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Applied Fluid Mechanics

1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and Bernoullis Equation 7. General Energy Equation 8. Reynolds Number, Laminar Flow, Turbulent Flow and Energy Losses Due to Friction
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Applied Fluid Mechanics

9. Velocity Profiles for Circular Sections and Flow in Noncircular Sections 10.Minor Losses 11.Series Pipeline Systems 12.Parallel Pipeline Systems 13.Pump Selection and Application 14.Open-Channel Flow 15.Flow Measurement 16.Forces Due to Fluids in Motion
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Applied Fluid Mechanics

17.Drag and Lift 18.Fans, Blowers, Compressors and the Flow of Gases 19.Flow of Air in Ducts

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

Chapter Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define dynamic viscosity. Define kinematic viscosity. Identify the units of viscosity. Describe the difference between a Newtonian fluid and a nonNewtonian fluid. Describe the methods of viscosity measurement using the rotating-drum viscometer, the capillary-tube viscometer, the falling-ball viscometer, and the Saybolt Universal viscometer. Describe the variation of viscosity with temperature for both liquids and gases. Define viscosity index. Describe the viscosity of lubricants using the SAE viscosity grades and the ISO viscosity grades.

6. 7. 8.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

Chapter Outline

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Dynamic Viscosity Kinematic Viscosity Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids Variation of Viscosity with Temperature Viscosity Measurement SAE Viscosity Grades ISO Viscosity Grades Hydraulic Fluids for Fluid Power Systems

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.1 Dynamic Viscosity

As a fluid moves, a shear stress is developed in it, the magnitude of which depends on the viscosity of the fluid. Shear stress, denoted by the Greek letter (tau), , can be defined as the force required to slide one unit area layer of a substance over another. Thus, is a force divided by an area and can be measured in the units of N/m2 (Pa) or lb/ft2.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.1 Dynamic Viscosity

Fig 2.1 shows the velocity gradient in a moving fluid.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.1 Dynamic Viscosity

The fact that the shear stress in the fluid is directly proportional to the velocity gradient can be stated mathematically as

where the constant of proportionality (the Greek letter miu) is called the dynamic viscosity of the fluid. The term absolute viscosity is sometimes used.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.1.1 Unit of Dynamic Viscosity

The definition of dynamic viscosity can be derived from Eq. (21) by solving for :

The units for can be derived by substituting the SI units into Eq. (22) as follows:

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.1.1 Unit of Dynamic Viscosity

Because Pa is another name for N/m2, we can also express as

Because 1N = 1 kgm/s2 can be expressed as

Thus Nm/s2, Pas or kg/ms may be used for in the SI system.


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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.1.1 Unit of Dynamic Viscosity

Table 2.1 shows the system conversion.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.2 Kinematic Viscosity

The kinematic viscosity (the Greek letter nu) is defined as Because and are both properties of the fluid, is also a property. We can derive the SI units for kinematic viscosity by substituting the previously developed units for and :

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.2 Kinematic Viscosity

Table 2.2 lists the kinematic viscosity units in the three most widely used systems.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.3 Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids

The study of the deformation and flow characteristics of substances is called rheology, which is the field from which we learn about the viscosity of fluids. One important distinction is between a Newtonian fluid and a non-Newtonian fluid. Any fluid that behaves in accordance with Eq. (21) is called a Newtonian fluid. Conversely, a fluid that does not behave in accordance with Eq. (21) is called a non-Newtonian fluid.
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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.3 Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids

Fig 2.2 shows the Newtonian and non- Newtonian fluids.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.3 Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids

Two major classifications of non-Newtonian fluids are time-independent and time-dependent fluids. As their name implies, time-independent fluids have a viscosity at any given shear stress that does not vary with time. The viscosity of timedependent fluids, however, changes with time.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.3 Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids

Three types of time-independent fluids can be defined: 1. Pseudoplastic or Thixotropic The plot of shear stress versus velocity gradient lies above the straight, constant sloped line for Newtonian fluids, as shown in Fig. 2.2. The curve begins steeply, indicating a high apparent viscosity. Then the slope decreases with increasing velocity gradient.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.3 Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids

2. Dilatant Fluids The plot of shear stress versus velocity gradient lies below the straight line for Newtonian fluids. The curve begins with a low slope, indicating a low apparent viscosity. Then, the slope increases with increasing velocity gradient. 3. Bingham Fluids Sometimes called plug-flow fluids, Bingham fluids require the development of a significant level of shear stress before flow will begin, as illustrated in Fig. 2.2. Once flow starts, there is an essentially linear slope to the curve indicating a constant apparent viscosity.
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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.3.1 Viscosity of Liquid Polymers

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Five additional viscosity factors are typically measured or computed for polymers: Relative viscosity Inherent viscosity Reduced viscosity Specific viscosity Intrinsic viscosity (also called limiting viscosity number)

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.4 Variation of Viscosity with Temperature

Table 2.3 shows the viscosity for different fluids.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.4.1 Viscosity Index

A fluid with a high viscosity index exhibits a small change in viscosity with temperature. A fluid with a low viscosity index exhibits a large change in viscosity with temperature. All kinematic viscosity values are in the unit of mm2/s:

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where U Kinematic viscosity at of the test oil L Kinematic viscosity 40C at of a standard oil of 0 VI having the same viscosity at as the test oil 100C

2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.4.1 Viscosity Index

Fig 2.3 shows the typical viscosity index curves.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5 Viscosity Measurement

Devices for characterizing the flow behavior of liquids are called viscometers or rheometers. ASTM International generates standards for viscosity measurement and reporting.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.1 Rotating Drum Viscometer

Fig 2.4 shows the rotating-drum viscometer.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.1 Rotating Drum Viscometer

The apparatus shown in Fig. 2.4(a) measures viscosity by the definition of dynamic viscosity given in Eq. (22), which we can write in the form

The dynamic viscosity of the fluid can be computed from the simple equation

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where n2 is the speed of the outer tube and n1 is the speed of the internal rotor. K is a calibration constant provided by the instrument manufacturer.

2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.2 Capillary Tube Viscometer

Fig 2.5 shows the Capillary-tube viscometer.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.2 Capillary Tube Viscometer

As the fluid flows through the tube with a constant velocity, some energy is lost from the system, causing a pressure drop that can be measured by using manometers. The magnitude of the pressure drop is related to the fluid viscosity by the following equation,

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.2 Capillary Tube Viscometer

In Eq. (25), D is the inside diameter of the tube, v is the fluid velocity, and L is the length of the tube between points 1 and 2 where the pressure is measured.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.3 Standard Calibrated Glass Capillary Viscometers

Fig 2.6 shows the CannonFenske routine viscometer.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.3 Standard Calibrated Glass Capillary Viscometers

Fig 2.7 shows the Ubbelohde viscometer.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.3 Standard Calibrated Glass Capillary Viscometers

The kinematic viscosity is computed by multiplying the flow time by the calibration constant of the viscometer supplied by the vendor. The viscosity unit used in these tests is the centistoke (cSt), which is equivalent to mm2/s.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.4 Falling-Ball Viscometer

As a body falls in a fluid under the influence of gravity only, it will accelerate until the downward force (its weight) is just balanced by the buoyant force and the viscous drag force acting upward. Its velocity at that time is called the terminal velocity. Fig 2.8 shows the kinematic viscosity bath for holding standard calibrated glass capillary viscometers. Fig 2.9 shows the falling-ball viscometer. Fig 2.10 shows the free-body diagram of a ball in a falling-ball viscometer.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.4 Falling-Ball Viscometer

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.4 Falling-Ball Viscometer

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.4 Falling-Ball Viscometer

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.4 Falling-Ball Viscometer

Figure 2.10 shows a free-body diagram of the ball, where w is the weight of the ball, Fb, is the buoyant force, and is the viscous drag force on the ball. Therefore, we have

If s is the specific weight of the sphere, f is the specific weight of the fluid, V is the volume of the sphere, and D is the diameter of the sphere, we have

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.4 Falling-Ball Viscometer

For very viscous fluids and a small velocity, the drag force on the sphere is

Equation (26) then becomes

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.5 Saybolt Universal Viscometer

The ease with which a fluid flows through a smalldiameter orifice is an indication of its viscosity. Fig 2.11 shows the Saybolt viscometer. Fig 2.12 shows the kinematic viscosity in SUS versus v in mm2/s at 37.8C (100F). The curve is straight above v = 75 mm2/s , following the equation

For a fluid temperature of 100C (210F), the equation for the straight-line portion is

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.5 Saybolt Universal Viscometer

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.5 Saybolt Universal Viscometer

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.5 Saybolt Universal Viscometer

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.3 Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids

2. Dilatant Fluids The plot of shear stress versus velocity gradient lies below the straight line for Newtonian fluids. The curve begins with a low slope, indicating a low apparent viscosity. Then, the slope increases with increasing velocity gradient. 3. Bingham Fluids Sometimes called plug-flow fluids, Bingham fluids require the development of a significant level of shear stress before flow will begin, as illustrated in Fig. 2.2. Once flow starts, there is an essentially linear slope to the curve indicating a constant apparent viscosity.
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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.5.5 Saybolt Universal Viscometer

Fig 2.13 shows the factor A versus temperature t in degrees Fahrenheit used to determine the kinematic viscosity in SUS for any temperature.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

Example 2.2

Given that a fluid at 37.8C has a kinematic viscosity of 220 mm2/s, determine the equivalent SUS value at 37.8C. Because v > 75 mm2/s, use Eq. (211): SUS = 4.632n = 4.632(220) = 1019 SUS

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

Example 2.3

Given that a fluid at 126.7C (260F) has a kinematic viscosity of 145 mm2/s, determine its kinematic viscosity in SUS at 126.7C.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

Example 2.3

Use Eq. (213) to compute the factor A:

Now find the kinematic viscosity at 37.8C (100F) using Eq. (211):

Finally, multiply this value by A to get the SUS value at 126.7C (260F):
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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.6 SAE Viscosity Grade

SAE International has developed a rating system for engine oils (Table 2.4) and automotive gear lubricants (Table 2.5) which indicates the viscosity of the oils at specified temperatures.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.6 SAE Viscosity Grade

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.6 SAE Viscosity Grade

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.7 ISO Viscosity Grade

The standard designation includes the prefix ISO VG followed by a number representing the nominal kinematic viscosity in cSt for a temperature of 40C. Table 2.6 gives the data.

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2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.8 Hydraulic Fluid for Fluid Power System

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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Fluid power systems use fluids under pressure to actuate linear or rotary devices used in construction equipment, industrial automation systems, agricultural equipment, aircraft hydraulic systems, automotive braking systems, and many others. There are several types of hydraulic fluids in common use, including Petroleum oils Waterglycol fluids High water-based fluids (HWBF) Silicone fluids Synthetic oils

2. Viscosity of Fluids

2.8 Hydraulic Fluid for Fluid Power System

The primary characteristics of such fluids for operation in fluid power systems are

1. Adequate viscosity for the purpose


2. 3. 4. 5. High lubricating capability, sometimes called lubricity Cleanliness Chemical stability at operating temperatures Noncorrosiveness with the materials used in fluid power systems 6. Inability to support bacteria growth 7. Ecologically acceptable 8. High bulk modulus (low compressibility)
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