Carbon dioxide

Hasritha . R VIII (IIT)
Ravindra Bharathi School, Guntur

.03%).INTRODUCTION  Carbon dioxide. sharp odor and a sour taste. (CO2). CO2 is formed by combustion of carbon-containing materials. is a colorless gas having a faint. in fermentation. and in respiration of animals.  Carbon dioxide is utilized by plants in the photosynthesis of carbohydrates.  Structure: Composed of two oxygen atoms each covalently bonded to a single carbon atom.   It is a minor component of Earth’s atmosphere (0.

HISTORY OF CO2 Van Helmont discovered CO2 in 1630 Joseph Black a Scottish physician and chemist prepared CO2 by heating Calcium carbonate in 1775 Lavoisier named acid carbonique which was later called as Carbon dioxide in 1783 van Helmont Joseph Black Lavoisier .

Combustion of Organic compounds: Methyl alcohol burns in oxygen to give CO2 Some CO2 is obtained from the combustion of coke or other carboncontaining fuels. By Burning Coke: Preparation of CO2 C(coke) + O2(g) → CO2 (g) 2. water and CO2 .General methods: 1. By the action of dilute mineral acids on carbonates and bicarbonates: All Carbonates except (Na and K) and bicarbonates decompose on heating liberating carbon dioxide. By strongly heating metal carbonates or bicarbonates: 2 NaHCO3(s) → Na2CO3(s)+ H2O (l)+ CO2 (g) 4. 2CH3OH + O2 → 2 CO2 + 4 H2O 3. Na2CO3 (s) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq)+ H2O+C02 (g) Carbonates or Bicorbonates of metals are treated with dilute mineral acids they react without heating to form metal salts.

dil HCl is added slowly drop wise using thistle funnel. . Reaction takes place with evolving of effervescence. CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O +CO2(g) The dry CO2 is collected by upward displacement.Laboratory Method: Reactants: Marble chips( Calcium carbonate). Dil HCl acid Procedure: Marble chips are taken in a conical flask.

5 times heavier than air) • Nature: Acidic .1 • Odor: Odourless • Colour: Color less gas • Melting point : --78 °C • Boiling point : -57 °C CO2 (gas) Dry Ice • Solubility: Soluble in Water • Density: 22 ( 1.Physical Properties of CO2 • Name: Carbon dioxide • Chemical formula : CO2 • Other Names : Carbonic acid gas. Carbon oxide. Carbonic anhydride. Carbonic oxide. Dry ice (solid phase) • Molecular weight : 44.

2 NaOH + CO2 (less) → Na2CO3+ H20 KOH+ CO (excess) → KHCo . KOH) Caustic alkalis react with limited and excess supply of Co2 to form their respective carbonates. Combustibility: Metals like Na or Mg burn in CO2 ∆ CO2+ Mg → 2 MgO+ C 2. water and bicarbonates.Chemical Properties 1. Acidic in Nature a) With water CO2 dissolves in H20 and forms Carbonic acid CO2(g) + H2O → H2CO3 b) With dil Caustic Alkalis (NaOH.

C) Action on lime water: Limited amount of CO2 is passed through lime water it turns milky due to insoluble CaCO3 Ca(OH)2+CO2 → CaCO3+H2O (milky) Upon excess addition of CO2 to the above it become clear solution CaCO3+H2O+CO2 → Ca(HCO3)2 (clear) .

Action with Metals: a) Burning Na. Al continue burning in CO2 to form their bicarbonates and free carbon. K. Ca in CO2 to form oxides. These oxides further react with CO2 to form their carbonates and free. 2NH3(g) + CO2(g) → (NH2)2CO(s) + H2O 3. 2NH4OH + CO2(g) → (NH4)2CO3(s) + H2O e) Action with dry Ammonia gas: 2 volumes of dry Ammonia and 1volume of dry CO2 react to form urea (NH2)2CO. Carbon 4Na + CO2 → Na2O + C + CO2 → Na2CO3 +C b) Mg.d) Action with Ammonium Hydroxide: CO2 reacts with NH4OH to form Ammonium carbonate and water. 2Mg + CO2 → 2MgO + C .

4. Sun light 6CO2+ 12H20 → Chlorophyll C6H12O6+ 6O2+ 6H2O Glucose . Photosynthesis: Formation of carbohydrates from CO2 and H20 in green plants in the presence of sunlight is called Photosynthesis. Action with Non-metals The only non-metal carbon reacts with CO2 it is reduced to CO ∆ CO2 (g) + C → 2CO 5.

As a refrigerating agent. washing and baking soda. Mixture of 5%CO2 and 95%O2 called Carbogen is used in treatment of Shock. To prepare chemicals like urea. Pneumonia and Co Poisoning .USES: To prepare soft drinks and soda. To preserve food. Used in welding to control corrosion. In fire extinguishers.

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