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G. Bindu Rao
• Ensures your message has reached the target audience and the receiver understands and responds to it . • It may involve speaking or writing or sending a message to another person. • Ensures that you yourself are able to understand , interpret and respond to messages that you receive.
Role of communication in business
• Required for entering a good organization:
Primary element in the skills of management is competence in communication. It is the tool by which we can influence others and bring changes in the attitudes and views of our associates , motivates them and establishes and maintains relations with them.
• Central to every activity done in day to day life:
Our activities succeed or fail and our goals are achieved or not achieved in accordance to our ability to communicate effectively with other members. We do things in an organization , our family , school / college , office , hobby group , community group , our city / town are the organizations in which e live and act .
• Vital role in development of any healthy relationship:
It can strengthen a mutual sense of commitment and also helps to bridge the gap between people who have misunderstandings. It plays a critical role in all phases of interpersonal relations , from creating a relationship to maintenance of relationships.
• Binding the organization together without considering its size:
An organization cannot function without communication. Without effective communication , information cannot be collected , processed or exchanged , words and data would remain isolated facts bearing no meaning. It is due to effective communication that an MNC works like a single unit.
• Most important skill:
One should be able to express his or her ideas effectively in writing and in speech. Employers lay a lot of emphasis on the importance of communication skills and current trends in the business environment make these skills even more critical .
• Team members need communication:
They should be able to communicate, identify problems , analyze alternatives , and recommend solutions. They must be able to communicate their ideas persuasively to others. The ability to communicate their persuasive ideas to others, ability to work in a team and manage subordinates
• Information given to buyers: Communicating the public about the product and its features , its uses and inform them the need of the product.
Business communication (oral & written)
• Includes all messages that we send and receive for official purposes like running a business , managing an organization, conducting the formal affairs of a voluntary organization. • Written communication: letters ,reports ,memos , notices • Oral communication: interviews , meetings , conferences, presentations , negotiation • Chats , letters between friends and family , reciting poetry for one’s own pleasures, story telling are not included in business communication.
• Communication is unintentional as well as intentional:
Non-verbal behaviour conveys a lot and is often unintentional.
• Communication is a dynamic process:
It considers time dimension, emphasizes change, communication grows a lot and develops over time.
• Communication is systematic:
All the 7 elements of communication effect the communication process .
• Communication is both interaction and transaction:
Definitions of Communication
• Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. - Keith Davis Communication is any behaviour that results in an exchange of meaning. - The American Management Association Communication may be broadly defined as the process of meaningful interaction among human beings . More specifically, it is the process by which meanings are perceived and understandings are reached among human beings . - D. E . McFarland Communication is the process by which information is passed between individuals and or organizations by means of previously agreed symbols. - Peter Little •
• Communication is the transmission of information and meaning from one individual to another. The crucial element is meaning. Communication has its central objective the transmission of meaning. • Communication is successful only when the receiver understands an idea as the sender intended it.
Elements of communication vSource/sender(initiates communication)
vAudience/receiver(communication is intended to him or her) vGoal/purpose (sender’s reason for communicating) vMessage/content (information conveyed) vMedium/channel (means of conveying the message ) vFeedback (receiver’s response communication) vEnvironment/context(background of communication.
• Initiates the process of communication. • Should be clear about the purpose of communication. • He decides why and to whom to send the message . • The target audience should also be kept in mind. • Gets feedback
• Attends the message and interprets it. Channel / medium • Mail, e-mail, telephone , face – to face talk
One way communication
Message Medium Receieved message
Two way communication
Objectives of communication
• Getting things done through others • Give instructions, requests or make complaints • Ask some information • Motivate a team of people • Communication is more effective when the purpose is having clarity.
Broad objectives of communication
Information ( oral or written of facts and figures and data ) • It consists
which can be arranged in different patterns as required for varied purposes. • Information is given to the public through mass media like tv, newspaper and also through internet these days. • It is the basis for persuasion and motivation.
• It means efforts to change or influence the attitudes and behaviour of others. • It is mainly making use of the best arguments to win and convince others. • It requires skill and ability to use verbal and non- verbal means effectively to influence the target audience. • It requires a basis of information
Factors of persuasion
• Source credibility: persuader’s personal character and reputation must be respected and accepted by others. Emotional appeal should be suitable and credible: if the persuader offers satisfaction of emotional needs, people respond favourably. Social needs: need to have friends or belong to a group Ego needs: to be successful , to win, to be recognized and appreciated Physical needs: food , clothing & shelter Logic of presentation should be reasonable: persuader should show how they will benefit by accepting the proposed idea, view suggestion, therefore the persuader needs knowledge of the background and present attitudes of people in order to use the right appeal and reasons. •
Objectives of downward communication instructions
orders educations and training on-the-job training motivation raising morale advice counseling warning and notice appreciation
Written appreciations are:
• letters of appreciations • notices on the notice board(bulletin board) • mention in the minutes of the staff • a report in the company’s House Magazine
Non - verbal methods of appreciation
• award of a certificate at a function • promotion • invitation to a special meeting or function • giving additional opportunity for career development (training courses) • assignment of more important & responsible tasks.
Objectives of upward communication
• • • • • • • Request Application Appeal Demand Representation Complaints Suggestions
Objectives of Horizontal communication
• • • • • • • • Exchange of information Requests Discussions Coordination Conflict resolution Problem solving Advice Social and emotional support
One way communication
• Information is transferred in only one direction from source to audience • Receiver can’t question the information received(no feedback) • SMCR(sender , msg , channel , receiver) • Examples : radio , tv broadcast , newspaper , ad & mass media , notice board , public address system.
Two way communication (interactive ) in only two direction from • Information is transferred
source to audience. • Receiver can ask questions to the informant or sender. • Requires interpersonal skill , is more time consuming and is more satisfying in bringing better understanding.
Features of formal communication
• Conservative language • No contractions • Restrained style
Types of communication
Verbal communication • Use of words & language • It’s very complex and is necessary to discuss and explain complex ideas • It is accompanied by nonverbal which is more powerful . Non-verbal communication • Use of symbols • Codes like colours, maps graphs , music,enhances verbal communication. • It includes the speaker’s personality , voice
Barriers of communication
Bad network Noise
Forms of verbal communication
Written communication • Long and complex messages can be conveyed in writing. • Has to wait for the reply • Has little support from sender’s personality and voice Oral communication • Natural and spontaneous • Requires both the parties to be attentitive . • Immediate feedback
Attributes of oral and written communication
• • • • • • • Speed Record Precision and accuracy Length Expense Body language Feedback
Channels of oral communication
• • • • • • • • Face-to-face conversation Telephone conversation Presentation Public speech Interview Group discussion Negotiation Meeting
Channels of written communication
Letter Memo Notice Circular Report Minutes
Uses of non-verbal methods
• instant effect due to quicker grasp • large amount of complex data can be shown in a compact form • visuals and sound when summed up have better response • best way to reach out to the illiterates.
Methods of non-verbal communication
• • • • • • • Visual symbols Colour Pictures Graphs & charts Maps Signs and signals Auditory symbols
• • • • • • • • • • • Facial expression Smile Eye contact Gestures Posture Clothing and appearance Handshake Space Environment Time Energy
• • • • • • • • • • Voice Volume Pitch Speed Pronunciation Accent Tone Stress Non- fluencies Silence
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