Introduction Purpose of Study Methodology

Findings Conclusion and Recommendation Overall Critique

2012. pp.INTRODUCTION Title : Workplace Bullying and Organizational Culture in a PostTransitional Country.754-768. University of Tartu. Tartu. Estonia) Comments : The title are clearly state and it suitable to do research at Estonia since workplace bullying has not been explored in post-transitional country. Tallinn University of Technology. No. Vol. Emerald Group Publishing Limited Merle Tamblur (School of Economics and Business Administration.33. . International Journal of Manpower. Estonia Maaja Vadi (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.7. Tallinn.

This used to distinguish the period of post-communist transition in Eastern Europe until the beginning of this century from latest development. one of Baltic countries as former Soviet States has undertaken farreaching transition reforms cultural. NATO and Euro zone membership. The fate of Estonia. when most of the countries region became full members of the EU but are still experiencing the effects of transition.2010) . Development in Estonia : transitional (post-Soviet 2004) and post-transitional (sign : European Union (EU). individual. (Tchalakov et al. institutional and society level during last decades.HISTORY The political decisions made in the last century. which has been disrupted in Second World War.

in the post-transitional countries in Europe.PURPOSE OF STUDY • Workplace bullying has rapidly become an internationally widespread field of study. . workplace bullying has not been explored up to now leading to a lack of relative awareness in these countries. • However.

Another objective is to produce comprehensive empirical evidence of bullying in the specific cultural context.PURPOSE OF STUDY The aim of the study is to explore how organizational culture influences occurrences of workplace bullying in Estonia as a posttransitional country. .

1997). involving unconscious parts of organizational life and it covers all of an organization’s functions (Schein. offence and distress. which may be done deliberately or unconsciously. 1992). . and they may interfere with job performance and/or cause an unpleasant work environment” (Einarsen and Raknes. but clearly cause humiliation. which are unwanted by the victim.DEFINITION • Workplace bullying is defined as “all repeated actions and practices that are directed to one or more workers. Workplace Bullying Organizational Culture • Organizational culture is a complex of several elements.

METHODOLOGY The focus survey is for employee across Estonia The sample consisted of 35. The survey is based on internationally well-known research instrument.2001) And the Questionnaire of Organizational Culture (QOC). which represents 30.000 employees.4% man and 64. (Vadi et. Al) . the Negative Act Questionnaire Revised (NAQ-R). (Mikkelsen & Enarsen.6% woman as the Unit of Analysis The total number of valid questionnaires that were returned was 1748 from 59 organizations.

workrelated bullying and physical intimidation actions. . Vadi et al. The questionnaire of organizational culture (QOC.. the content and meaning of the questions were not changed. The advantage of this measurement tool consists of broad scales which are conceptually related to the factor structure of NAQ-R. The results confirmed that the negative acts presented in the NAQ-R method are understandable to the respondents and therefore it was reasonable to continue using the measurement tool in Estonia.METHODOLOGY NAQ-R The English version of the NAQ-R questionnaire was translated into Estonian and Russian. 2009). 2002) was used to measure the organizational culture of task and relationship orientation. An eligible scale for measuring direct and indirect bulling and consists of personal-related bullying. Before the present research a pilot study was undertaken to test the instrument (Tambur and Vadi.

One specific feature can be outlined here – the organizational goals had to be in accordance with the state’s goals (Lazarev and Gregory. where the ideological criteria often dominate economic aspects.DISCUSSION Organizational Culture in Post-Transitional Country Could not remain untouched by the rapid democratization of politics and modernization of the economic system in the Soviet period and the early 1990s Organizational cultures of the Soviet period can be characterized by general tendencies where formal ideology allowed and facilitated behavior patterns in the organizations Planned economy mixed up organizational goals and tasks because it was based on an exaggeration of results and irrational feedback. 2002) .

. 2000) A decrease in well-being and increasing occurrence of bullying leads to more frequent sickness absence. workplace bullying has not been explored up to now leading to a lack of relative awareness . which is closely related to a loss of productivity .DISCUSSION Workplace Bullying Workplace Bullying In Estonia. The occurrence of bullying in the workplace almost doubles the risk of being in the group with a high incidence of sickness (Kivima¨ki et al.

a hostile. 1994.. bad communication and organizational climate (Vartia. ●deficiencies in leadership behavior... 2007. O’Moore et al. 1996) and tyrannical and laissezfaire leadership behavior (Hauge et al. 1994. Einarsen et al. ●the victim’s socially exposed position and low departmental morale.DISCUSSION Workplace Bullying&& Organizational Culture Culture Workplace Bullying Organizational A person’s aggressive behavior may cause bullying because a miserable or a worried worker may not meet expectations and may annoy the other workers... Hoel et al. 1993). 2010). stressful and unethical work environment (Einarsen et al.. 1996). Vartia. 1996.. Organizational Individual . Leymann (1996) has found that basic risk factors of bullying lie in an organization’s work environment: ●deficiencies in work-design. 1996. 2007. 2003). Hauge et al. (Felson and Tedeschi. Different studies associate the reasons of bullying with poor conflict management (Leymann. Zapf et al.

. changes in the organizational life – understanding of goals and relationships. emphasize the following Characteristics in Estonia:     tensions and fear induced by rapid changes and uncertainty.DISCUSSION From the perspective of employees’ well-being. underdeveloped regulations of work relationships and according everyday practices. and opened and vulnerable economic and social life. greatly influenced by the global trends.

.FINDINGS  The findings of this study provide significant support for the argument that self labelling of workplace bullying was much lower and revealed different results from negative acts presented indirectly in the questionnaire. The same tendency has appeared in other countries too (Lutgen-Sandvik et al. . 2007. Salin. 2001).

excessive monitoring and incorrect tasks.FINDINGS The results reveal that workplace bullying is the result of on going changes in the organizational life. The negative acts that the largest number of respondents reported to have experienced weekly or frequently were all related to work or performing work tasks: unmanageable workload. poor flow of information. creating vagueness and uncertainty. .

And finally.5 percent).8 percent).FINDINGS The negative acts which most of the respondents experienced at least once a week. were the following:     Being exposed to an unmanageable workload (7. Someone withholding information which affects your performance (6.2 percent).9 percent). . Excessive monitoring of your work (4. being ordered to do work below your level of competence (4.

but the results demonstrate that the task orientation is even more important in Estonia. . The negative acts are more related to interpersonal relations inside the organization than attitudes toward organizational tasks. The negative relationship between bullying and organizational culture indicates that the strong orientation to tasks and relations in organizational culture will lead to a decreasing risk of bullying.and relationship oriented organizational culture.FINDINGS The results reveal a clear negative link between bullying and task.

sectioned. .COMMENT : The findings were well organized. The structure due to the difficulty of the statistical tests with evidence. and reported objectively. would not stand alone to the average reader.

. Estonia) should be prepared.RECOMMENDATION : Altogether. and  The present study encourages the discussion and further studies of workplace bullying in post-transitional countries. the results of the study support the following recommendations to prevent and manage workplace bullying in Estonia:  Relevant legal acts currently non-existent in many post-transitional countries (i.  Training for managers is needed for managing bullying by organizational culture. Comments : Good recommendation because this study because it have more than one aspects to be considered.e.  A social marketing campaign about the nature of workplace bullying and preventive activities will help to raise awareness of the issue.  Preventive programs at organizational and national level should be developed .

CONCLUSION : I agree with the researcher that have it clear negative between bullying and task and relationshiporiented organizational culture Bullying is more related to the organizational task than the interpersonal relationships .

The research did get a little complicated in the reporting of data due to the complicated statistical procedures used. significant contribution to the field of research. Researcher should use updated sources as for future research. particularly for a research paper.OVERALL CRITIQUE : This was a very in-depth research project. it was a very interesting. There was a definite need for a short review of literature to develop the situation. For the most part. Overall. . it was well written and well organized..