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PIPERACKS – SPACING 1 On completion of the routing diagram, the pipe-rack width/tier ration at selected line density

location can be determined by either: Using the formula W = 0.50 N / T Where W = Approx Width in m for the rack N = Number of lines, at prelim. Stage T = Number of rack levels / tiers contemplated The above formula allows for the following when rack lines are an average of 6” size. - Average spacing of lines = 300mm - 25% Increase in number of lines, re-sizing of lines. - 25% of rack width for future lines. - Space for E / I cable trays.
For example: Number of lines = 24 Number of level = 2 W = 0.50 x 24 / 2 = 12m / 2 levels = 6000mm wide pipe-rack The rack width determined by this formula should be confirmed by detailed pipe-rack studies.

1 PR-01

Large bore cooling water lines on bottom level (at rack edge) as most users will be at grade. Group steam and condensate lines on top tier with largest and hottest at rack edge. Branches should connect to the top of headers containing a gas or vapor and to the bottom of headers containing liquids. 3. Lines have been placed in the preferred location conforming to the following: 1. 2. Check for possibility of running these lines underground. 4. Small bore utility and instrument lines top level centre. Largest and heaviest lines to the outside. As a general guide. Utility headers will normally run on the top level. 1 PR-02 . 6 Equipment elevation and line destination will sometimes dictate the rack elevation. short distance process lines will occupy the middle and top levels. 5. Careful consideration should be given to the economic routing and flexibility of exotic material lines.PIPERACKS – LOCATION OF LINES A cross section of a typical three (3) level piperack is shown on the left side. Rack take-offs and changes in direction of headers will generally be executed by a change of elevation except for safety valve headers which must maintain a gradual slope to the knock-out drum. Large lines which are located near the edge of the pipe-rack can flat turn out of the rack to save fittings.

10. In general. Lines to be spaced according to line spacing chart. Side steel beams will only be added as needed for the support of piping. Indicate on pipe rack studies that double random length pipe is preferred and this should be noted on the final piping drawings.PIPERACKS – LOCATION OF LINES (Cont’d) 7.: instrument. 8. Position of lines may depend on location of utility and process lines entering or leaving battery limits. lines with orifice flanges should be located at the outside of the pipe racks with these local to a structural column for ladder access. 11. 9. See Design Guide. Different types of cables e. 13. Group lines with cold insulation together and locate as remote as possible from lines with hot insulation. 1 PR-03 . Where possible. Consult E / I group for an estimated size of the cable trays and preferred position. require a definite separation distance. lines that enter and leave the pipe rack from above the top level are positioned on top level and lines that enter and leave the pipe rack from below the level are positioned on lower level.g. high voltage. 14. 12. Cables trays are preferably located on the top pipe-rack level. Structural tie-beam or longitudinal will be used for supporting line take-offs.

1 PR-04 .PIPERACKS – FLARE HEADER • Locate Flare header at the edge of the rack to accommodate any flat expansion loops that may be required. • Locate Flare header to allow for safety valves and discharge piping to be positioned above it without pockets and into the top of the header.

2.PIPERACKS – FLARE HEADER 1. This requirement to be advised by the process/system department. Connections into the header can be laterally at 450 if pressure drop is critical within the system. 1 PR-05 .

Figure 3 Figure 4 1 PR-06 . Line temperatures and insulation thickness if known. Note that provision should be made for drip legs on inlet side of steam header loops. 3. process or utility. Expansion loop “nests” should be located by the Piping Designer relative to the assumed location of anchors. should be indicated on lines as an assist to the Stress Engineer. 2. 4. Figure 2 indicates typical steam/condensate loop arrangement. Lines spacing should be checked for expansion clearance at changes of direction. See Figure 4. All branch lines that join headers in the rack should be checked for adequate flexibility relative to the thermal movement of the headers. 5. See Figure 3. Provide adequate support for loops.Figure 1 Figure 2 PIPERACKS – PIPING FLEXIBILITY 1. The loops will generally rise to the established take-off level. Preliminary flexibility analysis takes place during the early stages of the pipe rack development. Lines of extreme temperature hot or cold. which travel long distances on the rack must be examined for adequate flexibility and clearances with adjacent lines. See Figure 1.

Where lines cross the battery limit at grade. valves will be located as indicated in Figure 2. The walkway will be elevated to clear the largest anticipated line and located to suit the largest valve. Valves will be staggered on either side of walkway and be provided with extension stems as required. Battery limit line locations are normally an early priority. FIGURE 1 SINGLE LEVEL PIPE RACK AT BATTERY LIMIT 4. See P&I D diagrams for extent of valving. 2.PIPERACKS – BATTERY LIMITS 1. BATTERY LIMIT Lines crossing battery limits will normally be valved requiring platform access. BATTERY LIMIT SECTION „X – X‟ FIGURE 2 GRADE BATTERY LIMIT 1 PR-07 . Figure 1 shows a typical single level pipe rack where the elevation is to be maintained across the battery limit. 3.

Figure 1 shows a two level level pipe rack with the Battery Limit valves accessible from a single platform.BATTERY LIMIT FIGURE 1 TOP LEVEL PIPE RACK (SINGLE WALKWAY) PIPERACKS – BATTERY LIMITS (Continued) 5. 1 PR-08 .