Survey and Research Methods

Session 1:

Dr. Gangadhar Mahesh, B. Arch, M. Eng, Ph.D

ACM – Survey and Research Methods

1 Dr. Gangadhar Mahesh

Gangadhar Mahesh .Outline • Introduce the concept of research • Provide awareness of different classifications of research • Outline the essentials of theories and paradigms • Discuss various research styles • Introduce quantitative and qualitative approaches NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 2 Dr.

Definition • A careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge • systematized effort to gain new knowledge • a movement from the known to the unknown. Gangadhar Mahesh . actually a voyage of discovery • comprises defining and redefining problems. formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions. organising and evaluating data. collecting. making deductions and reaching conclusions. and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 3 Dr.

Classification of Research Based on Purpose: • Pure (To contribute to theories) • Applied (To apply theories to real situations in order to find a definitive answer) Based on Research Type: • • • • Instrumental (To construct / calibrate research instruments) Exploratory (Structures and identifies new problems) Constructive (Develops solutions to a problem) Empirical (Tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence) NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 4 Dr. Gangadhar Mahesh .

Classification of Research (2) Based on Reasoning Approach: • Inductive (More general to specific. Conclusion follows logically from premises (available facts)) • Deductive (specific observations to broader generalizations and theories) NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 5 Dr. Gangadhar Mahesh .

Why things happen as they do? .Provide snapshots .Data and results are cross sectional and objective NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 6 Dr.Classification of Research (3) Based on Research Methods Used: • Qualitative . Gangadhar Mahesh .Subjective data but needs to be analysed objectively • Quantitative .

Quantitative Quantitative: • • • • • • • • Questionnaire Survey Examination of Available Figures and Statistics Mathematical Modeling Simulation Qualitative: Literature Review Case Studies Interviews Focus Group Meetings Source: http://www.html NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 7 Gangadhar Mahesh .Qualitative Vs.

Gangadhar Mahesh .Context and Research NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 8 Dr.

occurrences. are usually concerned with the relationships between variables NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 9 Dr. or processes that have been given a name • Proposition: is a statement concerned with the relationship between concepts.Definitions • Theory: a coherent set of general propositions. attributes. used as principles of explanation of the amount of the apparent relationships of certain observed phenomona • Concepts (or constructs): basic building blocks of theory development. is a generalized idea about a class of objects. Gangadhar Mahesh . asserts a universal connection and logical linkage between concepts • Hypotheses: are propositions which are empirically testable.

Events and Occurrences NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 10 Empirical Level Dr. Gangadhar Mahesh .The Abstraction Ladder Theory Propositions Concepts / Constructs Levels of Abstraction Abstract Level Observations of Objects.

Deductive Reasoning Theory Hypotheses Observation Using deductive reasoning. Gangadhar Mahesh . one starts with a given theory as the basis for which we develop hypotheses and then confirm these with specific data acquired using observation or experimentation (Is our theory valid or not?) Confirmation NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 11 Dr.

one starts with a specific observation as the basis for which we develop a general pattern and tentative hypothesis as the foundation of a theory Theory NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 12 Dr.Inductive Reasoning Observation Pattern Tentative Hypotheses Using inductive reasoning. Gangadhar Mahesh .

Knowledge Creation • Deductive reasoning occurs within boundaries of existing knowledge (may reinforce boundaries) • Inductive reasoning is valuable in extending or overcoming boundaries. but should be employed with caution • Anomalies – instances in which theory fails to provide correct prediction. leads to examination of general principles of theory • Paradigm – a theoretical framework which includes a system by which people view events NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 13 Dr. Gangadhar Mahesh .

how and why their patterns of behaviors occur. NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 14 Dr. Usual cycle of scientific research problem definition-design-hypothesis-experiment-data collection-analysisinterpretation modified to research question-diagnosis-plan-intervention-evaluation. • Case Studies: Encourage in-depth investigation of particular instances within the research subject • Experiments: Suited best to bounded problems or issues in which the variables involved are known or hypothesized with some confidence. promote and evaluate problems and solutions. Gangadhar Mahesh . • Surveys: Operate on the basis of sampling. statements etc to gain insights into what. • Ethnographic Research: The researcher becomes part of the group under study and observes subjects behaviors.Research Styles • Action Research: Involves active participation by the researcher in the process under study in order to identify.

Gangadhar Mahesh .Requirements of Different Research Styles NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 15 Dr.

Gangadhar Mahesh .Triangulated Approach • Employs two or more research techniques • To eliminate or reduce disadvantages of each individual approach while gaining from advantages of both • Triangulation within methodology seeks to enhance a study’s external validity whilst within methodology seeks to enhance internal validity and reliability NICMAR ACM – Survey and Research Methods 16 Dr.

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