Defination:Sequence of events by which oogonia are transformed into mature oocytes. •Begins before birth and is completed after puberty and continues to menopause. 1)Prenatal maturation of oocytes.
Prenatal Maturation Of Oocyte
• Oogonia enlarged to from primary oocytebefore birth • Primary oocyte get surrounded by flattened cell– primordial follicle
Amorphous acellular glycoprotein material –Zona pellucida surrounds primary oocyte
Primary follicle with more than one
• Primary Oocyte begin first meiotic division before birth but remains suspended prophase till puberty
Postnatal maturation of oocyte • Begins during puberty –one follicle matures each monthovulation • No primary oocytes form after birth in females • Primary oocyte completes first meiotic division just before ovulation,cytoplasm division unequal
At ovulation nucleus of secondary oocyte starts second meiotic divisonArrest in metaphase
• Fertilization –second meiotic divison completes
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE
• Commencing at puberty & continuing throughout the reproductive years , monthly reproductive cycles • These monthly cycles prepare the reproductive system for pregnancy. • Consists of 1)Ovarian cycle 2)Endometrial
Ovarian Cycle • Each cycle-FSH, LH • Follicular development • One will mature and ruptures through the surface of the ovary ( Ovulation) • Copus luteum
•Growth and differentiation of primary oocyte •Proliferation of follicular cells •Formation of zona pellucida •Development of the theca folliculi
Transportation of gamets
• Oocyte transport • Sperm transport
MATURATION OF SPERMS & ACROSOME REACTION •Freshly ejaculated sperms are unable to fertilize oocytes •Sperms undergo a period of conditioning(7 hrs) in the uterus or uterine tube.- Capacitation •Glycoprotein coat and seminal proteins are removed from the surface of the sperms acrosome.
FERTILIZATION Defination:is a complex sequence of coordinated moleculer events that begin with contact between the sperm and oocyte and ends with the intermingling of paternal & maternal chromosomes at the metaphase of first mitotic division of the zygote ,a unicellular embryo. •Time taken: 24 hrs
PHASES OF FERTILIZATION Fertilization is a complex sequence of coordinated events. •Passage of sperm through corona radiata. •Penetration of zona pellucida &Zona reaction •Fusion of plasma membranes of the oocyte and the sperm •Completion of second meiotic division of the oocyte& formation of female pronucleus.
FERTILIZATION •Fusion of male & female pronuclei to form a diploid
SIGNIFICANCE OF FERTILIZATION •Restoration of diploid number of chromosomes in the zygote •Variation of the human species through mingling of maternal& paternal chromosomes. •Determination of sex of the embryo. chromosomal
•Initiation of cleavage
• • • • Mittelschmerz Anovulation Vasectomy Tubal ligation
ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES
Hormonal treatment Female Harvest the ovum Mature Ova
Basic Principle of
Mix in a test tube Motile sperms Collect semen Male
Keep to develop embryo
Transfer to mother
Stands for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. This process is used to inject a single sperm into each egg before the fertilized eggs are put back into the woman's body. The procedure may be used if the male has a low sperm count.
Cryopreservation of Ova, Sperm and Embryo