Kohlberg: Preconventional (Naïve instrumental orientation

)

“You scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours”

PRECONVENTIONAL LEVEL
• Stage 2 • Age Group : 4-7 years • Description of morality: – Individualism- Hedonism – Child carries out actions to satisfy own needs rather than society’s. – The child does something for another if that person does something for him in return- “an eye for an eye’

CONVENTIONAL LEVEL (level 2)
• Stage 3 • Age Group : 7-10 years • Description of morality: – Orientation to interpersonal relations of mutualityCONFORMITY – A child follows rules because of a need to be a good person in own eyes and in the eyes of others – “Good boy or Good girl”

Kohlberg: Moral Conventional
Before age 9 • Strict superego • Rule dominance • Things are black or white After age 9 • Recognizes differing points of view

CONVENTIONAL LEVEL (level 2)
• Stage 4 • Age Group : 10-12 years • Description of morality: – Maintenance of social order, fixed rules and authority – Child FOLLOWS RULES of authority figures as well as parents to keep the system working – LAW and ORDER

POSTCONVENTIONAL LEVEL (level 3) • Stage 5 • Age Group : 12 and above • Description: – social contract, utilitarian law making perspective – child FOLLOWS STANDARDS OF SOCIETY for the good of all people

POSTCONVENTIONAL LEVEL (level 3) • Stage 6 • Age :older than 12 • Descriptions: – universal ethical principle orientation – Respect and dignity of humanity

Fowler’s Theory of Spiritual Development

Spiritual Development- Fowler
Stage Undifferentiated Intuitive-Projective Mythic-literal Synthetic-Conventional Individuating-reflective Paradoxicalconsolidating UNIVERSALIZING Age Group 0-3 years 4-6 years 7-12 years Adolescent Adult- after 18 Adult- after 30 MAYBE never Description No concept Imaginations Stories and Myths Expectations One’s system Various viewpoints Love and justice

Fowler's Stages of Spiritual Development
Stage 0 Undifferentiated 1 Intuitive-projective Age 0 to 3 years 4 to 6 years Description Infant unable to formulate concepts about self or the environment A combination of images and beliefs given by trusted others, mixed with the child’s own experience and imagination. Private world of fantasy and wonder; symbols refer to something specific; dramatic stories and myths used to communicate spiritual meanings. World and ultimate environment structured by the expectations and judgments of others; interpersonal focus Constructing one’s own explicit system; high degree of selfconsciousness Awareness of truth from a variety of viewpoints. Becoming an incarnation of the principles of love and justice.

2 Mythic-literal

7 to 12 years

3 Synthetic-conventional

Adolescent or adult

4 Individuating-reflexive 5 Paradoxical- consolidative 6 Universalizing

After 18 years After 30 years Maybe never

Havighurst’s Theory of Developmental Tasks

Havighurst Developmental Task
• • • • • • Babyhood/early childhood Learning to take solid foods Learning to walk, talk, read Learning to control defecation Learning sexual differences Learning right/wrong-beginning consciousness

Late childhood
• • • • • • Physical skills (ordinary games) Wholesome attitude Study/play along with age mates Sexual identity Fundamental skills Conscious and personal independence

Adolescence
• • • • • • Matured roles of both sexes Masculine/feminine roles Accepting own’s body Socially responsible behavior Independence from parents Prepare for economic career, marriage, family life,ideology

Early adult
• • • • • • • • Start occupation Select a mate Live with marriage partner Start family Rearing children Manage home Civic responsibility Finding congenial group

Middle adult
• Adult and civic responsibility • Adjustment to changes of middle ages and aging parents • Assist teen-agers to become responsible adults • Reaching and maintain a satisfactory career

Old Age
• Adjusting to decreasing physical strength,retirement,less income and death of spouse • Adapting to social roles, physical arrangements and affiliation to members of same age

Death Concepts (Kozier)

Death Concepts (Kozier)
AGE Infancy to 3 years old 3 years to 4 years 5 to 9 years 9-12 years Beliefs NO clear concept of Death It is Reversible, temporary sleep Understands DEATH is FINAL but can be AVOIDED Death is INEVITABLE, everyone will die someday Understands own mortality Fears a lingering Death Attitude is influenced by religion Experiences peak of death anxiety Death as multiple meanings

12-18 years 18-45 45-65 years 65 and above

Child’s Response to Death
1. Infants and toddlers - toddlers may insist on seeing a significant other long after that person’s death. 2. Preschoolers - may see death as temporary; a type of sleep or separation. 3. School-age – See death as a period of immobility. - Feel death is punishment. 4. Adolescents - Have an accurate understanding of death.

Newborn-1 month: raised head when prone; turns head from side to side; cooing

2 months: shed tears; social smile; eyes follows object; coos

3 months: raised head; palmar reflex fades;

3 months: Palmar reflex fades

4 months: raised head and chest; laughs loud

4 months: moro reflex fade;

4 months: Extrusion reflex fade

5 months: rolls from abdomen to back; babble with vowel sounds; raking grasp; grasp object voluntarily

6 months: sits with support; dentition begins; 2x BW; rolls from back to abdomen

6 months: dentition begins

Schedule of Primary Tooth Eruption
ERUPTION Central incisor Lateral incisor First molar Cuspid Second molar LOWER 6 months 7 months 12 months 16 months 20 months UPPER 7 ½ months 9 months 14 months 18 months 24 months

Schedule of Permanent Tooth eruption Eruption First molar Medial incisor Lateral incisor Cuspid Bicuspid First molar Second molar Age 5 ½ - 6 years 6 – 7 years 7 – 8 years 10 -12 years 10 -11 years 11 – 12 years 12 – 13 years

7 months: crawls and sits alone

7 months: parachute reflex begins

8 months: peak stranger anxiety

8 months: loves to watch self in front of a mirror

9 months: creeps

9 months: holds bottle steadily; pulls self to stand

10 months: pincer grasp

11 months: attempts to walk

12 months: BW 3x; walks with minimal support; drinks from a cup; Babinski reflex fades

Developmental Growth for the first year of life
• • • • • • • 1 month age – regards 2 months age – smiles 3 months age – turns head 4 months age – holds head 5 months age – rolls over 6 months age – transfers objects 7 months age – sits briefly

Developmental Growth for the first year of life
• • • • • 8 months age – creeps 9 months age – pulls up 10 months age – cruises 11 months age – walks with support 12 months age – stands alone

Quiz 1
• 1-2 differentiate growth & development • 3-5. give 3 principles of G & D and give an example of each principle • 6. a reaction pattern that means the ability to change one’s reaction to stimuli over time • 7. it is a reaction pattern which means the ability to remain interested in an activity • 8. fixation at this task according to Freud includes smoking and alcoholism

• 9. the major skill to be achieved during the Anal stage is? • 10. This conflict refers to the male child’s attraction to his mother during the preschool years. • 11. at this stage, sexual energies are repressed and directed to intellectual activities. • 12. what is the major concept developed during infancy that is associated with the pleasure principle? • 13. The psychosocial task of a toddler is? • 14. The genital stage is observed at the age range of?