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Chapter 6

Database Design

Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and


Management, Fifth Edition, Rob and Coronel
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In this chapter, you will learn:


• That successful database design must reflect the
information system of which the database is a part
• That successful information systems are subject to
frequent evaluation and revision within a framework
known as the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
• That, within the information system, the most successful
databases are subject to frequent evaluation and
revision within a framework known as the Database Life
Cycle (DBLC)
• How to conduct evaluation and revision within the SDLC
and DBLC frameworks
• What database design strategies exist: top-down vs.
bottom-up design and centralized vs. decentralized
design
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Changing Data into Information


• Data
– Raw facts stored in databases
– Need additional processing to become useful
• Information
– Required by decision maker
– Data processed and presented in a meaningful
form
– Transformation

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The Information System
• Database
– Carefully designed and constructed repository of
facts
– Part of an information system
• Information System
– Provides data collection, storage, and retrieval
– Facilitates data transformation
– Components include:
• People
• Hardware
• Software
–Database(s)
–Application programs
–Procedures

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The Information System (Con’t.)


• System Analysis
– Establishes need and extent of an information
system
• Systems development
– Process of creating information system
• Database development
– Process of database design and implementation
– Creation of database models
– Implementation
• Creating storage structure
• Loading data into database
• Providing for data management
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Systems Development Life Cycle

Figure 6.2

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Database Lifecycle (DBLC)

Figure 6.3

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Phase 1: Database Initial Study


• Purposes
– Analyze company situation
• Operating environment
• Organizational structure
– Define problems and constraints
– Define objectives
– Define scope and boundaries

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Initial Study Activities


Figure 6.4

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Phase 2: Database Design


• Most Critical DBLC phase
• Makes sure final product meets requirements
• Focus on data requirements
• Subphases
– Create conceptual design
– DBMS software selection
– Create logical design
– Create physical design

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Two Views of Data

Figure 6.5

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I. Conceptual Design
• Data modeling creates abstract data structure to
represent real-world items
• High level of abstraction
• Four steps
– Data analysis and requirements
– Entity relationship modeling and normalization
– Data model verification
– Distributed database design

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Data analysis and Requirements


• Focus on:
– Information needs
– Information users
– Information sources
– Information constitution
• Data sources
– Developing and gathering end-user data views
– Direct observation of current system
– Interfacing with systems design group
• Business rules
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Entity Relationship
Modeling and Normalization

Table 6.2

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E-R Modeling is Iterative

Figure 6.8

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Concept Design: Tools and Sources

Figure 6.9

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Data Model Verification


• E-R model is verified against proposed system
processes
– End user views and required transactions
– Access paths, security, concurrency control
– Business-imposed data requirements and
constraints
• Reveals additional entity and attribute details
• Define major components as modules
– Cohesivity
– Coupling

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E-R Model Verification Process

Table 6.4

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Iterative Process of Verification

Figure 6.10

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Distributed Database Design


• Design portions in different physical locations
• Development of data distribution and allocation
strategies

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II. DBMS Software Selection


• DBMS software selection is critical
• Advantages and disadvantages need study
• Factors affecting purchasing decision
– Cost
– DBMS features and tools
– Underlying model
– Portability
– DBMS hardware requirements

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III. Logical Design


• Translates conceptual design into internal model
• Maps objects in model to specific DBMS
constructs
• Design components
– Tables
– Indexes
– Views
– Transactions
– Access authorities
– Others
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IV. Physical Design


• Selection of data storage and access
characteristics
– Very technical
– More important in older hierarchical and network
models
• Becomes more complex for distributed systems
• Designers favor software that hides physical
details

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Physical Organization

Figure 6.12
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Phase 3: Implementation and Loading


• Creation of special storage-related constructs
to house end-user tables
• Data loaded into tables
• Other issues
– Performance
– Security
– Backup and recovery
– Integrity
– Company standards
– Concurrency controls
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Phase 4: Testing and Evaluation


• Database is tested and fine-tuned for
performance, integrity, concurrent access, and
security constraints
• Done in parallel with application programming
• Actions taken if tests fail
– Fine-tuning based on reference manuals
– Modification of physical design
– Modification of logical design
– Upgrade or change DBMS software or hardware

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Phase 5: Operation
• Database considered operational
• Starts process of system evaluation
• Unforeseen problems may surface
• Demand for change is constant

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Phase 6: Maintenance and Evaluation


• Preventative maintenance
• Corrective maintenance
• Adaptive maintenance
• Assignment of access permissions
• Generation of database access statistics to
monitor performance
• Periodic security audits based on system-
generated statistics
• Periodic system usage-summaries

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DB Design Strategy Notes


• Top-down
– 1) Identify data sets
– 2) Define data elements
• Bottom-up
– 1) Identify data elements
– 2) Group them into data sets

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Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up

Figure 6.14

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Centralized vs. Decentralized Design


• Centralized design
– Typical of simple databases
– Conducted by single person or small team
• Decentralized design
– Larger numbers of entities and complex relations
– Spread across multiple sites
– Developed by teams

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Decentralized Design

Figure 6.16

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