What Are spices

 Spices are strongly flavored or aromatic parts of plants used in small quantities in food as a preservative, or flavouring in cooking. Spices are often used in perfumes and cosmetics, and many have been used in medicine and religious ritual as well. Spices are distinguished from other plant products used for similar purposes, such as herbs (which are green, leafy parts of plants), aromatic vegetables, and dried fruits.

Introduction to spices
• Babur founder of the mughal empire in India wrote in his memoirs ‘ Had my countrymen had the knowledge of spices the Indians have, I would have conquered the world.’ • Indeed the art of seasoning is the ancient one in the Indian subcontinent. Particles of black pepper, cumin,coriander,mustard seeds were found in 4,500 years old of grinding stone from prehistoric cities of mohenjodaro and harrappa in the Indus valley civilization. In later centuries , spices were the exotic treasures that lured daring explorers from afar to India. The European advances led to warfare and colonization, and changed the course of history.

Introduction to Spices
• In spite of geopolitical transformation that has eroded its wealth, India still remains the bastion of spices, and spices are proud symbol of Indian culture and heritage. They serve many functions in this subcontinent; • 1 Flavours • 2 Taste • 3 Seasoning • 4 Texture • 5 Preservatives in tropical climate • 6 Remedies in the ancient form of medicine Ayurveda

Introduction to Spices
• To this day , the Indian cook’s most exciting and striking feature is the ability to bring out the flavours through the meticulous use of spices . different spices dominate in different regions of the country. Cinnamon, nutmeg, bay leaves, cloves cumin, coriander are prominently featured in the north, while mustard seeds, fenugreek seeds, kairi leaves govern the south. Chillies are the common factor in all Indian cooking. • To master spices, one has to learn to mix them judiciously and in proper sequence. I firmly believe that the food taste best when its natural flavours is accented with the right amount of seasoning. This seasoning should never overpower the dish.

Spices
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Black pepper Cumin Corriander Clove Black cardamom Green cardamom Bay leaves Carom seeds Asafetida Mace Nutmeg Turmeric Red chillies • • • • • • • • • • • • • Mango powder Kachri Fenugreek seeds Mustard seeds Rock salt Nigella seeds Saffron Mixed spices Chaat masala Kala masala Garam masala Bharwan masala Achaar masala

Spices
• • • • • • Fennel Tamarind Kassori methi Kala namak Poppy seeds Sesame seeds black and white • Ratanjot • Char magaz

Blends of spices
• • • • • • • • Garam masala Chat masala Kala masala Panch phoran Achari masala Chutney masala Chai masala Shikanji masala

Lets Know What is What

The Spices

MUSTARD

• Indian name RAI • Latin name BRASSICA / SINAPSIS

In the south of India and along the coast, mustard is primarily used in tempering. This simple procedure of heating oil until very hot, dropping in the mustard seeds and cooking until it pop and crackle, gives many dishes a distinctive flavour. In Bengal, mustard seeds are crushed to paste for use in fiery marinades and curries that can shock the senses. Mustard is an excellent preservative and split seeds, which look like tiny lentils, are widely used for pickling

CHILLIES

• Indian name LAL MIRCH / HARI MIRCH • Latin name CAPSICUM ANNUUM

Chillies or chilli powder are used in virtually every savoury dish in India. All Chillies need to be treated with respect. The capsaicin in chillies is highly irritant to skin, so be careful when preparing them. Try to avoid contact with inside of the fruit and wash hands with soap and water immediately after use or wear gloves when chopping. Keep hands away from the face. To reduce the pungency of chillies, discard the seeds and soak them in cold salted water. For maximum fire, slice the chilly and leave the seeds in. To prepare dried chillies, also wash in cold water, dry, remove stems and shake out the seeds. They can be torn, soaked in warm water and ground to a paste.

CARAWAY

• Indian name SHAHI JEERA • Latin name CARUM CARVI

Caraway is used to flavour bread, cakes and cheese. Caraway flavoured Indian cheese is popular but is available only in certain parts of India. The famous liqueur kummel is laced with the extract of caraway. In Indian cookery it is used to complement or rice dish. 

CUMIN

• Indian name JEERA • Latin name CUMINUM CYMINUM

Suited to almost any cuisine in the world. In India most curries start of with a loud crackle as cumin seeds hit the hot oil, before the meat and vegetable are added. Roasted cumin powder is sprinkled on top of salads or yoghurt as a dark, contrasting, aromatic garnish. It is also the very essence of jaljeera – a tasty digestive drink. It is also used in spice blend like panch phoran and tandoori Masala.

CASSIA

• Indian name JUNGLI DALCHINI • • Latin name CINNAMOMUM CASSIA

In India, cassia is exactly used as cinnamon, incurries, rice and vegetables. It is not added to sweets because of its astringency. The Chinese use it in their blend of five-spice powder. Cassia buds are used in cooking as well as in paan a betel leaf filled with nuts, Seeds and spices and eaten after a rich meal to freshen the breath. A single bud often fastens the leaf envelope to hold in the contents.

CINNAMON

• Indian name DALCHINI • Latin name CINNAMOMUM VERUM

Cinnamon is used to flavour rice,curries,deserts and meats. It is also an essential part of the standard blend of garam masala which includes cardamom,cloves and peppercorn. Garam Masala is the magic spice mixture which gives many Indian dishes that rich,heady fragrance. Masala chai is tea with milk and sugar,which is liberally laced with cinnamon

CORIANDER

• Indian name DHANIA • Latin name CORIANDRUM SATIVUM

Suited to almost every savoury Indian dishes,coriander the spice and the herb is used daily in curries,chutneys,soups and drinks. Roasted coriander is a indispensable item in the spice box and cool yoghurt based salads and drinks like raita and lassi are dusted with it for a delicious zing. An apple green chutney made by grinding coriander leaves,coconut,ginger,garlic and spices is a popular sandwich spread or meal accompaniment. The volatile oil is used to flavour liqueurs and chocolate

SAFFRON
• Indian name KESAR • Latin name CROCUS SATIVUS
• Saffron enhances savoury food as well as sweet. A few strands soaked in little warm water or milk and added along with the liquid to the dish adds a fragrant richness. It especially complements milk deserts,rice and chicken

TURMERIC

• Indian name HALDI • Latin name CURCUMA LONGA

Turmeric is used in virtually every Indian meat,lentil and vegetable ( except greens ) dishes. It is an excellent preservative and therefore it is used extensively in pickles. It can be added to food for its colour, taste or as a thickening agent. If it is added to the oil before vegetable, meat or lentil,it imparts a deep colour and pungent taste to the dish. The leaves of the turmeric plant can be dried and used to flavour ghee. Leaves also can be used to wrap foods like fish or sweets before steaming. Unlike the powder which has a musky dry smell, the leaves smell rich and sweet.

CARDAMOM

• Indian name ELAICHI • Latin name ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM

Indian savouries and sweets both are flavoured with cardamom. This fragrant spice is used in rich, red curries and milky deserts. In India tea and coffee are sometimes sprinkled with cardamom. Around the world it is used in spiced cakes and breads. Brown cardamom is used only in savouries, especially in rice dishes like biriyani. Along with green cardamom, it is an essential ingredients in garam Masala.

FENNEL

• Indian name SAUNF

• Latin name FOENICULUM VULGARE

Fennel seems to add richness to gravies, sweetness to deserts and a special zest to vegetables. It is used powdered or whole in crisp fried sweets which are drenched in fennel flavoured sugar syrup. Fennel is also used in pickles and chutneys in north india and a fennel infusion is a delicious base for refreshing drinks.

BAY LEAF

• Indian name TEJ PATTA

• Latin name LAURUS NOBILIS

Used chiefly in main dishes & rice cookery of north India , bay leaves are removed from the dish before serving. They are added to hot oil before the main ingredient, as frying releases their sweet perfume. In the West, they are used to flavour stuffing, roast meats and sauces. In India, they constitute a part of garam Masala

NUTMEG / MACE
• Indian name JAIPHAL / JAVITRI • In India, both the spices are used to enhance main dishes, rice and deserts. Rice pudding swirled with nutmeg is a delicacy. Powdered nutmeg is often sprinkled on creamy set milk desert for a decorative and aromatic touch

• Latin name MYRISTICA FRAGRANCE •

NIGELLA

• Indian name KALONJI

• Latin name NIGELLA SATIVA

Even in India, nigella is a mysterious spice. Many people are not aware of its flavour and therefore tend to being skeptical of its use. However, nigella goes in naan bread and in salads. In west Bengal the most prolific spice blend is panch phoran, a mixture of five spices including nigella, and this gives vegetables, pulses and lentils a distinctive Bengali taste.

ALLSPICE

• Indian name KABABCHINI

• Latin name PIMENTA OFFICINALIS

This spice is called allspice because it has the flavour of cloves, nutmeg,cinnamon and black pepper all rolled in to one. Allspice is indigenous to west indies but is also used in some regional Indian cookery. It is one of the spices that seldom comes out of the country, but it is sometimes the secret magic ingredient that gives such a sent of heaven to north Indian curries and biryani. Although south Indian food has no use of allspice, it takes its special place along side the garam Masala ,cardamom and bay leaf on the north Indian house wives kitchen shelves.

ANISEED
• Indian name VILAYATI SAUNF
• Aniseed is one of the twenty odd spices we have. Mainly used as a mouth freshner or as decocotion to various drinks and curries. It is also thrown into hot oil and poured over vegetables and lentils as a sizzling fragrant garnish. Powdered aniseed is added to sweets and beverages

• Latin name PIMPINELLA ANISUM

PEPPER-King Of All Spices

• Indian name KALI MIRCH

• Latin name PIPER NIGRUM

In India, pepper is used in every type of regional cookery. In the north it flavours main dishes, in the south, lentils, in the east and in the west, vegetables. It is thrown whole into hot oil, roasted and ground with coconut and spices, and made it into paste and applied to meats. It is also used to make herbal tea. Green pepper is usually pickled. In view of preservative qualities of pepper, it is used extensively in canning and pickling. Several spice mix like garam Masala feature pepper is a key ingredient. Around the world pepper is used to flavour sauces, meats and marinades.

POMEGRANATE SEEDS

• Indian name ANARDANA

• Latin name PUNICA GRANATUM

Used in north indian cookery, anardana adds tang to the chutneys, curries, stuffing, vegetables and lentils. Punjabi cookery relies on anardana for flavouring pulses like chickpeas. In Indian pomegranate seeds are sprinkled on yoghurt raitas and sprouted pulses as a pretty garnish.

AJOWAN

• Indian name AJWAIN

• Latin name TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI

Ajowan goes particularly well with green beans , root vegetables and based, all of which from an important part of India`s vast vegetarian cuisine. Snacks like Bombay mix and potato balls depend on spices like ajowan for a special zing. Breads are also flavoured with the spice. It is often added to lentils and pulses as they are difficult to digest

FENUGREEK

• Indian name METHI

• Latin name TRIGONELLA FOENUM

Fenugreek is used to flavour all Indian savouries like kadhi, sitaphal etc. It is an essential ingredient for curry powder and is widely used in southern Indian cookery in breads, batters, chutneys and lentils. The leaves are eaten in number of ways. Fenugreek is also used as a essential ingredient for pickle. ( PANCH PHORAN )

Essence (Ruh)
• Essence are concentrated liquid flavourings extracted from various plant products, including flowers, barks, and wood by steam distillation. The 2 commonly used extracts in indian cooking are ruh-kewra and ruh-gulab. These are used to aromatise pillaus, desserts and beverages.

Khoya or mawa
• This fudge like soft dough is made by cooking milk slowly until 85% of its water content evaporates. Khoya is mainly used in desserts and especially in mughal cuisine.

Yogurt, Curd (Dahi)
• Is one of the common ing to all regions of India. This dairy product always accompany our food in one way or the other- mixed with vegetables and spices as a raita, in a hot or cold soup or most commonly just a little plain yogurt .

Paneer or Cottage Cheese
• Paneer is a fresh white cheese with a mellow flavour and creamy texture. Like all cheese, it started as a way to preserve fresh milk, and has become a favourite food in its own right. • The first step in making paneer is to add an acidic ingredient to the fresh milk to cause it to curdle (separate into semisolid curds and liquid whey)

Paneer or Cottage cheese
• Its cooking qualities differ considerably from other types of cheese; it has enough body to sauté, or deep fry without crumbling, softening or getting stringy. • Most can be assembled cooked ahead of time, which is a boon to the modern cook.

Rotis or Indian Breads
• From the clay oven to the iron griddle, breads have a significant status in Indian folkfore. Rotis the famed primary food is generic term for all breads. Although made from the same basic ingredients stoneground grains and water. Indians breads vary tremendously from tissue thin and crackly to soft, moist and chewy.

Breads
• Numerous flour mixtures, shaping techniques, and cooking methods yield an astounding range of flovours and textures. • Varieties; rotis,

The vegetarian cooking

The Culinary Vocabulary

Baghar (Tempering):
Spices and herbs are added one at a time to hot oil and this tempering is either done as the first step in the cooking process before adding the vegetables or as the last, pouring the tempered oil over dal. The oil extracts and retains all the sharp flavours of the rai, kadipatta, jeera, hing, etc and coats the entire dish being prepared.Also known as tadka or chonk.

Bhunao(Saute/Stir-fry):
• Small quantities of water, yogurt, and stock are introduced to the pan if and when the ingredients start to stick. Usually onions, tomatoes, ginger, garlic and green chillies are fried in oil, but to make sure that this doesn’t stick, burn or cook unevenly, a small amount of water is added, repeatedly. After the oil separates from the mixture, the main ingredient vegetables are added and cooked.

Dhuanaar (Smoking):
• Glowing charcoal is placed in a small katori, or bowl, cooked vegetables are placed around this. Dry spices and ghee are poured on top of the coals and a lid is quickly placed over the vegetables. This smoking adds a delicate flavour to the prepared fooe. In Rajasthan, for example, matha or buttermilk is served after ghee is poured over hot coals and placed under a lid along with an earthenware pot of buttermilk for a minute or so.

Dum (Steaming):
• In the olden days, the utensil was sealed with atta (dough) to capture the moisture within the food as it cooked slowly over a charcoal fire. Some coal is placed on the lid to ensure even cooking. The food continues to cook in its own steam, retaining all its flavour and aroma. Dum means, “to steam” or “mature” a dish.

Handi:
• The cooking is done in a thick bottom pan so that the food does not stick or burn; the lid helps retain the aroma and flavour. Both bhunao and dum are aspects of Handi cooking

Talna (Frying):
• In Indian cooking frying, when it is called for, is done in a wok or kadhai. The round bottom uses less oil and cooks the food evenly.

List of Equipments Used In Indian Kitchen
• • • • • • • • • • • Belan Chakla Haandi Hammam Dasta Jhaari Kadahi Kadchi Paraat Sil Batta Tawa Tandoor

Kitchen Equipments
• Kadahi is used for frying, sauteing, and just about all other forms of stove top cooking. • Tava a round single burner iron griddle used in toasting spices, chappatis. Its smooth with a concave surface • Rolling pin or belan, about a foot long with a long taper from the centre.

Kitchen Equipment
• Spice grinder (chakki ) a peep into an old time or modern Indian kitchen will reveal a wide variety of grinding stones. So important is the spice blend to Indian cookery that in some parts of the sub continent, the bride ensures a solid foundation to the marriage by making her vows standing on the grinding stone

Cooking Mediums
• Deis ghee is made by melting butter and separating water and milk solids. It has its own sweetish nutty flavour. • Mustard oil made from the extracts of sarson seeds. There are 2 kinds kacchi ghani and pacci ghani (cold and hot compress ) • Seasme oil (til ka tael )

Cooking Mediums
• • • • • • • Coconut oil most popular in south Peanut oil Seetha phal seed oil Lauki seed oil Almond oil Walnut oil Varieties of flavoured oil

Garnishes
• Warq : gold & silver • Dry Fruit Garnishes : almonds, pistachio cashewnuts, walnuts, dessicated coconut, etc. • Vegetables : coriander, ginger & green chillies, mint, lemon etc. • Innovation garnishes: slivers of fried pumpkin, morrels, bhujia etc.

Silver and Gold leaves (warq)
• Fragile and delicate as butterfly wings, these thin sheets of silver or gold foil are especially associated with Mughal cooking. Warq is made by placing minute silver pellets between sheets of tissue paper, which is then enclosed in a leather pouch and hammered to form feather thin foil.

Cookery class
• • • • • • List of vegetables we will cook History of vegetable Varieties Famous dishes from the vegetable Name of dish we will cook Practical cooking

Vegetables we will cook
• • • • • • • Potatoes Ghia Colacasia Pumpkin Dried Peas Tomatoes Chillies

Potato

History of potatoes
• There is general agreement between contemporary botanists that the potato originated in the Andes, all the way from Colombia to northern Argentina, but with a concentration of genetic diversity, both in the form of cultivated and wild species, in the area of modern day Peru

Varieties
• Potatoes have been bred into many standard or well-known varieties, each of which have particular agricultural or culinary attributes. Varieties are generally categorized into a few main groups, such as Russets, Reds, Whites, Yellows (aka Yukons), based on common characteristics. Popular varieties found in markets may include

• • • • • • • • •

Desiree Kipfler Nicola Pink Eye Pink Fir Apple Pontiac Russet Burbank Spunta Baby Potatoes

Nutrition
• Potatoes are an important source of carbohydrate.Once thought to be fattening we now know that, on the contrary,potatoes can be an excellent part of calorie controlled diet- provided, of course they are not fried in oil or mashed with too much butter. • Potatoes are also very good source of vitamin C, and during the winter potatoes are often the main source of this vitamin. They also contain potassium, iron and vitamin B.

Carrot

History of Carrots
• Until the middle ages, carrots came from holland,from where they were exported in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Although purple and white carrots continued to be eaten in france, nowadays they are something of a rarity.

Nutrition
• • • The carrot is: Low in Saturated Fat and Cholesterol High in Dietary Fiber, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin K, Potassium, Thiamin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate and Manganese The nutritional value and health benefits of carrots make them ideal for: Maintaining optimum health Weight loss Don't include too many carrots in your diet if you're interested in: Weight gain

• • • • •

Nutrition
Carrots contain large amounts of carotene and vitamin A, along with useful amounts of vitamins B3, C and E. When eaten raw they also provide good quantity of potassium, calcium, iron and zinc, but these are reduced when carrots are boiled.

Beans

History
• Being a crop of the arid regions, the origination of guar is controversial as different people have different opinions about it. The actual place of origin is not known but it is believed that it grew wildly in the hot and arid areas of Africa or the deserts of Middle East. The Arab people first domesticated guar to feed their horses with it. When the trade started flourishing in the Middle East during the silk route trading days, the traders brought with them the pods of guar wherever they went and as a result the seeds of this crop got scattered in those countries. This is how guar was introduced into India.

Production of guar in India
• India produces 600000 lakh tons of guar annually i.e. the maximum level of production in the world. It contributes to around 80% share in the world’s total production. The major producing regions of this crop in India are

Nutrition
• Beans are high in protein and carbohydrates and are also a good source of vitamins A,B1 and B2. They also provide potassium and iron as well as several other minerals.

Pumpkin

History of pumpkin
The name pumpkin originated from the Greek word for "large melon" which is "pepon." "Pepon" was nasalized by the French into "pompon." The English changed "pompon" to "Pumpion." Shakespeare referred to the "pumpion" in his Merry Wives of Windsor. American colonists changed "pumpion" into "pumpkin." The "pumpkin" is referred to in The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Peter, Peter, Pumpkin Eater and Cinderella.

Varieties of Pumpkin
• • • • • • • Acron Squashes Butternut Squashes Delicata Squashes English Pumpkins Hubbard Squashes Kabocha Squashes Onion Squashes

Nutrition
(1 cup cooked, boiled, drained, without salt)

Calories 49 Protein 2 grams Carbohydrate 12 grams Dietary Fiber 3 grams Calcium 37 mg Iron 1.4 mg Magnesium 22 mg Potassium 564 mg • Zinc 1 mg Selenium .50 mg Vitamin C 12 mg Niacin 1 mg Folate 21 mcg Vitamin A 2650 IU Vitamin E 3 mg

Corn

History of Corns
• In 1492, as christopher columbus disembarked on the island now called cuba, he was met by american indians offering two gifts of hospitalityone was tobbaco and other something the indian called mais. The english word for staple food was then corn, so that when columbus and his crew saw that maize was the staple food for Indians, it was dubbed “Indian corn”

Varieties
• There are five main varieties of corn• Popcorn, sweet corn, dent corn, flint corn and flour corn. • Dent corn is the most commonly grown worldwide, for animal feeds and oil, and the corn we eat on the cobs is sweet corn. Baby sweet corn cobs are picked when immature and are cooked and eaten whole.

Nutrition
Diet Nutrition & Corn: • Corn contains betacarotene, small amounts of B vitamins and vitamin C. It is a useful source of protein and is rich in fiber. Canned corn is less nutritious, higher in calories and usually much higher in added sodium. • Calories in Corn: 1 x 5" ear = 65 calories 1 cup cooked = 170

Cauliflower

History of cauliflower
• Cauliflower is thought to have come origanally from china and thence to the middle east. The moors introduced it to spain in the twelfth century and from there it found its way to england via established trading routes. The early cauliflower was the size of a tennis ball but they have gradually been cultivated to the enormous sizes we see today. Ironically, baby cauliflower are now fashionable.

Varieties
• Green and occasionally purple cauliflower are available in the shops. Dwarf varieties of cauliflowers are now commonly available in shops, as well as baby white cauliflower.

Nutrition
• Cauliflower contains potassium, iron and zinc, although cooking reduces the amounts. It is also a good source of vitamin A and C

Tomatoes

History of tomatoes
• Tomatoes are natives to western south america. By the time of the spanish invasions in the sixteenth century, they were widely cultivated throughout the whole of south america and mexico. Hernan Cortes, conquerer of the Aztecs, sent the first tomatoes plants, a yellow variety to spain. However, people did not instinctively take to this “golden apple”. English horticulturists mostly grew them as ornamental plants to adorn their gardens and had little positive to say about them as food. Spain is recorded as the first country to use tomatoes in cooking, stewing them with oil and seasoning. Italy followed suit, but elsewhere they were treated with suspicion.

Nutrition
• Tomatoes are high in the antioxidant vitamins betacarotene, vitamin C and vitamin E, as well as the carotenoid lycopene. This means that tomatoes are helpful in preventing heart disease and cancers. Tomatoes are also high in potassium but very low in sodium which means they help combat high blood pressure and fluid retention. Unlike some other canned foods, canned tomatoes retain most of their nutrients. In fact, cooked or canned tomatoes contain more lycopene than raw tomatoes. If buying canned tomatoes choose varieties without added sodium.

Chillies

History
• Indigenous to Central and South America and the West Indies, they have been cultivated there for thousands of years before the Spanish conquest, which eventually introduced them to the rest of the world. Mexican cooking is one of the worlds oldest cuisines, the explorers of the New World brought back the tomatoes and peppers, red hot chillis, avocados, various beans, vanilla and chocolate, these flavours were to change the flavour of Europe

Varieties

Nutrition
Chillis are: • Low in Saturated Fat, Cholesterol, and Sodium • High in Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin K, Vitamin B6, Potassium, Copper, Manganese, Dietary Fiber, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Folate, Iron, Magnesium and Phosphorus • The nutritional value and health benefits of chilli makes it ideal for: • Maintaining optimum health • Weight loss • Don't include too many chillis in your diet if you're interested in: Weight gain

Vegetable Specialities we will cook
• • • • • • Khatta meetha seetaphal Aloo methi Bhuni Arbi Arhar daal Mangaudi pullao Ghiya raita

Gatta curry
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Ingredients For gattas Bengal gram flour (besan) Ginger Fresh mint leaves Yogurt Cumin seeds Red chilli powder Turmeric powder Salt Soda-bicarbonate Garam masala powder Oil Quantity 1½ cups ½ inch piece 5-6 2 tbsps ½ tsp ½ tsp ½ tsp to taste a pinch ½ tsp to deep fry

Snacks
• Moong kishmish pakori • Mathri • Mattra (kulch)

Sweets
• Badaam halwa • Aamra • Kesari Phirni

Gatta Curry
• • • • • • • • • • • • For gravy Onions Yogurt Red chilli powder Coriander powder Turmeric powder Oil Cumin seeds Cloves Asafoetida Garam masala powder Salt 2 medium sized 1½ cups 1 tsp 2 tsps 1 tsp 2 tbsps 1 tsp 4 a pinch ½ tsp to taste

Gatta Curry
• 1. Sieve besan. Peel, wash and grate ginger. Wash and chop mint leaves. Mix all the ingredients for the gattas except oil, add a little water to make a stiff dough. Divide into six equal parts and roll into cylindrical shapes. • 2. Cook in two cups of boiling water for ten to fifteen minutes. Drain and reserve water for making gravy. Let gattas cool and cut into one-inch pieces. • 3.Heat oil in a deep frying pan and deep fry gattas to a golden brown. Drain and keep aside. • 4. For gravy, peel, wash and grate onions. Mix yogurt, red chilli powder, coriander powder, and turmeric powder. • 5.Heat oil in a pan, add cumin seeds, cloves and asafoetida. When cumin seeds begin to change colour, add grated onions and cook on high heat till onions turn pink. • 6. Add spiced yogurt and cook on low heat for five minutes. • 7. Add gattas and the reserved water. Add salt to taste. Simmer till gravy thickens. Garnish with garam masala powder and serve hot.  

Lauki ke Kofte
• • • • • • • Ingredients Bottle gourd (Lauki) Besan Salt Red chilli powder Tamarind with seeds Oil Quantity 1 kg ¼ cup to taste 1 tblspn 10-12 for deep-frying

Lauki ke Kofte
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Gravy Tomato Onion Ginger Garlic Dry red chilli Turmeric powder Coriander powder Cumin powder Garam masala powder Salt Fresh coriander leaves Oil 2 medium sized 2 medium sized two 1" knobs 6-8 cloves 6-8 ½ tsp 2 tblspns 1 tsp ½ tsp to taste a few sprigs 4 tblspn

Lauki ke Kofte
• Method of preparation:

3. Peel and grate the bottle gourd. Mix half-teaspoon salt and keep aside for fifteen minutes. Squeeze to remove excess water. Add besan, red chilli powder and mix to make dough. Divide it in to ten to twelve equal portions.   4. Stuff one-piece tamarind into each portion of this mixture. Wet your palm and shape the stuffed portion into a ball.   5. Heat oil in a kadai and deep-fry the prepared koftas, in small batches for two to three minutes or until golden brown in colour and crisp from the outside. Drain and remove onto an absorbent paper.  6. Peel and finely chop onion. Clean and remove stems from dry red chillies. Peel ginger, garlic and grind to a fine paste along with dry red chillies. 

Lauki ke Kofte
1. 2. 3. Wash and puree tomatoes in a blender. Clean, wash and finely chop fresh coriander leaves. Heat oil in a pan, add chopped onions and sauté until light golden brown. Add ginger, garlic and red chilli paste, stir-fry briefly. Add turmeric powder, coriander powder, cumin powder and red chilli powder. Continue to cook on medium heat for one minute, stirring continuously Stir in tomato puree and cook on high heat, stirring continuously till oil begins to separate. Add two cups of water and bring it to a boil. Add salt, reduce heat and simmer for five minutes. Gently add the fried koftas and simmer for another three to four minutes. Sprinkle garam masala powder and serve garnished with chopped fresh coriander leaves.

4.

5. 6.

Kaddu ki Subzi
• • • • • • • • • • • • Ingredients Red pumpkin Oil Methi seeds Green chillies, chopped Red chilli powder Turmeric powder Coriander powder Salt Sugar Lemon Coriander leaves, chopped Quantity 500 gms. 1 tbsp. 1 tsp. 2 1 tsp. ½ tsp. 2 tsps. to taste 1 tsp. 1 1 tbsp.

Kaddu ki Subzi
• Method of preparation • 1.Peel pumpkin and cut into 1” pieces. • 2. Heat oil. Add methi seeds, chopped green chillies, pumpkin pieces and stir. • 3. Add turmeric powder, red chilli powder and coriander powder and sauté. Add water, salt and bring to a boil. Reduce the heat, cover and cook till done. • 4. Mash the pumpkin pieces, add sugar and lemon juice. Mix well. Serve hot garnished with chopped coriander leaves

Bharwan Mirch
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ingredients Green chillies (Bhavnagri) Salt Oil Asafoetida Mustard seeds Turmeric powder Coconut (scraped) Red chilli powder Aniseed powder Cumin powder Coriander powder Raw mango (grated) Fresh coriander leaves (finely chopped) Quantity 8 large sized to taste 5 tbsps a pinch ½ tsp 1 tsp 2 cups 1 tsp ½ tsp ¼ tsp ¼ tsp 1 small sized a few sprigs

Bharwan Mirch
Method of preparation • • • • • • • • 1. Slit green chillies and deseed. Apply a little salt and keep aside for thirty minutes. Wash and drain well. 2. Heat two tablespoons of oil and temper with asafoetida, mustard seeds and turmeric powder. 3. Add coconut and sauté till lightly coloured. 4. Add red chilli powder, aniseed powder, cumin powder, coriander powder and raw mango. Sauté till well mixed and dry. 5. Add salt and chopped coriander leaves. Remove from heat and set aside. 6. Stuff mixture into chillies and keep aside. 7. Heat remaining oil in a shallow pan. Place chillies, cover and cook for five minutes. 8. Remove and serve hot.

Bhutte ka Shahi Kees
Ingredients • Grated corn • Onion • Green chillies • Ginger • Fennel • Jeera • Red chilli powder • Turmeric powder • Milk • Ghee • Lemon • Sugar • Coconut (finely sliced) • Badam, raisin, cashew nut • Green coriander • Mawa • Salt Quantity 500 gm 250 gm 8-10 2 inch 1 tsp 1 tsp 1 tsp 1 tsp 1 litre 250 gms 1 1 tsp. ½ cup 1 cup 1 cup 100 gms to taste

Bhutte ka Shahi Kees
• • • Method of preparation: 1. Heat ghee in a non-stick kadai, add the coconut chips sauté till golden brown and remove and keep aside. 2. Add jeera and fennel in the same kadai when crackled, add chopped onion and saute till translucent, add chopped green chillies, chopped ginger, red chilli powder, turmeric powder and sauté. 3. Add salt, add grated corn and sauté. 4. Add milk and cook till the all the milk has evaporated. 5. Add grated mawa, mix well, cover and cook for 5 minutes. 6. Add sugar and lemon juice and mix well. Remove from heat and mix in the dry fruits. 7. Remove in a plate serve garnished with coconut chips and chopped green coriander.

• • • • •

Gobhi Shalgham ka Achar
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ingredients Carrots (gajar) Cauliflower (gobhi) Turnips (shalgam) Ginger Garlic Mustard Cumin seeds Peppercorns Cinnamon Cloves Black cardamoms Mustard oil Red chilli powder (deghi mirch) Jaggery Vinegar Salt Quantity 1 kg. 1 kg. 1 kg. 250 gms. 100 gms. 100 gms. ½ tbsp. 20 2 one inch pieces 10 2. 250 – 300 gms. 2 tsps 400 gms. 1 cup 200 gms

Gobhi Shalgam ka Achar
• • • • Method of preparation 1. Peel, wash and cut the carrots into quarters lengthwise. Further cut them into one and a half inch sized pieces. 2. Wash the cauliflower thoroughly and separate into mediums sized florets. 3. Peel, wash and cut the turnips into quarters lengthwise. Further cut them into one and a half inch sized pieces. Blanch all the vegetables in boiling water for five minutes. Drain and dry thoroughly. 4. Peel, wash and crush ginger and garlic. Coarsely grind mustard, peppercorns, cumin seeds, cinnamon, cloves and black cardamoms. 5. Heat oil to boiling point. Cool for a while. Heat again and add crushed gingergarlic and saute till brown. Add the coarsely ground spice powder, red chilli powder and salt. Take off the heat and add jaggery and vinegar. Keep covered for five minutes. 6. Add the blanched vegetables and mix well. When completely cooled store in sterilised bottles.

• •

Moong Dal Halwa
• • • • • • • • Ingredients Green gram split (moong dal) Sugar Saffron Milk Ghee Khoya/mawa (crumbled) Almonds (blanche & slivered) Quantity 1 cup 1 cup pinch ½ cup 1 cup ¾ cup 10-12

Moong Dal Halwa
• • • • 1.Wash and soak moong dal for six hours. Grind it coarsely using very little water. 2.Prepare one-string sugar syrup with sugar and one and half cups of water. 3.Soak saffron in hot milk. 4.Heat ghee in a thick-bottomed pan and add the ground moong dal. Keep stirring over low heat till the dal turns golden brown. 5.Add the sugar syrup and saffron milk. Stir till they are thoroughly incorporated and the halwa is of dropping consistency. Add mawa and cook till it dissolves. 6.Serve hot garnished with almond slivers.

Gulab Jamun
• • • • • • • • Ingredients Khoya (mawa) Chenna (paneer) Soda bicarbonate Refined flour (maida) Green cardamom powder Sugar Ghee/oil Quantity 1½ cups ¼ cup ¼ tsp 3 tbsps ¼ tsp 2 cups to deep fry

Gulab Jamun
• • • • • • • Method of preparation 1.Grate khoya and mash chenna and keep aside. 2.Mix the two along with soda bicarbonate, refined flour, green cardamom powder and a little water to make a soft dough. 3.Divide into sixteen equal portions and shape into balls. 4.Prepare a sugar syrup with sugar and two cups of water. Clear the syrup by removing the scum, if any. 5.Heat ghee/oil in a kadai. Add the balls and deep fry on low heat till golden in colour. 6.Drain and soak in the sugar syrup for atleast fifteen to twenty minutes before serving.

Phirni
• • • • • • • Ingredients Rice Milk Pistachios Saffron Sugar Green cardamom powder Quantity 5 tbsps 5 cups 10-15 8-10 strands ¾ cup ½ tsp

Phirni
• • • • • • • Method of preparation 1.Pick, wash and soak rice for half an hour in two cups of water. Drain and grind to a coarse paste. 2.Blanch pistachios in half a cup of hot water for five minutes. Drain, cool, remove skin and slice. 3.Bring milk to a boil. Add rice paste dissolved in a little water or cold milk. Cook till rice is completely cooked. Stir constantly. Add saffron and mix well. 4.Add sugar, cardamom powder and cook till sugar is completely dissolved. 5.Pour into earthenware or china bowls and garnish with sliced pistachios. 6.Chill in a refrigerator for an hour before serving.

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