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Necessity of Transmission & Distribution

This advance module will be providing multi skill training to meet the skill requirement of electrical sector of industries. Transmission & distribution of electric energy have being developed since 20th century. Bulk power is generated in power station which is very efficient so transmission & distribution must be required. Because of transmission & distribution, all consumers & industries get electricity.

COURSE CONTENTS
-:THEORY: Horn gap switches Disconnect switches Grounding switches Surge arrestors Current limiting reactors Instrument transformer Protection of system Protective devices Relays

COURSE CONTENTS
-:THEORY:-

Introduction of transmission Methods of power transmission Mechanical aspects of overhead line Electrical aspects of overhead line Underground cable Cable jointing Substation construction Substation equipment Power transformer Circuit breaker

OBJECTIVE
To discuss need of transmission of electric power & its advantages & disadvantages. To discuss material used for conductors, insulators & their characteristics. To discuss protective devices & equipment used in sub station. To repair & maintain equipment used in different types of lines & substation. To understand the concept of cable jointing.

ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM.


TYPICAL POWER SUPPLY SCHEME.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRACTION SYSTEMS.

ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM.

TRANSMISSION METHODS.

COMPARITION OF CROSS SECTION AREA OF CONDUCTING MATERIALS.

ELEMENT OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM.


i. Step up transformer. ii. Line support. iii.Line insulator. iv.Conductor.

v. Step-down transformer.
vi.Protective device. vii.Regulator.

TYPES OF TRANSMISSION LINE


A.C. transmission line. i. A.C. three phase three wire system. ii. A.C. three phase four wire system. iii.A.C. single phase two wire system.

iv.Mid point earth type A.C.single phase two wire system.


D.C. transmission line. i. D.C. two wire system. ii. Mid point earth type D.C. two wire system.

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

Transmission system & distribution system.

TRNSMISSION OF ELECTRIC POWER


ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM:ELEMENT OF POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM GENRATING STATION PRIMARY TRANSMISSION SECONDRY TRANSMISSION PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION

TRNSMISSION OF ELECTRIC POWER


ELEMENT OF POWER SYSTEM:ELEMENT OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
PROTECTIVE DEVICE REGULATOR CONDUCTOR STEP UP TRANSFORMER STEP DOWN TRNSFORMER. LINE SUPPORT. LINE ISULATOR

CONSISTANCE OF TYPICAL POWER SUPPLY SCHEME Generating station Primary transmission Secondary transmission Primary distribution Secondary distribution

TRNSMISSION OF ELECTRIC POWER


TYPES OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM:-

TRANSMISSON LINE A.C. TRANSMISSION


A.C.THREE PHASE FOUR WIRE SYSTEM A.C. SINGAL PHASE TWO WIRE SYSTEM MID POINT EARTH A.C. SINGAL PHASE. A.C.THREE PHASE THREE WIRE

D.C.TRANSMISION
D.C.TWO WIRE SYSTEM. MID POINT EARTH TYPE SYSTEM.

OVER HEAD LINE.


SUBSTANCE OF OVER HEAD LINE.

CLASSIFICATIONS OF POLES.

CLASSIFICATION OF INSULATORS.

CLASSIFICATION OF CONDUCTING MATERIALS.

STRING EFFICIENCY.

TRNSMISSION OF ELECTRIC POWER


COMPONENTS OF OVER HEAD LINE:-

Conductor

Earth Wire.

Main compOnents of Over head line

Line support

Line Insulator

TRNSMISSION OF ELECTRIC POWER


CHARECTERISTICS OF CONDUCTING MATERIAL:(a) High Conductivity (b) High tensile Strength

(e) Low specific Gravity.

(C) Should not Be brittle

(d) Low cost

TRNSMISSION OF ELECTRIC POWER


CHARECTERISTICS OF INSULATING MATERIAL:(a) High (b) High tensile specific resistance Strength

(e) Easily available

(c) High dielectric strength (d) Should not be porous

SUPPORT
*FUNCTION: It provides support to overhead conductor. * SUPPORT AS A: Tower Pole

CHARECTERISTICS OF SUPPORT MATERIAL


(b) HIGH MECHANICAL STRENGTH

(a) LOW WEIGHT

(e) LONG WORKING LIFE

(C)HIGH ACCESSIBILITY

(d) LOW COST

TRNSMISSION OF ELECTRIC POWER


CLASSIFICATION OF POLES:Types of poles

A type Rail pole H type


Steel pole Wood Pole Tubular pole

Nero base tower Brode base tower


RCC Pole

Letasied tow

Single pole

View of tubular Poles.

Transmission line (Steel tower)

Transmission line (Steel tower)

Transmission line (Steel tower)

TRNSMISSION OF ELECTRIC POWER


TYPES OF INSULATORS:(A) Pin type Insulator.

(C) Strain Insulator.

(B) Suspension type Insulator.

(D)Shackle type Insulator.

(E) Egg or Stay Insulator.

TYPES OF INSULATORS USED IN OVERHEAD SYSTEM.


Pin type insulator. Suspension type insulator.

Strain type insulator.


Shackle type insulator. Egg or Stay insulator. Ring type insulator

TYPES OF INSULATORS

STRING EFFCIENCY
DIFFERENT METHODS TO INCREASE STRING EFFICIENCY:-

Types of method to Increase the String Efficiency. (A)Use of long Cross arm. (B) Grading on Insulator. (C) Use of Grading Ring.

Different type mounting arrangement of pole.

CORONA

SOLUTION OF CORONA.

FACTORS AFFECTING CORONA.

REASON OF CORONA.

FACTORS AFFECTING IN CORONA LOSSES.

Condition of the corona effect. Potential difference is two conductor.

CORONA
FACTORS AFFECTING ON CORONA LOSS:-

Factors affecting on corona loss. (1)Condition on the Atmosphere. (2) Potential difference Between two conductor.

CORONA
METHODS USED TO REDUCE CORONA LOSS:-

*Use of bundle Conductor.

*Increase of conductor Diameter.

SAG
FACTORS AFFECTING ON SAG:-

FACTORS AFFECTING ON SAG.

Ice coating
Wind pressure. Tempressure.

Wight of conductor Span

Working tensile strength.

PERFORMANCE OF TRANSMISSION LINE

ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF TRANSMISSION LINE

Capacitance.

Inductance.

Resistance

Transmission and Distribution supply system.

MECHANICAL ASPECTS OF TRANSMISSION LINE

INSULATOR

CONDUCTOR

SUPPORT

TYPES OF TRANSMISSION LINE


REPRESENTATION OF PERAMETERS OF TRANSMISSION LINE:Nominal T

Nominal END Capacitance Short length Single Phase line. Short length three Phase line. Long length transmission Line.

TRANSMISSION LINE
CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSMISSION LINE:-

Classification of Transmission line. (1)Short Line. ( > 80 Km)


(2)

Medium line (80 to 160 Km)

(3) Long line (< 160 Km)

UNDERGROUND CABLE

UNDERGROUND CABLE
CLASSIFICATION OF CABLE:1. Low voltage (L.T.) cable (operating

Voltage up to 1 KV 2. High voltage (H.T) Cable (operating voltage Up to 11 KV) 3.Super tension (S.T) Cable (operating voltage Up to 33 KV.)

4. Extra super tension (E.H.T.) cable (operating Voltage up to 66KV.

5.Extra super voltage Cable (operating voltage up to 132 KV.

ELEMENT OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM.


i. Step up transformer. ii. Line support. iii.Line insulator. iv.Conductor.

v. Step-down transformer.
vi.Protective device. vii.Regulator.

Characteristic of conductor materials.


High conductivity. High tensile strength.

Low specific gravity.


Low cost. Long working life. Should not be brittle.

APPLICATIONS OF INSULATOR
TYPES
Pine type Suspension type Strain type

APPLICATIONS
L.T., H.T. distribution Not above 66 kv O.h. transmission More than 33 kv At the end or sharp curve As strain insulator on L.T. distribution

Shackle type

TYPES OF CABLE

UNDERGROUND CABLE
Core Belted paper Lead sheath

Bedding
Single wire armoring Overall Serving

UNDERGROUND CABLE
EXTRA SUPER VOLTAGE CABLE:Oil filled cables. (A) Single core oil filled cables used up to 132 KV. (B) Three core oil filled cables used up to 66 KV. Gas pressure cables. (A) External pressure cables. (B) Internal pressure cable. (a) High pressure gas filled cable. (b) Gas cushion cable. (c) Impregnated pressure cable

TYPES OF INSULATING MATERIALS USED IN CABLE


Vulcanized India Rubber. Varnished Impregnated cambric Paper. Types of Materials.

Polyvinyle chloride

Silk & Cotton.

Enamel Insulation.

Rubber.

UNDERGROUND CABLE
REQUIRED PROPERTIES OF INSULATING MATERIALS FOR CABLE:High resitivity. High dielectric strength. Low thermal co-efficient. Low water absorption. Low permittivity. Non inflammable. Chemical stability. High mechanical strength. High viscosity at impregnation temperature. Capability to with stand high rupturing voltage. High tensile strength and plasticity.

UNDER GROUND CABLE


METHODS OF LAYING UNDER GROUND CABLE:-

1.Solid system.

2.Direct laying.

3. Draw-in System.

UNDER GROUND CABLE


FAULTS WHICH ARE LIKELY TO OCCUR IN UNDER GROUND CABLE:-

1. Insulating fault between line and earth. 2. Insulation fail between two core. 3. Open circuit fault.

SUBSTATION

TESTING OF INSULATOR

Testing of insulator.

(1)Flash over test

(2)Performance test

(3)Routine test

SUBSTATION
FUNCTION OF SUBSTATION: The main functions of sub-station are to receive energy transmitted at high voltage from the generating station, reduce to a value appropriate for local distribution and provide facilities for switching.

The main equipment for Substation.


1. Main bus-bar.
2. Isolator. 3. Insulator.

4. Circuit breaker.
5. Load interrupter switches. 6. Fuses. 7. Power transformer. 8. Current transformer and potential transformer. 9. Control cable.

SUBSTATION
CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTATION:-

According to Service
1.Transformer sub-station 2.Industrial sub-station 3.Switching sub-station 4.Synchronous sub-station 5.Frequency sub-station 6.Converting sub-station.

SUBSTATION
CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTATION:-

According to Design. 1.Indoor type Sub-station. 2.Out door type Sub-station.

(a) Pole mounted Sub-station.

(b) Foundation mounted Sub-station.

SUBSTATION
MAIN EQUIPMENTS USED IN SUBSTATION:-

1.Main bus bar.

2.Insulator.

3.Isolator.

4.Circuit breaker.

5.Load interrupter Switches.

6.Fuses.

7.Power transformer.

8.Current & potential 9.Indicating &Metering Transformer. Instrument. 11.Carrier current Equipment. 12.Control cable.

10.Protective relays.

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

COMPARITION BETWEEN OVER HEAD AND UNDER GROUND SYSTEMS.

PARTS OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.

TO CONVERT THE 2-WIRE D.C. SYSTEM INTO 3WIRE D.C.SYSTEM.

METHODS OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
TYPES OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:-

1.Primary distribution.

2.Secondary distribution.

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
MAIN PARTS OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:-

3.Service mains.

2.Distributor..

1.Feeder

View of distribution system.

View of L.T. distribution system.

DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
METHODS OF FEEDING A DISTRIBUTOR:1.Redial system.

2.Ring mains system.

3.Inter connected grid Type system.

SWITH GEAR

DESIED CHARACTERISTICS OF SWITCH GEARS.

SWITCH GEAR.
BUS-BAR SYSTEM. INTRODUCTION OF SWITCH GEAR EQUIPEMENTS.

INTRODUCTION OF SWITCH GEAR.


TYPES OF SWITCH GEAR EQUIPMENT:1.Circuit Breaker.

2.Bus bar.

Equipment

3.Fuses.

4.Protective relay.

BUS BAR SYSTEM


VARIOUS TYPES OF BUS BAR ARRANGEMENT SYSTEM:-

Single bus bar system used in D.C. and A.C. power station. Single bus bar system with sectionalization. Ring bus bar system. Duplicate bus bar system.

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
TYPES OF FAULTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:1.Over Current. 2.Under Voltage.

3.Unbalence Voltage.

4.Reversed power

5.Surge.

FACTOR AFFECTING SAG.


i. Weight of conductor.

ii. Span between two poles.


iii.Working tensile strength. iv.Ice- coating. v. Wind pressure. vi.Tem pressure.

Various type insulating materials in used in cable.


1. Rubber. 2. Vulcanized India rubber. (V.I.R.). 3. Impregnated paper. 4. Varnished cambric. 5. Polyvinyl chloride. 6. Silk and cotton. 7. Enamel insulation.

INTRODUCTION OF PROTECTION SCHEME

DIFFERENT TYPES OF RELAYS.

BUCHOLZ RELAYS.

BASIC PROTECTION SCHEME OF SUBSTATION.

PROTECTION SCHEME OF TRANSFORMER.

INTRODUCTION OF PROTECTION SCHEME


DESIRED CHARECTERISTICS OF PROTECTION SYSTEM:Characteristics of protection system.
1.Reliability

2.Sensitivity.
3.Selectivity. 4.Descrimination.

5.Speed. 6.Simplicity. 7.Economy.

INTRODUCTION OF PROTECTION SCHEME.


FUNCTION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS:The relay is used to cut off the power supply, promptly to any element of power system which undergoes short circuit it starts operating abnormally.

INTRODUCTION OF PROTECTION SCHEME.


MAIN FEATURES OF RELAY:Main features of a good protective relay. 1.Reliability 2.Sensitivity. 3.Selectivity. 4.Quickness. 5.Non interference With future extension.

INTRODUCTION OF PROTECTION SCHEME


DIFFERENT TYPES OF RELAY:2.Attracted armature Type. 5.Induction type. 3.Electrodynemic Type. 6.Thermal relay.

1.Solenoid type.

4.Moving coil type.

7.Earth fault relay.

INTRODUCTION OF PROTECTION SCHEME.


RELAY USED FOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION:-

Types of relay.

1.Over current Relay.

2.Buchholz Relay.

3.Earth fault Relay.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
TYPES OF INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER:-

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER

CIRCUIT BREAKERS.
WORKING PRINCIPA L OF CIRCUIT BRAKER.

E.L.C.B.

PARTS OF CIRCUIT BREAKER.

CIRCUIT BREAKERS.
M.C.B.

CLASSIFI CATION OF CIRCUIT BREAKER S.

DISADVA NTAGES.

ADVANT AGES.

Method of arc extinction in circuit breaker.


High resistance interruption. (1) Arc lengthening. (2) Arc cooling. (3) Arc splitting. (4) Arc constraining. Low resistance interruption. (1) Cooling. (2) Gap lengthening. (3) Blast effect.

HORN GAP SWITCHES/AIR GAP SWITCHES


Construction on H.T. Line. Utilization on L.T. Line. Construction on H.T. Line. Utilization on L.T. Line.

DISCONNECT SWITCHES
Construction on H.T. Line. Utilization on L.T. Line. Construction on H.T. Line. Utilization on L.T. Line.

GROUNDING SWITCHES
Construction on H.T. Line. Utilization on L.T. Line. Construction on H.T. Line. Utilization on L.T. Line.

SURGE ARRESTORS
Construction on H.T. Line. Utilization on L.T. Line. Construction on H.T. Line. Utilization on L.T. Line.

CURRENT LIMITING REACTORS


Construction on H.T. Line. Working on H.T. Line. Utilization on H.T. Line. Construction on L.T. Line.

Working on L.T. Line.


Utilization on L.T. Line.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
CURRENT TRANSFORMER Series connection Step up transformer Never open secondary POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER Parallel connection Step down transformer Should be open secondary

Various type of bus-bar arrangement.


I. Single bus bar system used in D.C. and A.C. power station. II. Single bus bar system with sectionalisation. III. Ring bus bar system. IV. Duplicate bus bar system.

CIRCUIT BREAKER
TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS:Vacuum circuit breaker

Sf6 circuit breaker

Types of Circuit breaker

Oil circuit breaker

Air blast circuit breaker

INTRODUCTION OF PROTECTION SCHEME


BASIC ELEMENT OF CIRCUIT BREAKER:1.Contact.

2.Insulation.

3.Operating Mechanism.

4.Arc quenches medium.

CIRCUIT BREAKER-SF6

INTRODUCTION OF PROTECTION SCHEME.


METHODS OF ARC EXTINCTION OF CIRCUIT BREAKER:High resistance interruption. (1) Arc lengthening. (2) Arc cooling. (3) Arc splitting. (4) Arc constraining. Low resistance interruption. (1) Cooling. (2) Gap lengthening. (3) Blast effect.

INTRODUCTION OF PROTECTION SCHEME.


TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER:Low voltage air circuit breaker. Oil circuit breaker. Air blast circuit breaker. SF6 circuit breaker. Vacuum circuit breaker.

FUSE.

FUSE.
TYPES OF MATERIAL USED IN FUSE WIRE:-

Lead.

Copper.

Tin

Silver.

Types of Fuse element

Rewireable fuse. Cartridge type fuse. Drop out fuse. High capacity H.R.C. fuse. High voltage H.R.C. fuse.

FUSE.
TYPES OF FUSES:Rewireable fuse. Cartridge type fuse. Drop out fuse. High capacity H.R.C. fuse. High voltage H.R.C. fuse.

TRANSFORMER
TYPES OF TRANSFORMER:ACCORDING TO CORE:1.Shell type 2.Core type ACCORDING TO COOLING:1.Air natural 4.air forced 2.water natural 5.water forced 3.oil natural 6.oil forced

TRANSFORMER

Construction Working Performance Cooling Parallel operation Tap changing Selsyn drive

TYPES OF FAULTS IN DISTRIBUTION POWER SYSTEM.


Over current. Under voltage.

Unbalance voltage.
Reversed power. Surges.

TYPES OF RELAYS.
I. Solenoid relay. II. Attracted armature type relay. III. Electrodynamics type. IV. Moving type relay.

V. Induction type relay.


VI. Thermal relay. VII. Over current relay. VIII. Over voltage relay.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF FUSES.

MAIN FEATURES OF GOOD PROTECTIVE RELAYS.


Selectivity. Sensitivity.

Reliability.
Quickness. Non- interference with future extension.

TYPES OF M.C.B.

TRANSFORMER.

TRANSFORMER.
TYPES OF TRANSFORMER:Power transformer. Auto transformer. Transformer for Feeding installation with static converters. Testing of transformer. Power transformer for special application.

CONSTRUCION OF TRANSFORMER:-

CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSFORMER

TRANSFORMER.
VARIOUS TYPES OF LOSSES IN TRANSFORMER:-

Various types of losses. Iron & core losses. Hysterics loss. Copper losses.

Eddy current loss.

TRANSFORMER
TRANSFORMER OIL:Its mineral oil obtained by refine crude petroleum. It serves the following purpose. Provide additional insulation. Carries away the heat generated in the core & coils. Protects the paper from dirt & moisture.