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You are on page 1of 15

**Theory and Engineering Applications
**

• Stationary discrete wavelet transform

• Two-dimensional wavelet transform

• 2D-DWT using MATLAB

• Implementation issues

• Image compressing using 2D-DWT

Stationary Wavelet Transfporm

(SWT)

DWT is not time invariant… Not Good !

What makes DWT time varying? Decimation (down sampling)

DWT can be made time invariant, however, the transform must be

redundant!!!

Stationary wavelet transform

c-decimated DWT

c-decimated DWT???

At any given level you can have two different DWT, due to

choice in discarding even or odd indexed elements during

subsampling

At J levels, you can have N=2

J

different DWTs. The particular

DWT chosen can be denoted by c=[c

1

c

2

… c

N

], c

j

=1, if odd

indexed elements are chosen, c

j

=0, if even indexed elements are

chosen

SWT

SWT is defined as the average of all c-decimated DWTs

For 6 level DWT64 DWTs

For 10 level DWT 1024 DWTs

….

An efficient algorithm:

H

j

G

j

cA

j

=a(j,n)

cA

j+1

=a(j+1,n)

cD

j+1

=d(j+1,n)

where

2

H

j

H

j-1

2

G

j

G

j-1

Note: No subsampling is involved!!!.

SWT

Does it work…? MATLAB DEMO

Applications of SWT

Denoising… denoising…denoising

MATLAB demo: noisy doppler & noisy quadchirp

Interval dependent thresholds

1D-DWT2D-DWT

Recall fundamental concepts of 1D-DWT

Provides time-scale (frequency) representation of non-stationary signals

Based on multiresolution approximation (MRA)

Approximate a function at various resolutions using a scaling function, |(t)

Keep track of details lost using wavelet functions, ¢(t)

Reconstruct the original signal by adding approximation and detail coeff.

Implemented by using a series of lowpass and highpass filters

Lowpass filters are associated with the scaling function and provide

approximation

Highpass filters are associated with the wavelet function and provide detail

lost in approximating the signal

2-D DWT

How do we generalize these concepts to 2D?

2D functions images f(x,y) I[m,n] intensity function

What does it mean to take 2D-DWT of an image? How do we

interpret?

How can we represent an image as a function?

How do we define low frequency / high frequency in an image?

How to we compute it?

Why would we want to take 2D-DWT of an image anyway?

Compression

Denoising

Feature extraction

2D Scaling/Wavelet Functions

We start by defining a two-dimensional scaling and

wavelet functions:

If |(t) is orthogonal to its own translates,

is also orthogonal to its own translates. Then, if f

o

(x,y) is

the projection of f(x,y) on the space V

o

generated by

s

||

(x,y):

) ( ) ( ) , ( y x y x s | |

||

· =

{ } Z l k l y k x s e ÷ ÷ , : ) , (

||

> ÷ ÷ =<

÷ ÷ · =

¿ ¿

·

÷· =

·

÷· =

) , ( ), , ( ) , (

) , ( ) , ( ) , (

j y i x s y x f j i a

j y i x s j i a y x f

o

i j

o o

||

||

) ( ) ( ) , ( y x y x s ¢ ¢

¢¢

· =

2D-DWT

Just like in 1D we generated an approximation of the 2D function

f(x,y). Now, how do we compute the detail lost in approximating

this function?

Unlike 1D case there will be three functions representing the

details lost:

Details lost along the horizontal direction

Details lost along the vertical direction

Details lost along the diagonal direction

1D Two sets of coeff.; a(k,n) & d (k,n)

2D Four sets of coefficients: a(k,n), b(k, n), c(k, n) & d(k,n)

Four Faces of 2D-DWT

One level of 2D DWT reconstruction:

(

) ) ( ) ( ) , (

) ( ) ( ) , (

) ( ) ( ) , (

) ( ) ( ) , ( ) , (

1

n x n x p n d

n x n x p n c

n x n x p n b

n x n x p n a y x f

o

o

o

n p

o

÷ · ÷ · +

÷ · ÷ · +

÷ · ÷ · +

÷ · ÷ · =

¿ ¿

·

÷· =

·

÷· =

÷

¢ ¢

| ¢

¢ |

| |

Approximation coefficients

Detail coefficients along

the horizontal direction

Detail coefficients along

the vertical direction

Detail coefficients along

the diagonal direction

Implementation of 2D-DWT

INPUT

IMAGE

R

O

W

S

COLUMNS

H

~

2 1

G

~

2 1

H

~

1 2

G

~

1 2

H

~

1 2

G

~

1 2

ROWS

ROWS

COLUMNS

COLUMNS

COLUMNS

LL

LH

HL

HH

) (

1

h

k

D

+

) (

1

v

k

D

+

) (

1

d

k

D

+

1 + k

A

INPUT

IMAGE

LL

LH

HL

HH

LL

LH

HL

HH

LHH

LLH

LHL

LLL

LH

HL

HH

LHH

LLH

LHL

Up and Down … Up and Down

2 1

Downsample columns along the rows: For each row, keep the

even indexed columns, discard the odd indexed columns

1 2

Downsample columns along the rows: For each column, keep the

even indexed rows, discard the odd indexed rows

2 1

1 2

Upsample columns along the rows: For each row, insert zeros at

between every other sample (column)

Upsample rows along the columns: For each column, insert zeros

at between every other sample (row)

Implementing 2D-DWT

Decomposition

ROW i

C

O

L

U

M

N

j

Reconstruction

) (

1

h

k

D

+

) (

1

v

k

D

+

) (

1

d

k

D

+

1 + k

A

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

H

G

H

G

2 1

2 1

H

G

ORIGINAL

IMAGE

LL

LH

HL

HH

2-D DWT ON MATLAB

Load

Image

(must be

.mat file)

Choose

wavelet type

Hit

Analyze

Choose

display

options

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