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CONTENTS

 Definition  History  Types of teams  Cheerleading Uniform

 Cheerleading Stunts
 Athletes involved in Stunts  Dangers of Cheerleading  Conclusion  Question/ Answers

CHEERLEADING

  

Cheerleading is an activity using organized routines Usually ranging from one to three minutes It includes tumbling, dance, jumps, cheers, and stunting

 To

direct spectators of events to cheer on sports teams at games and matches

HISTORY

On November 2, 1898, a University of Minnesota student named Johnny Campbell led a crowd in cheering

"Rah rah rah! Sku-u-mar! Hoo-rah! Hoo-rah! Varsity! Varsity! Varsity! Minn-e-so-tah!"

Although organized groups had already been cheering at that school, this chant made Campbell the very first cheerleader.

That date is known as the birth date of organized cheerleading

HISTORY

Cheerleading began as an all-male activity, but women started to get into the cheering game in 1923 due to a lack of available sports for females. Around the same time, megaphones, gymnastics and tumbling were incorporated into cheerleading.

Dallas native Lawrence Herkimer founded the National Cheerleaders Association (NCA) in 1948. The first NCA clinic was held in 1949, and organized cheerleading competitions began in 1967.

The NFL began creating professional cheerleading teams in the 1960s. While the Baltimore Colts were the first team to have a cheerleading squad, the Dallas Cowboys were the first to gain national attention with their cheerleaders in 1976

MIDDLE SCHOOL CHEERLEADING

In middle school, the squads serve mostly the same functions as high school squads and follow the same rules and regulations, however the stunts are not as intense as those found in high school.

The cheerleaders cheer at basketball, football, wrestling, and soccer boys' and girls' games. They also perform at pep rallies and compete against other schools from local competitions all the way to nationals.

Cheerleading in middle school sometimes can be a twoseason sport, fall and winter. However a lot of middle school cheer squads will go all year round like high school squads.

HIGH SCHOOL CHEERLEADING
  

In high school, there are usually two squads per school varsity team junior varsity team

High school cheerleading contains aspects of school spirit as well as competition.

These squads have become a part of a year-round sport, starting with tryouts in the spring, to year-round practice, to sporting events to cheer at in the fall and winter, and to cheerleading competitions.

COLLEGE CHEERLEADING

Most colleges and universities have a cheerleading squad. Most squads are coed (consisting of both men and women),

But all-girl college squads are growing in rapid numbers in an effort to give female cheerleaders (especially female bases) who have cheered on an all-girl high school or all-star squads an opportunity to cheer at the collegiate level without making the transition to a coed squad.

Unlike high school cheerleading, college squads can perform difficult stunts like rewinds, 2 1/2 high pyramids, and flipping and twisting basket tosses.

PROFESSIONAL CHEERLEADING

Professional cheerleaders cheer for sports such as football, basketball, rugby league, soccer, baseball, wrestling, or hockey.
 There

are only a few professional cheerleading leagues around the world; some professional leagues include the NBA Cheerleading League, the NFL Cheerleading League, and the CFL Cheerleading League.
Although

professional cheerleading leagues exist in multiple countries, there are no Olympic Teams.

CHEERLEADING UNIFORM

Ribbons/ bows: The special appearance of cheerleaders is decided by the colorful and attractive hair bows worn by them. It provides support to their hairs during phase of excess physical excitement.

Shell/vest: This is the main focal point of the uniform. This is the top of the outfit which includes the design of the uniform stripes, school/team colors, and the mascot or high school insignias or school letters. The shell is normally sleeveless with a "V" neckline.

Skirts: The length of skirts at both high school and all star is 12 to 14 inches and sometimes shorter. The skirts are sometimes printed with starts, dots, and can also sometimes have a team logo, on the side or across the behind.
Shoes:

white soft-soled athletic shoes.

CHEERLEADING STUNTS

Stunts range from basic two-legged stunts to one-legged extended stunts and high flying basket tosses.
 There A

are numerous variations of each basic stunt.

stunt group usually involves up to four bases holding or tossing another cheerleader in the air.

In general, all-girl cheerleading stunts usually involve up to four other bases while co-ed ("partner") stunts have only one base (usually male) and his partner (the flyer, usually female).

Pyramids are multiple groups of stunts connected aerially by the flyers. This connection may be made in a variety of ways, from a simple linking of hands to having a multi-level pyramid, with the flyers already in the air acting as primary bases for another flyer or flyers on top of them.

CHEERLEADING STUNTS

Scorpion

Bow & Arrow

Pyramid

Toe touching

Basket toss

Flatback pyramid

Bottle rocket

ATHLETES INVOLVED IN STUNTS

Bases: Cheerleaders that stay on the ground providing the primary support for the flyer during a stunt. Bases should be watching the flyer at all times in the case of a mishap.  Flyer This is the person that is in the air during a stunt. The flyer must control their own weight by keeping their abdominal muscles tight to stabilize the spinal column while in the air.  Back Spot This is the person standing behind the stunt. They help to position the flyer in the bases hands.  Front Spot This is the person standing in front of the stunt facing the backspot preventing the flyer from falling forward.

ATHLETES INVOLVED IN STUNTS

Additional (hands-off) Spotter This person does not actually touch the stunt unless something goes wrong. The free standing spot can stand behind, in front, or beside the stunt.

DANGERS OF CHEERLEADING

For high school girls and college women, cheerleading is far more dangerous than any other sport, according to a new report that adds several previously unreported cases of serious injuries to a growing list.

In the early 2000s, cheerleading was considered one of the most dangerous school activities. The main source of injuries comes from stunting, also known as pyramids.

These stunts are performed at games and pep rallies, as well as competitions. Sometimes competition routines are focused solely around the use of difficult and risky stunts.

The most common cheerleading related injuries are: sprained ankles, sprained wrists, back injuries, head injuries (sometimes concussions), broken arms, elbow injuries, knee injuries, broken noses, and broken collarbones.

DANGERS OF CHEERLEADING

Nearly 30,000 cheerleaders are treated in emergency rooms each year, according to national estimates by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. The average age treated in the ERs was 14 ½. Some go home and heal; some never do.

Many cheerleaders die on the spot because of severe injuries.

CONCLUSION
Cheerleading is an entertaining sport but it is not taken seriously enough, even by the people who teach it themselves. In most states, high school cheer is not considered an official sport, which can mean cheer doesn’t require the same safety equipment, limits on practice time or training for coaches that are enforced for other high school sports. In fact, just two states — Michigan and West Virginia — define high school cheer in exactly the same way as all other high school sports.