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# Engineering H191 - Drafting / CAD

Transport Phenomena

Lab 4

Autumn Quarter

Lab 4

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## Engineering H191 - Drafting / CAD

Topics to be covered
Transport Phenomena Energy Mass Momentum (fluid) Viscosity and rheology Falling ball viscometers
examine the effect of viscosity on object falling through the fluid.
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## Engineering H191 - Drafting / CAD

Transportation applications
Energy Fighter jet cooling Radiators Air conditioners Mass Intracellular transfer Momentum (i.e. fluid) Pumps Airplane flight Water flow Applications all over engineering: Mechanical Chemical Aeronautical Biomedical Civil Industrial Systems Materials Science

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Energy Transport
Flow Direction

Mass Transport

N2

valve

O2

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## Momentum (Fluid) Transport

Flow types Turbulent flow Laminar flow Velocity Gradient Viscosity Reynolds Number

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## Momentum transport Mechanisms

Difference in pressure is the driving force, causing fluid to flow

## Laminar flow ( Molecular)

If pressure drop is small across the object, fluid motion is smooth and transfer is molecular. That is, momentum transfers from molecule to molecule through the fluid. Fluid flows in layers

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## Engineering H191 - Drafting / CAD

Viscosity A fluid flow property Internal property of a fluid that offers resistance to flow it is a measure of how easily a fluid can flow. Results from cohesion and molecular momentum exchange between fluid layers as flow occurs, these appear as shearing stresses between moving layers. It can also be viewed as a resistance to shear force, more viscous the fluid is, higher the resistance.
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## Engineering H191 - Drafting / CAD

Coefficient of Viscosity ()

Under conditions of laminar flow, the force (F) required to move a plate at constant speed against the resistance of a fluid is proportional to the area of the plate (A) and to the velocity gradient (dVx/dy) perpendicular to the plate.

F = A (dVx/dy)

(or)

## = (dVx/dy) where, is shear stress per unit area

Newtons Law of Viscosity

## Unit (SI): kg m-1 s-1 (preferred) or Pa-s

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## Reynolds Number (Re)

Re is a dimensionless parameter that describes flow and is defined as Re = DV / D: Characteristic length scale (such as diameter of a pipe, diameter or length of a body) (m) V: Characteristic Velocity (m/s) : Density of fluid (kg/m3) : Viscosity of fluid (kg/ms) Ratio / is called Kinematic Viscosity of fluid, usually expressed in (m2/s)
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## Re and Critical Velocity

At a critical value of Re, flow will change from laminar to turbulent - the flow velocity at which this occurs is called the critical velocity.

Critical Re changes based on application there are no analytical methods for predicting critical Re available due to complex origins of turbulence.

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## Engineering H191 - Drafting / CAD

Re and Critical Velocity For fluid flow through Critical Re changes for pipes, critical Re 2000 different flow types: 1 for object moving in a fluid (this lab) Re < 2000 for laminar 1000 for flow between parallel walls Re >> 2000 for turbulent 500 for flow in a wide open channel 2000 < Re < 4000 is transition region laminar or turbulent

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Vt

## Assume: Sphere attains terminal velocity here

Requires a transparent vertical tube filled with test fluid and the object (a sphere). When object starts to drop (free fall), it accelerates downward till it reaches a maximum velocity called terminal velocity (Vt). Terminal velocity affected by
Density, viscosity of the fluid Shape, size, density of object

## Measure terminal velocity.

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## Engineering H191 - Drafting / CAD

Falling Sphere Viscometer When body attains terminal velocity, body experiences no acceleration forces acting on the body are in equilibrium. Magnitude of terminal velocity should result in a low Re critical Re is about 1. Gravitational Force (Fg) depends on:
Density of sphere Radius of sphere Acceleration due to gravity
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Fd = Fg Fb

Fd Fb Fg
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## Falling Sphere Viscometer

Force due to buoyancy (Fb) depends on: Density of fluid Fd = Fg Fb Radius of sphere Acceleration due to gravity Drag force (Fd) is the resistance of the fluid to motion of body given by Stokes law, depends on: Absolute viscosity of fluid Fd Fb Terminal Velocity (Vt) Radius of sphere

Fg
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## Falling Sphere Viscometer Terminal velocity of object Design should consider:

Assume sphere attains terminal velocity here

through fluid

Should yield Re << 1 for laminar flow. Start recording after sphere attains terminal velocity.

Vt

Wall effects

## Bottom effect considerations

Bottom effects

To ensure minimal error, we stop recording before a specific height from the bottom of cylinder.
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Autumn Quarter

## Lab Report Requirements - in pairs

Analysis and discussion of the two fluids at your table plus a third fluid from the lab website Position/time plots with trendlines
Analysis and discussion of the velocities from each group in the class Comparison of group data against class Determination of Reynolds number and viscosity for each fluid

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## Engineering H191 - Drafting / CAD

Todays Goals
Collect data using the LabVIEW application Save at least 6 .csv files 3 per fluid using the two fluids at your table Collect 6 sample Vt (3 per fluid) and report to the front, as described at end of procedure: Open your .csv files and determine Vt by fitting trendlines and calculating total velocity

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