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Chapter 3 POLYNOMIALS

3.1. Definition 3.2. Operations on Polynomials 3.2.1. Addition of Polynomials 3.2.2. Subtraction of Polynomials 3.2.3. Multiplication of Polynomials 3.2.4. Division of Polynomials 3.3.Removing Grouping Symbols

POLYNOMIALS

Definitions: Constant- is a symbol that assigns one specific value. Ex: 3 ; 9 ; 8

Variable- is a symbol that assumes many values. Ex: x ; y ; z Algebraic expression- is a collection of constants and variables involving at least one of the basic operations in mathematics. Ex: 7 ; x ; 2m ; 5y + 9

POLYNOMIALS

Definitions: Polynomial- is a sum of finite monomials. Monomial- is a term involving only the product of a real number which may have coefficients of variables with positive integral exponent. Ex: 7 ; x2y3z4 ; 2m5n ; 9b4 Binomial a polynomial with two terms.

Ex: 5x + 3 ; 9x2 8x ; 2m5n + 5

Ex: 2x + 9y z ; 6x2 7x + 1 ; 8m6 2m5 + 5m4

POLYNOMIALS

Definitions: Degree of the Polynomial- is the highest exponent of the variable in the given equation. Ex1: 10x + 3 - 1st degree equation - Linear equation

Ex2: 9x2 8x + 5 - 2nd degree equation - Quadratic equation Ex3: x3 12x2 + 5x 3 - 3rd degree equation - Cubic equation Ex4: 8m4 5 - 4th degree equation - Quartic equation Ex5: 8m6 2m3 + 5m - 6th degree equation

OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS

Addition and Subtraction of Polynomials Similar Terms- terms having the same literal coefficients. Ex.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

5x + 3x = 8x 4x2 + 8x2 = 12x2 12x4 + 7x4 + 8y2 + 6y2 = 19x4 + 14y2 9m5 3m5 = 6m5 17a2+6a34a210a4+11a28a+1 = 17a24a2+11a2+6a8a10a34+1 = 24a2 12a 6

1. { 8x [13x 2(7y x)] 18y}= [ 8x (13x 14y + 2x) 18y]= [ 8x (15x 14y) 18y]= (8x 15x + 14y 18y) = ( 7x 4y) = = 7x +4y 2. 2x {3x [(2x 2y+ 3x) 5y] 6x + y} 2y= 2x {3x [(5x 2y) 5y] 6x + y} 2y= 2x [3x (5x + 2y 5y) 6x + y] 2y= 2x [3x (5x 3y) 6x + y] 2y= 2x (3x + 5x + 3y 6x + y) 2y= 2x (4x + 4y ) 2y= = 6x 6y 2x + 4x 4y 2y=

[x (2x y 3x y 6x) y] =

(x 2x + y + 3x + y + 6x y) = x + 2x y 3x y 6x + y =

= 8x y

1. Add 3x2y + 2xy, 5x3y + 4x2y 7 , 4x3y 3xy & 7xy + 7 3x2y + 2xy 5x3y + 4x2y 7 4x3y 3xy 7xy + 7

4x + 16x

4x2 + 3x 2 4. Subtract the sum of 2x3 and 5x+6 from the sum of 9x4 and 7x1. 2x3 9x4 2x5 + 7x+3 + 5x+6 + 7x1 + 7x+3 2x5 5x8 5. Subtract the difference of 10x2 x and 2x2 3x + 4 from the sum of 6x2x+6 and 3x24. 2 x 2 x + 6 2 x + 2 10x 6x 9x + 2 + + 2x2 3x + 2 3x 4 12x + 2x + + 4 +4 12x2 + 2x 4 9x2 x + 2 3x2 3x + 6

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS

Multiplication Law of Exponents -multiply the numerical coefficients and add the exponents.

am an = am+ n 2 1. x x = x

+5(5x 3)= + 25x 15 30x2 + 7x 15

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS

5. Multiply 2x23x+4 by x27. x2(2x23x+4)= 2x4 3x3 + 4x2 7(2x23x+4)= 14x2 + 21x 28 2x4 3x3 10x2 + 21x 28

x2(x25x +1)= x4 5x3 + x2 +x(x25x +1)= 2(x25x +1)= x3 5x2 + x 2x2 +10x 2 x4 4x3 6x2 +11x 2

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS

x(x2 3x + 2) = x3 3x2 + 2x

3(x2 3x + 2) =

DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS

Division Law of Exponents - divide the numerical coefficients and subtract the exponents. am = am n an

DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS

4. Divide 27x3y3 36x2y2+45xy by 9xy 27x3y3 36x2y2+45xy 9xy 27x3y3 + 36x2y2 + 45xy 9xy 9xy 9xy 3x2 y2 4xy + 5

DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS

8x 12 ()8x (+) 12 0

DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS

0

6

6 (+) 6

DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS

7. Divide 2x2+5x318x10 by x + 2

5x2 12x

22

SYNTHETIC DIVISION

8. Divide x4+4x39x+12 by x + 3

x4

1

x3

4 3

x2

0 3 3

x

9 9 0

c

12 0 12 3

1 x3

1 + x2

12 3x + 0 + x+3

SYNTHETIC DIVISION

9. Divide 6y311y2 1 by 3y 1

y3

6

y2

11 2

y

0 3

c

1 1 2 1

6 3 2 2y2

9 3

3 1

2 3y 1 + 3y 1

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