Agencies involved in traffic enforcement

LTO responsible for :

Legislative bodies responsible for passing and amending laws Police traffic enforcement

Vehicle registration Vehicle inspection Drivers licensing Public to police on stolen or wanted vehicles

PNP-TMG MMDA Police Auxiliaries LTO Flying Squad

Traffic ecology or traffic environment

Study of potentially disastrous population explosion, changes in urban environment due to the scale and density of new urban concentration and new activities carried out, air pollution, water pollution and crowding

Environmental effect of urbanization of transportation

Noise Vibration Air pollution Dirt Visual intrusion Loss of privacy Changes in amount of light Neighborhood severance Relocation Distraction during planning and construction Accident experiences Pedestrian journey congestion

Laws and statutes concerning traffic ecology

PD 1181 providing for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution from motor vehicles LOI No. 551 directing the law enforcement agency to implement the pollution control program RA 8749 Clean Air Act. Providing for the regulation of motor vehicles emitting toxic gases like the use of diesel and leaded gasoline.

Traffic economy

Deals with the benefits and adverse effects of traffic to the economy.

Traffic Safety Education

It is the process of training roads user in the avoidance and prevention of traffic related accidents.

Road Safety
It refers to reduced risk of accident or injury on the roads, achieved through multidisciplinary approaches involving road engineering and traffic management, education and training of road user, and vehicle design.


Research studies in the United Kingdom have shown that human factors contribute to 95 percent of accidents, road factors to about one quarter of a percent and vehicle factors to fewer than 5 percent.

1. Human errors include:

Going too fast or excessive speed; Failing to give at junctions Following too closely Overtaking improperly Misperceiving or misjudging the road station ahead Intoxication of alcohol or drug Lack of skill

2. Road deficiencies that are main contributory factors are:

Poor design of layout and control conjunctions Inadequate signing, road marking, lighting Slippery roads Obstructions on the road such as parked vehicle, on going road construction, etc.

3. Main vehicle factors are:

Defects in tires, brakes, and lights Absence or non-using of seat belts Poorly maintained motor vehicles


Have been emphasized as effective in the prevention of traffic accidents known as the (3) Es or pillars of traffic. Recently, however traffic environment and traffic economy were added to complete the (5) pillars of traffic.

1. Engineering (traffic engineering)

Effective construction and maintenance of traffic facilities which does not only expedite the movement of traffic but also prevent the occurrence of traffic accident.
treatment have

Successful include:

Changes in layout at junctions to define priorities more clearly (use of roundabouts, or traffic circles) More wide use of road markings to delineate traffic lanes and waiting areas for turning vehicles Improvement in skidding resistance of wet roads More uniform street lightings More highly visible and legible direction, information and warning signs

2. Education (in traffic safety).

When road user are informed of the traffic laws, rules and regulations, accidents are likely prevented. Further, there are strong suggestions, accidents of benefits from pre-school schemes involving parents, and from road safety education in school where is in integral part of the school curriculum. Included are: New approaches to training and educating young drivers Training in hazards perceptions Changing of attitudes

3. Enforcement (of traffic rules).

One of the causes of accidents is blatant non-compliances of motorist and pedestrians of traffic laws, rules and regulations. To minimize the occurrence of accidents due to non-compliance of road user, enforcement must be conducted. The following are highly recommended in areas of traffic enforcement:
Strengthening and simplifying the application of the law New technology to aid enforcement Enhanced publicity Educations of teenagers in school The development of rehabilitations course like seminars for apprehend traffic violators

4. Ecology / Environment

People should be educated regarding the adverse effect of traffic to our environment hat directly or indirectly affects the populations health.

5. Economy

People should learn us to develop schemes that do not only lessen expenses but also accident-free.


1. Imparting knowledge concerning traffic safety 2. Training and practice in the actual application of traffic safety knowledge 3. Developing traffic safety morality.


This is highly unsystematic and is usually carried out in the home through parental education and in kindergarten and nurseries. This is how necessary to make it systematic to lessen the number of children fatalities and injuries.

1. Elementary

Pupils are usually educated by stressing on traffic safety and guides, and classroom discussion of accidents and other traffic safety rules.

2. Secondary

This level initiates driver education program because students have the reached the age to drive, hence, proper driving habits should be stressed. It also includes the establishment of school safety organizations.

3. High Education

Some universities and colleges offer and conduct courses to private and public agencies regarding traffic safety subjects.


Traffic safety education for elder pedestrian and drivers is relatively easier compared to the education designed for younger children since the former group is in a better position to understand what is being taught to them.


In general driver instruction aims primarily to teach the rudiments of driving. Secondary aims are as follows: To install awareness of ones legal and moral responsibilities in traffic To teach the abilities required foe one to be eligible for drivers license.

G. FOUR (4) BASIC TYPE OF INSTRUCTION METHODS Used in Drivers Education Program:


This method places the student into real life of driving situations from the beginning.

This type of instructions depends on instructor-student communication.

The student driver accompanied by an instructor. As the student-driver drives, the instructor has to give a commentary on his driving what he sees, what he does, what he propose to do, what are does likely to do.

On and off the road training. The premise of simulated conditions training is that the behavior of the driver subject placed in conditions will be relatively analogous to normal behavior. SIMULATOR is a static machine with all the important features of a car used in driving method or driving training. There are 3 methods of simulations presently adopted:


Partial Simulation Method

This method has the specific aim of training for the sustask of the driving task.

b. Global Simulation
It may be classified into 2 specific group which are; training, simulated in traffic situations and condition, with the use of simulations. Simulators are most commonly used for the following types of training: (1) training in basic car control skills. (2) perceptional training (3) emergency training

c. Classification of films

As shown by the simulators: The analytical film which provides an objective analysis of the driving situation presented to the student. The didactic film which aims to shown good driving behavior. The simulations film which may offer visual realism to driving situations and therefore a good aid in actual practice.


Drivers educations include: 1. Collection of information which includes:

2. Processing of information which includes:

3. Action which is focused on:
a. Motor skill and control vehicles b. Knowledge and subjective interpretation a. Predicting b. Decision making

a. Perceptual scanning and b. Identification


It is the theory which asserts that man exhibit a constant variations of life energy and mood state. Mans theorized cycles and interpretations rhythm is peculiar characteristics of most natural phenomena like:
1. The diurnal exchange of light and darkness. 2. The four season 3. Our wet and dry season the waxing and waning of the moon.


In the field of study, it should be borne in mind that biorhythm does not predict what actually will happen. All it does is to give us a hint on how we will tend to feel in a certain day.


This is a mass publicity aimed make road users behave more safely. These focus on public information attitudes, and particular or specific behaviors, or combination of these.


Is also known as road propaganda which may be intended simply to inform him or it may be felt that the public is already aware of the recommended behavior by need to persuaded into adopting it.

1. Safety Campaign Classifications:

a. according to purpose- may be categorized as informal, attitudinal and behavioral b. according to kind appealused to reason by simply feeding the public with authenticated factual data.

2. Safety Campaign Design:

a. initial campaign planning b. final campaign design c. campaign evaluation

3. Private and Government entities responsible for Safety Campaign:

a. newspaper b. Radio broadcasting networks c. television broadcasting networks d. public information agencies