Design, Stress Analysis and Detailing

CODES & STANDARDS

PIPING
• Codes, Standards & Regulations
– – – – – ASME DIN TRD BS IBR

• Codes and Standards: • Several groups have written codes and standards for materials, inspection, design, stress analysis, fabrication, heat treatment, welding and construction of pipes and piping components. Regulations, practices, rules and laws are also available for use of piping. Certain aspects are mandatory and certain aspects are recommendatory. The commonly used American Codes and Standards on piping are given below:

.Building Services Piping .8 ASME B31.3 ASME B31.1 ASME B31.Slurry Transportation Piping Systems.4 ASME B31.5 ASME B31. 4.Refrigeration Piping . 7. ASME B31. .11 - Power Piping Fuel Gas Piping Process Piping Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and other Liquids. 5. 8.2 ASME B31. 3. 2.Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems . 6.• • • • • • • • • • 1.9 ASME B31.

Material property • 3. safety and uniform economy are obtained. Loads • 5. Stress intensification factors • 8.• Through the use of codes and standards. Flexibility factors • 9. Flexibility analysis. Factors safety • 2. The codes and standards primarily cover the following aspects: • 1. Thickness calculation • 4. Stress limits • 7. . Supports • 10. Load combinations • 6.

The codes and standards are not textbooks.• Even though the use of codes and standards is not a legal requirement the same becomes a legal requirement in a contractual situation. Know how . of certain kind of boilers. The Indian Boiler Regulations. 1950 (IBR) is binding on the Indian Boiler-makers and Boiler-users. Know what • 2. Certain regulations are legally binding. They do not cover the theory. They provide answers to the following aspects: • 1. The codes and standards do not cover all aspects of the piping.

The “Know why” is learned by study. Applicable code and standards • 3. Use of new fabrication and inspection methods. a knowledge of “Know what” and “Know how” is sufficient to solve the problems. In most of the situations. .• The “Know why” is not covered by the codes and standards. Evaluation of the deviations • 4. experimentation. application and experience. Material selection • 2. A knowledge of “Know why” will help in handling the following situations: • 1.

• • • • • • • • •

Codes and Standards: The following codes and standards are referred: 1.ASME-I : Rules for Construction of Power Boilers 2.ASME B31.1-1998 : Power Piping 3.ASME B16.5-1996 :Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings – NPS ½ through 24. 4.IS 1239 (Part-I)-1990 :Mild Steel Tubes, Tubular and other Wrought Steel Fittings - Mild Steel Tubes 5.IS 1239 (Part-II)-1992 :Mild Steel Tubes, Tubular and other Wrought Steel Fittings – Steel Pipe Fittings

• Nominal Pipe Size (NPS): • The Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) in an ASME method of indicating the approximate outside diameter of the connected pipe in inches. Note that the unit (inch) is not followed after the designation. • Class of Fittings: • The class of fittings is an ASME method of indicating the pressure carrying capacity of the fittings.

• Schedule of Pipes: • The schedule of pipes is an ASME method of indicating the pressure carrying capacity of the fittings. • Types of Flanges: • The following types of flanges are used: • 1. Threaded • 2. Socket welding • 3. Blind • 4. Slip-on welding • 5. Lapped • 6. Welding neck.

pressure. temperature and size.5.• Pressure – Temperature Rating: • Ratings are maximum allowable working gauge pressure at a given temperature. • Selection of Flanges: • The flanges are selected based on the application. These values are given in ASME B16. .

SA106.SA530 .Specification for General Requirements for tubes.Specification for Piping Fittings.SA450 . 210.SA234 . .Specification for General Requirements for Pipes. Fittings . ASME Section-II Part-A – Material Specifications.REFERENCES ASME Section-I PG 9 – Materials Specifications List. 299. . 515.Table Y. ANNEX-B. 234. 192. 213. U ASME Section-II Part-A Tubes . Pipes . ASME Section-II Part-D – Table IA – Maximum Allowable Stress . Drum combined bending Stress – BS 1113.

headers. there are variations on the degree of conservation on different aspects. lines & links. tubes.COMPARISON OF BOILER CODES Boiler Codes have been written by various nations in the past century to ensure safety of personnel and to avoid loss of property. Fabrication. etc. dished / flat ends. the various formulae used to determine the thicknesses for drums / shells.DIN TRD 300. .ASME Section-I 3.IBR 1950 2. etc. One such area where variations do exist between Boiler Codes is the criteria stipulated for calculating the allowable stresses. an attempt has been made by comparing the various aspects in the design like allowable stress.BS 1113 4. The following codes have been considered for the study:1. In the present day context of evolving competitive design without sacrificing the safety needs laid down in the boiler codes. Boiler codes cover the whole gamut of activities including Design. Construction and Operation. Design temperature criteria. Testing. headers. Although these codes are framed on a common intent. other aspects like minimum design requirements for drums/headers & tubes and presented in annexures. The various aspects of IBR Regulations are called out and consolidated against major items like drum.

7 whereas in ASME Section-I indicates 3. 3) . all codes apply some fixed temperature allowances over the medium temperature except ASME Section-I which states that parts to be designed for actual metal temperatures. In respect of Design Temperatures.4. all codes consider factor of safety as 1. For tensile strength at room temperature.5 except BS1113 which shows 1.5 and not considered in TRD.5 and the same in TRD is 2. both IBR and BS1113 considers a factor of safety of 2. 2) In the case of Design Pressure of the boiler IBR alone considers pressure drop for various components inline with erstwhile ISO R831 whereas the rest of the codes indicate the boiler to be designed for drum design pressure.3.The observations made between various boiler codes in respect of design are given below:1) Yield strength at room temperature is not considered in BS1113 and IBR whereas factor of safety at room temperature in ASME Section-I is 1. In the case of rupture strength.

18 Cr 10 Ni Cb in both ASME & BS1113. . Weight savings arising out of adopting BS1113 compared to ASME Section-I is also illustrated in an annexure.7). BS1113 & IBR are same in respect of design criteria for allowable stresses (Tensile / 2. ¼ V composition (X20) which is not finding a place in both ASME & BS1113. BS1113 gives more liberal criteria (Creep rupture / 1. Also.4) Comparison material grades among various codes indicate specification as common for most of the material compositions. there is no such grade under TRD 300. Above creep region. 1 Mo.3) compared to other international codes.5) compared to other international codes below creep region. when there is a specification indication for austenitic steels like 18 Cr 8 Ni. TRD 300 is in between ASME & IBR / BS1113 since the allowable stress values of DIN falls in between them. It is concluded that ASME Section-I gives the most stringent criteria on design for deciding the allowable stresses (Tensile / 3. DIN (GERMAN) indicates a specification 12 Cr.

Ligament Efficiency Drum / Headers comparison . 16.3 sheets . 03. 07. Applicability of Code Regulations Maximum Allowable Working Pressure Design Pressures & Design Temperatures Comparison of Codes Design Stresses .COMPARISON OF BOILER CODES Sl.2 sheets Tubes comparison Relationship between Allowable Stress.Clauses .3 sheets Salient Clauses of BS1113 . 15. 04. 13. 06. Weight Savings IBR Regulations . 09.2 sheets IBR Regulation Numbers .Calculation of Thickness Required Openings in Shell Item Description 10. 11.Ascending Order .Factors of Safety Comparison of Material Grades Temperature Limits for various Steel Grades Design .8 sheets Requirements as per ASME Section-I . 02.No. 14. 08. 12. 05. 17. 01.

The rules specify the requirements for the water tube steam generating plant subject to internal pressure. ASME Sec. SH with shut off devices. steam and hot water lines and fittings which are regarded as part of the steam boiler installation. RH.75 litres in capacity which is used to generate steam under pressure.APPLICABILITY OF CODE REGULATIONS IBR Applicable to boiler that is a closed vessel exceeding 22. BS 1113 TRD 300 The rules apply to steam boilers and to feed water preheaters. I Applicable to boilers in which the steam or any other vapour is generated at a pressure more than 15 PSI (g). DESH. .

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE IBR It is the working pressure of any component of the boiler. ASME Sec. For steam generators. the design pressure shall be the allowable pressure. It is the maximum pressure to which any part of the boiler is subjected to except when SV or SRV or Valves are discharging at which time the MAWP shall not be exceeded by more than 6%. It is the highest set pressure on any SV mounted on the steam drum. I BS 1113 TRD 300 .

DESIGN PRESSURES & DESIGN TEMPERATURES ALLOWANCES USED IN VARIOUS CODES AREA IBR Drum design pressure with pressure drop ASME SEC.I Drum design pressure BS 1113 Drum design pressure DIN TRD 300 Drum design pressure DESIGN PRESSURE RADIATION CONVECTION ECONOMISER 50C ACTUAL METAL TEMPERATURE 371C (MIN) FOR GAS TOUCHED PORTION 50C 50C 39C 35C 35C 11C 25C 15+2xAct. wall thick) C Max. 50C WATER WALLS / SH WALLS GAS TOUCHED DRUMS/HEADERS 28C 50C 50C 28C 25C 20C .

5 R 3.II PART-D *C = CORROSION ALLOWANCE = 0.5 .0 FOR ASME MATERIALS ALLOWABLE STRESS CAN BE TAKEN DIRECTLY FROM ASME SEC.7 Et 1.5 .7 SC Et 1. SR 1.5 . 50C Se .+ *C 2f + P PD --------. TO DESIGN METAL TEMP.5 SC Et 1.4 Et = YIELD STRENGTH R = TENSILE STRENGTH SR = RUPTURE STRENGTH SC = CREEP STRENGTH TUBE THICKNESS FORMULA tmin PD --------.ACTUAL WALL THICKNESS in mm. SR 1. WATER WALL 28C 50C 50C P=DESIGN PR. D=OUTSIDE DIA f=ALLOWABLE STRESS CORR.+ 0. SR 1.5 R 2.3 R 2. 0 mm FOR P > 70 bar . SR 1.COMPARISON OF CODES IBR 1950 ASME SEC. R 2.5 .005D 2f + P PD --------2f + P PD --------2f + P FACTOR OF SAFETY Et 1.I BS 1113 DIN TRD 300 REMARKS DESIGN PRESSURE DESIGN PRESSURE WITH PRESSURE DROP 50C DRUM DESIGN PRESSURE DRUM DESIGN PERSSURE DRUM DESIGN PRESSURE DESIGN TEMPERATUE ALLOWANCE RADIATION CONVECTION 50C 50C 39C ACTUAL METAL TEMPERATURE 371C (MIN) 35C 35C ECONOMISER 11C 25C (15 + 2 Se) C Max.75mm FOR P ≤ 70 bar.

FS = 1. yield strength at Room Temperature --- 1.5 Average yield strength at Design Temperature Min.0 1.7 2.0 --- ---    For Austenitic steels.35 To be used at temperature below 1500F For components without an acceptance test certificate to DIN 50049.4 Average creep rupture strength for 100.000 hours life at Design Temperature 1. .7 3.I BS 1113 DIN TRD 300 Min.5 1.5 1.5 --- --- Min.5 --- --- 2.49 1.000 hours at Design Temperature 1. yield strength at Design Temperature --- --- 1.0 Average creep strength for 1% creep in 100.5 2.5 1. ultimate tensile strength at Room Temperature 1. FS shall be increased by 20%.DESIGN STRESSES – FACTORS OF SAFETY IN VARIOUS CODES PROPERTIES IBR ASME SEC.3 1.

541 5 16 Mo5 1.SA 210 SA 213 .A1 Gr.63 68 13Cr Mo44 1.C T1 P1 T2 / P2 T12/P 12 T11/P1 1 T22/P2 2 T9/P9 BS 3059-36023604 360 410 440460 490Nb 243 620 621 622 660 629 DIN (GERMANY) 17175 VdTUV.7380 (14M o V63) 1. 8 St.45. Service Temperature  ASME SA 106 SA 192 SA 209 .C Gr.COMPARISON OF MATERIALS GRADES Max.SA 335 475C 885F 500C 930F 550C 1020F 560C 1040F 575C 1065F 600C 1110F 625C 1155F Gr. the actual maximum service temperature for various steels shall be limited as prescribed in the relevant codes.) St.7335 10Cr Mo 9 10 1.A A192 Gr.771 5 (X12Cr MO 91) 1.030 5 1.04 STPA2 3 STBA2 3 TU10C D 5.05 STPA2 4 STBA2 4 TU10 CD 9.B Gr. 8 17 Mn4 19 Mn5 15 Mo3 1.542 3 15Ni CuM oNb 5 1.05 STPA2 2 STBA2 2 TU13C D 4.048 1 1.B1 (Werkstoff-Nr.35.040 5 1.0482 1.7386 GOST (RUSSIAN) TY 14-3-460-75 20 15 XM 12 X1 MF (15X IMI F) JIS (JAPAN) G3456 G3458 G3461 G3462 STPT 38 STB 35 TU37C STPT 42 STB 42 TU42C STPT 49 STPA 12 STBA 12 TU52C TU15 D3 STPA2 0 STBA2 0 TU15C D 2. However.10 STPA2 6 STBA2 6 TU Z10 CD9 NF A 49-213 (FRENCH) TU48C  This is indicative only. .

D. Limit C 01. No.TEMPERATURE LIMITS FOR VARIOUS STEEL GRADES OF TUBES / PIPES Sl. 621 535 04. SA192.8 BS3059 P2 S2 360. ½ Mo 15 Mo3 ---- 482 03.8 St 45. 1¼ Cr ½ Mo ---- 552 05.C SA209 T1 St 35. Nominal Composition ASME Section-I MATERIAL SPECIFICATION DIN – TRD 300 BS 1113 Temp.A1 & Gr. Carbon Steel SA178 Gr. 12 Cr 1 Mo ¼ V BS3059 P2 S2 762 BS3604 P1 762 BS3059 P2 304 S51 BS3605 – 304 S59 E BS3059 P2 347 S51 BS3605 347 S59 E 700 08. 1 Cr ½ Mo SA335 P12 SA213 T12 SA213 T11 SA335 P11 SA213 T22 SA335 P22 SA213 T91 SA335 P91 ----- 13 Cr Mo 44 BS3059 P2 S2 620 BS3604 P1 620 – 440 BS3604 P1. 430. 9 Cr 1 Mo ¼ V X 10 Cr Mo V Nb91 X 20 Cr Mo V 121 635 07. 500 Nb 427 02. Gr. 440 BS3602 P1 360. 2¼ Cr 1 Mo 10 Cr Mo 910 BS3059 P2 S2 622-490 BS3604 P1.C SA106 Gr. SA210 Gr. 18 Cr 8 Ni SA213 TP304 H ----- 704 09. 18 Cr 10 Ni Cb SA213 TP347 H ----- 704 .C. 622 ----- 577 06.B. Gr.

75 fE  (1 Y) P PR 2f  0.5 PE R 1+ 2P 1 2f  P P f Shell thickness Dished end thickness Flat end thickness PR + 0.5 P PDK + 0.I BS 1113 DIN TRD 300 Tube thickness PD 2f + P PR + C PD 2f + P +0.CALCULATION OF THICKNESS REQUIRED IN VARIOUS CODES AREA IBR ASME SEC.5 P PDK 2f Cd P f PD 2f + P PR fE  0.DESIGN .005D PD 2f + P PR fE  0.75 fE  0.2 P + C CP f 2f d CP f d Cd .

82 St For dia of Opg.2.08 [Dt (1  K)]1/3 K= BS 1113 8.OPENINGS IN SHELL PD 1. .2.82 St PD 1. then ≠ 2.  50 mm. then  2. I 8.08 [Dt (1  K)]1/3 K= PD 1. if > 0. TRD 300 For dia of Opg > 50 mm. t t branch shell 2 opg dia shell ID opg dia shell ID t branch t shell t branch t shell if  0.82 St IBR 8.08 [Dt (1  K)]1/3 K= ASME Sec.

005 J TRD 300 gives lengthy equations for calculating the ligament efficiency factors. ’all di A + A’  all VA = and for multiple openings.25  (1 0. ’  all SV 2 AP+ A’  A’  all di VL = SV A0 + ’all A1 + ”all A2 ’all all ”all all all all  AP0 (1+cos2)+2AP1+2AP2+A1+A2 A1  A2 .00375 + 0.LIGAMENT EFFICIENCY EFFICIENCY P d P PC  d PC ASME P d P PC  d PC IBR BS 1113 P d P PC  d PC Longitudional Circumferential Diagonal J + 0.75 +J 2 A + B+ (A  B)2 + 4C2 A + B+ 2 (A  B)2 + 4C2 0. For a single opening.01 Elong) 0.

The ligament efficiency shall be multiplied by a factor 0. DS X 100 DS X 100 d max.DRUM / HEADERS .  d min.  d min. if they are radiographed and stress relieved. + d min. The shape shall be such as to permit complete fusion and complete joint penetration. 2 (d max.COMPARISON WITH VARIOUS CODES DESCRIPTION IBR ASME SEC. Machining of holes through the centre of main seam welds is permitted provided the seam welds have been subjected to NDE. + d min.5 89 x 70 ----- ------ . ----- Circularity of Drum The drum shall be circular within a limit of 1% of mean diameter based on the differences between maximum and minimum mean diameters.) X 100 d max. Position of tube holes Allowed through welded seams. Difference between internal diameter of drum shall not exceed 1%.  D min.95. Double ‘V’ Type or ‘U’ type. The average bore shall not deviate by more than 1% from the nominal diameter. Percentage deviation from circularity 2 (d max. Plate thickness for shell 6 mm 6 mm 6 mm 3 mm Type of weld joint Single or double ‘U’ or ‘V’ type.I BS 1113 DIN TRD 300 Min. Maximum internal diameter of drum shall not exceed the nominal internal diameter by more than 2%. Double welded butt type. Double ‘V’ type.) D max. D max. X 100 Hand hole size in Headers 89 x 63.  D min. Any type of opening that meets the requirements for compensation may be located in a welded joint.

1. Two safety valves . 1.5% + 12. Two safety valves. Two independent remote level indicators instead of one gauge glass. Two or more safety valves.DESCRIPTION IBR ASME SEC. Requirement of Safety Valves.5%  10. Two independent means of water level indication. 1.5 times the maximum allowable Working Pressure. ----- Drums & Headers greater than 600 mm shall be hydraulic tested at shop to 1.Shop & test pressure.3 times the maximum allowable Working Pressure. 1. Minimum bore 20 mm.5 times the max.5 times the maximum permissible Working Pressure.I BS 1113 DIN TRD 300 Hydraulic test point . Two numbers of gauge glass. .0% Hydraulic test pressure at site. Two means of indicating water level. Two or more safety valves. Water level indication. Drums & Headers greater than 1000 mm shall be hydraulic tested at shop to 1.5 times the Design Pressure. + 10%  10% ----- Wall thickness tolerance for pipes / headers.the bore not less than 19mm.5 times the Drum Design Pressure. permissible working pressure. + 15%  5%  12. Two means of indicating water leve.

6.2.COMPARISON WITH VARIOUS CODES DESCRIPTION IBR ASME SEC.3 .0 .) DMax + DMin x100 % Provides calculation for wall thickness for inside & outside of bend as per TRD301 Annex-2.  D Min.81 Up to D38 D38 to D51 D51 to D70 D70 to D76 D76 to D95 D95 to D102 D102 to D127 . .2.3.2 .3.43 3.6 .34 2.7 .5 Ovality (Deviation from circularity) D Max.2.3 mm Max. D shall not exceed 20D R D shall not be more than 50D R x 100 2(DMax. .TUBES .DMin.66 Up to D32 Up to D51 D51 to D76 D76 to D102 D102 to D127 - 2. x 100 D  D Min.3 mm for Water wall tubes Minimum thickness allowed for various tube Diameters Seamless.1. Wall thickness tolerance + 10%  5% + 22%  0% + 10%  10% + 15%  10% .67 3.41 2.03 2.I BS 1113 DIN TRD 300 TYPE Cold drawn or hot finished seamless or ERW Cold drawn or hot finished seamless or ERW Cold drawn or hot finished seamless or ERW Cold drawn or hot finished seamless or Longitudinally welded Min.3.64 3.4 . Up to D32 Up to D51 D51 to D76 D76 to D89 D89 to D114 - 2.25 3.05 3.

038 13.C SA106 Gr.570 13.087 12. Downcomers 357 11.0 05.546 12. SH 373 10.8 03 Riser Pipes 357 10.0 9.8 04. Design Temp.859 14.C SA106 Gr. WEIGHT AND SAVINGS IN WEIGHT (TYPICAL 250 MW) Sl.993 13.6 .339 11.442 23.7 17. C Allowable Stress Kg/mm2 % increase in allowable Stress in allowable Stress Correspond -ing ASME BS 1113 01.228 19.4 02.3 16. No Item Material Specn.896 22.RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALLOWABLE STRESS. Economiser 311 10.8 11.7 9. Water Walls SA210 Gr. Low temp.B SA210 A1 SA210 A1 385 11.

IBR REGULATIONS I) a) b) c) d) E f) g) h) I j) K l) M) n) o) p) q) r) s) DRUM Circularity of drum Drawing preparation Type of weld joint Long seam intersection )Position of tube holes Hydro Test Maximum working pressure for shell Stress factors )Ligament efficiency Longitudinal stress Shape of Dished end plate Dished end with openings Dished end maximum working pressure Reinforcement calculation Attachment of Branch pipes Mountings on the drum Attachment (SV) to dru Water gauges Uncompensated hole 243 (a)256 (b) 249 253 254 255 268 270 271 272 (215) 273 275 277 278 279 280 281 296 320 187 .

II) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) HEADERS Header shapes and Process Hand holes Uncompensated hole Maximum working pressure Stress factors Ligament efficiency Shape of Dished end Dished end opening Dished end maximum working pressure Reinforcement calculation Attachment of Branch pipes Flat ends maximum working pressure Headers for boiler & SH 154 (a) 164 (a) 187 270 271 272 (215) 275 277 278 279 280 340 (f) 342 .

(c) IV) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) LINES & LINKS (BOILER INTEGRAL PIPING) Integral boiler piping Process Material. Branches Maximum working pressure Steam pipe bending thinning Butt welding fittings Branch welded to pipes External Reinforcement Hydraulic Test 244 (b) 343 (1) 343 (2) 343 (3) 349 350 361 (a) 361 (A) 249 to 253 362 (b) 374 . (c) 244 (a) 338 (a) 338 (b). (b). Tees.III) a) b) c) d) TUBES Process Tubes Maximum working pressure Percentage ovality 151 (a). permissible stress Hydraulic Test Temperature limits for Pipes.

a) b) c) d) BOILER MOUNTINGS SAFETY VALVES Discharge capacity Over pressure of safety valve Pressure drop Attachment to boiler 293 294 295 296 B. VI) 1) 2) 3) 4) GENERAL Procedure of Hydro test of boiler Registration Fee Submission of plans of boilers Submission of plans of steam pipes 379 385 393 395 . b. a) WATER GUAGES Requirements 320 a.V) A.

radiographed or UT. 154: a) i) Headers Seamless or Welded steel or cast steel.can be used outside the boiler Flash welding allowed. ii) . c) HEADERS MUD BOXES. screening or welding.can be used inside the boiler > 5” dia . the welding shall be stress relieved. Where welded. bolting.BOILER & SH TUBES Regn. OF WATER TUBE BOILERS Regn. 151: a) Tubes IBR Cold drawn or hot finished Seamless or ERW tubes b) Tubes < 5” dia . Headers may be closed by forging. ETC.

seatings.) x 100 (d max. + d min.Maximum 203 mm = 1. 164 (a): Regn.attachment. .  d min.) d = internal dia Regn. 243 (b): Circularity of drum 1%.243 (a): Regn. etc. 244 (a): Regn. PD Uncompensated hole . Percentage deviation = from circularity 2 (d max. 187: Hole size not less than 3½ x 2½ in. to be furnished.Fully dimensioned drawings of the proposed weld preparation of the main seams to a scale .244 (b): Tubes Pipes of boiler shall comply with Chapter VIII. 249: Fully dimensioned sectional drawing showing in full detail the construction of drum . Regn.MAIN HOLES Regn.82 fe FUSION WELDED DRUMS Regn.

Longitudinal seams in successive rigs shall not fall in line except where the rigs of drum are in two halves of unequal thickness. 255: Regn. 256: Circularity of drum:The difference between internal diameter of drum shall not exceed 1%. Regn. Position of tube holes:Tube holes through welded seams. 253: Drum .1½ times the maximum permissible working pressure after completion of welding and heat treatment of drum (internal dia > 1000 mm). Regn.95 except the distance from edge hole to edge of weld > 13mm (½”).Regn.type of welded joint .Single or double ‘U’ or ‘V’ type. 268: . Hydro test .The efficiency and ligament multiplied by a factor 0. 254: Regn. if they are radiographed and stress relieved .

5 Regn.03) Regn.5 1.03 Regn. 215.7 For temperature above 454C Et SR (or) (or) SC 1.5 1. D + T  0. Pd P  nd P P1 Diagonal and Curve P P d P Circumferential ligament.95.WP = Weld factor 0.5 In case SC valves are not available.2 f E (T  0.5 2. 272: The ligament efficiency as per Regn.270: The working pressure . 271: For temperature at or below 454C Et (or) R 1. . the allowable stress may be Et SR lower of (or) 1.

B.H  0.273 MRY The stress due to bending f b = Ia Regn.2D Partial spherical heads .PD2 Regn.273A PD2 M= 1. 273: Longitudinal Stress = fd = 1. . 275: a) b) c) Shape of Dished end plate Hemispherical Elliptical heads -H  0. C. Figures 23A.18D.

Regn. 278: Dished end plate maximum working pressure 2f (T  C) WP = DK (Shape factor) Minimum head thickness . Reinforcement calculation. 280: Figures 24A to D. 26A to E. 27A to D. 279: Regn. 277: Dished end with opening (inline with ISO). . Attachments of Branch Pipes by welding. Regn.Regn.5 mm. 276: Gradual thinning up to a maximum of 10% of thickness where the corner radius joins the dishing radius. d DT d1 = d  A T Regn.

GAUGES AND AUXILIARIES Regn. Two safety valves . . A blow down cock valve.one of which may be a high steam and low water type. a steam stop valve. the bore not less than 19mm. A manhole . Two means of indicating water level. 281: Every boiler shall be provided.VALVES. one feed apparatus. a feed check valve.A safety valve at the end of SH outlet. a steam pressure gauge.

Where discharge area > 80% . SAFETY VALVES Regn. . 294: Over pressure of safety valves: Where discharge area < 80% . Saturated steam E = CAP E Superheat steam ES = 1 + 2.New Regn.281A: Water level and or firing control. 293: Discharge capacity.7 TS 1000 Regn.Over pressure shall not exceed 5%.Over pressure shall not exceed 10% of set pressure.

Regn. b) For boilers > 10.Regn. The 5% limit increased to 10% for valves having seat bore less than 32 mm and or having a set pressure of 2 bar gauge or less. Minimum length of visible portion of gauge glass 200 mm. 296: Attachment to Boiler: The axis valve shall be vertical..000 lb/hr. Branches shall be as short as possible. 295: Pressure drop: Reset at a pressure at least 2. one of water gauges may be of remote water level indicator type.5 below but not more than 5% below safety valve set pressure. 320: Water Gauges: Every boiler shall have two means of indicating the water in it of which one shall be conventional gauge glass. . Regn.

. temperature + 28C. Furnace & boiler tubes = Sat.BOILER AND SH TUBES. ECO = The maximum water temperature + 11C. Convection SH =Maximum steam temperature + 39C.75 for P  70 Kg/m2 = 0 for P > 70 Kg/m2 The working metal temperature. Radiant SH = Maximum steam temperature + 50C. HEADERS Regn. 338(a): WP = 2f (T  C) (D  T + C) C = 0.

5 or SC Et If SC not available Et (or) SR 1.5 b) 1.5 For temperature above 454C SR 1.5 % Ovality = D max.For temperature at or below 454C. x 100 D .  D min. TS (or) 2.7 1.

343(2): .343(1): Carbon steel. End attachments . 340(f). Alloy steel.As per Regn. 342: Cylindrical headers . Regn. butt welded or ERW. the permissible stress figures specified in the code may be accepted.Regn. Cast steel. STEAM PIPES AND FITTINGS Regn. 340 (f): Flat ends for headers f (t  C)2 WP = d2 K Regn. 270.As per Regn. Material used. cold or hot finished.

branches. Butt welding fittings. 2fe (t  C) WP = Dt+C STEAM PIPE FITTINGS C = 0. 343(3): The hydraulic test may be dispensed with if 600 mm. 349: The temperature limits for pipes.75. External Reinforcement : Multiple radial plates of horse shoe form or the form of collars applied to or around the junction between branch and main.5%. Regn.Regn. shall be as per Table-2. 361(a): Regn. 362(a): Pipe bends thinning 12. Angle not less than 60. 350: Working Pressure. 362(b): . etc. Branch welded to pipe Regn. 361(A): Regn. 249 to 253. id  Regn. Regn. Regn. Tees.

393: Registration Fee: Submission of plans of boilers: a) b) & c) Drawing Approval. . 379: Procedure of Hydro test. Temperature of water > 20 < 50C. Test pressure 1.1. Boilers made outside India.5 times the design pressure.Regn.5 times the maximum working pressure. 385: Regn. Not exceeding 6% of the required pressure. REGULATIONS FOR THE REGISTRATION AND INSPECTION OF BOILERS Regn. Regn. Technical Advisor (Boilers) and then CIB user state. 374: Hydro test pressure in the piping system .

395: Submission of plans of steam pipes: Rs. 150 each. Alteration fee at 10% of the fee of the first scrutiny fee. Rs. 385 subject to a maximum of Rs. etc.d) Scrutiny fees as per Regn. Regn. Fittings like DESH. Separators.000. 30 for 30 meters minimum of Rs. . 50. 20.

Sl.F Shall be of pressure vessel quality SA202.005D+e e = 0 for tubes strength welded to headers P = Max.2 for superheater matrials 2.1 "Upto and including 5 inches outside dia" (127mm) t(inch)=PD/2S+P +0.3 The min.S) SA285. Boiler plate min. water boilers > 160 PSIG or 250 Deg. 387(A. SA204.thick PG-16. allowable stress (psi) . Pipes.2 PG 9. allowable working pressure(psi) D = Outside dia(in) S = Max. thickness of any boiler plate under pressure shall be 1/4 in (6 mm) 5. DESCRIPTION CLAUSE REQUIREMENT AS PER ASME SEC. Tubing calculation PG-27.No . more than 15 PSIG b)High temp. SA / EN . SA515.1 & 9. 1.1 for boiler parts materials PG 9.S).2. SA299. Plate material PG-6 3. SA516 (C.10028 . Tubes materials PG-9 4. SA240(Type 405 only) SA302.I 2001 REMARKS Service Limitations PG-2 a)Boilers in which steam/vapour is generated at a pr.

Sl.1.I 2001 t =PD / 2SE+2YP + C (or) t = PR / SE (1-y)P+ C E = efficiency of liagament of weld joints Y = temperature co-efficient C = Min.7 & PG27. 2:1 Semiellipsoidal 9.2 t = PR / SE . Dia of opening in shell PG-29.37 & PW 15 .82 St Max. dia of opening without compensation as per Fig PG 32 Limits of reinforcement X = greater of 2d or 2(t + tn) but not greater than pitch Y = the smaller of 2 1/2t or 2 1/2 tn 10. allowance for threading and structural stability (0) R Inside radius in t ==PL / 1. 6. Compensation Calulation PG .2 REQUIREMENT AS PER ASME SEC.11 8.6S L = radius to which formed head measured on concave side REMARKS 7. DESCRIPTION Piping. Hemispherical head PG-29.2. Drums and headers calculation CLAUSE PG27. Max.No .1.(1-y)P + C R = Inside radius of end cover K Factor = PD / 1.2 & PG-32.2.3.2 PG32.

Sl. Calculate stress at hydraulic test by substituting in thick formula.22 & Sec.1 PG .15 water PG . Check as per Fig.I 2001 Total stress = fb + fd fb = stress due to bending fd = Direct longitudinal stress 1. 400 PSI or over the feed water inlet shall be fitted with sleeves. above 900 PSI c) The lowest visible part of gauge shall be at least 2 in.1 17. allowable working pr.3.3.16. weld size Min. a) Two nos. Boiler shall have a bottom blow off outlet in the lowest water space. F. Water indicator . Feed connection Blow . DESCRIPTION Max. allowable stress for drum (Bending and Longi stress) Hydraulic test pr.off 16. 13.1 Combined strength of each path >min. gauge glass over a boiler pr.37 PW .2 15.59. above lowest water level REMARKS 12. PW 16.No. Min. 14. 11.1 REQUIREMENT AS PER ASME SEC.4 of BS1113 PG 99. PG 59. weld size PW .1. Of 400 PSI b) Two independent remote level indicators instead of one gauge glass in case of pr.5 times the max.3. weld strength required Boiler pr. CLAUSE PG .3 level PG 60.Stress at hydro to be leser than 90% yield stress at 100 deg.

Inside dia.6. Drain connects to safe discharge point Pr.Sl. Pressure gauges PG 60.6.3 PG-61 20. gauge shall be at least 1/4 in.No . ft. Above 100 PSI pr.I 2001 REMARKS 18. Test pr. Gauge connection to the boiler shall not be less than 1/2 in. Water indicator level PG 60. 19. for steel pipe. ft.1. pipe size a)Boiler having more than 500 sq.6 a) Connection to the gauge glass shall not be less than 1/2" pipe size b) Water gauge glass drain not less than 1/4 in. of water heating surface shall have two means of feeding water b) The feed connection shall not be less than 3/4" pipe size for water heating surface more than 100 sq. Gauges 21. Connection to the test pr. Feed supply water .1 PG60. DESCRIPTION CLAUSE REQUIREMENT AS PER ASME SEC.

PG-67.Sl. allowable working pressure c) The safety valve will discharge all the steam generated by the boiler without allowing the pr. to rise more than 6% above max. Boiler safety valve reqts PG-67. allowable working pr. ft. 23. provisions vents PG 58. DESCRIPTION CLAUSE REQUIREMENT AS PER ASME SEC. Boiler.67. vents for a high temp.1 Boiler with water heating surface exceeding 500 sq.I 2001 REMARKS 22.7 .No . Setting shall not exceed 3% of the max.3 PG . B)The highest pr.2 PG-68.2 The discharge capacity of the safety valve on the boiler is at least 75% of the aggregate value capacity required Piping connections for items such as drains.3. Drain. allowable working pressure. a) one or more safety valves shall be set at or below max. and steam generating capacity exceeding 4000 lb/hr two or more safety valves are required.

4 OR Rm /2.7 WHICHEVER GIVES A LOWER . C-Mn AND LOW ALLOY STEELS FE = Re (T)/1.SALIENT CLAUSES OF BS-1113-1990 SECTION –2 MATERIALS AND DESIGN STRESSES 2. BS MATERIALS OR AGREED BETWEEN MANUFACTURER AND PURCHASER 2.5 VALUE.3 DESIGN STRESSES FOR C..1.2.2 MATERIALS FOR PP. 2. OR Rm /2.7 WHICHEVER GIVES A LOWER FOR AUSTENTIC STEEL FE = Re (T)/1.35 VALUE.2.2 2.

.7.7 DESIGN TEMPERATURE 2.3 SH & RH TUBES SUBJECT TO RADIANT HEAT -- SAT TEMP.2 BOILER TUBES SUBJECT TO RADIANT HEAT -- SAT TEMP. NOT SUBJECT TO RADIANT HEAT 2.2.7. NOT SUBJECT TO RADIANT HEAT 2.2.2. + 35  C. 2.7. + 50  C. + 50  C.2.2.2.1 DRUMS AND HEADERS NOT HEATED BY GAS - EQUALS FLUID TEMP. HEATED BY GAS - ADD 25  C.7. -- SAT TEMP. + 25  C.4 ECONOMIZER TUBES MAX FLUID TEMP + 25  C. -- SAT TEMP.

6.3. 3.1. 3.SECTION –3 DESIGN 3.5 mm.3.1 MINIMUM 9.73 OF IBR 3.2 3.2 t= PDOK/2f MINIMUM THICKNESS OF DISHED ENDS TO BE 9.3. MAX DIA OF UNREINFORCED OPENING 200 mm.P 3.3.6.1 DISHED ENDS TORI AND SEMI ELLIPSOIDAL DISHED ENDS.5 mm THICK FOR HEADERS OF OD 300 mm AND ABOVE.4 COMBINED STRESSES IN DRUMS AND HEADERS.1. MINIMUM 6 mm THICK FOR HEADERS UPTO OD 300 mm t = PDi / 2 f n . TO BE BROUGHT IN PLACE OF REG. .3.

1 TUBES AND PIPES t = P do/2f + P.1.7.2 51 TO 70 MM OD 2.7.3.2 3.0 95 TO 102 MM OD 3.4 70 TO 76 MM OD 2.3 102 TO 127 MM OD 3. 3.7 38 TO 51 MM OD 2.2.6.1 UNREINFORCED OPENINGS OPENINGS NOT TO BE GIVEN IN D/10 AREA.6 76 TO 95 MM OD 3. MINIMUM THICKNESS TO AS UNDER UPTO 38 MM OD 1.5 .3.

5. 4.6 LONGITUDINAL DRUM SEAMS TO BE WELDED BEFORE CIRCUMFERENTIAL SEAMS AND WHRE PRACTICABLE THE LONGITUDINAL SEAMS OF ADJACENT COURSES SHALL BE STAGGERED.1.2. 4.3.1 PLATES CAN BE BUTT WELDED PRIOR TO FORMING PROVIDED WELD IS NDT EXAMINED.7 HOLES CAN BE MACHINED THROUGH THE SEAMS AFTER SEAM HAS BEEN NDT EXAMINE PRIOR TO PWHT.2 OUT OF ROUNDNESS NOT TO EXCEED 1 % OF NOM INTERNAL DIA. .SECTION 4 MANUFACTURE AND WORKMANSHIP 4.2.2.1.5.1.1.2.3. 4.

1 HYDRO TEST PRESSURE OF BOILER 1.10. 5.1.1 HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURE 5. .2.3.5 TIMES THE MAX WORKING PRESSURE.1 ALL COMPONENTS NOT REASONABLY ACESSIBLE TO INSPECTION AFTER ASSEMBLY TO BE HYDROTESTED AT SHOP.10. DRUMS AND CYLINDRICAL HEADERS GREATER THAN 600 MM SHALL BE HYDROSTATICALLY TESTED AT SHOP.10.SECTION 5 INSPECTION AND TESTING 5.

1.2 SAFETY VALVES 7.2. GUAGES AND FITTINGS 7.2.2 MINIMUM BORE 20 mm FOR EVAPOTATION UPTO 3700 KG/H ONE SAFETY VALVE FOR GREATER EVAPORATION TWO SAFETY VALVES 7.SECTION 7 VALVES.1 7. .1.2 WATER LEVEL GUAGE EACH BOILER TO HAVE TWO INDEPENDENT MEANS OF WATER LEVEL INDICATION.

of D159 .5 Centres Rifled SA210 Gr. of D168. 48 Nos. of D368 SA106 Gr.Shell Material CARBON STEEL to SA299 ALLOY STEEL to Specification BS EN 10028-2 1993 Grade NC 271 Thickness in mm Internals 02. DOWNCOMERS WATERWALLS 195 / 165 Turbo Separators (92 Nos) 6 Nos.7 D66.BS 3602 500 Nb The rear and bottom of drum. BS 1563 . 05.7 at 92 Centres Rifled . BOILER DRUM . Armchair support with hanger tubes.440. 111/111 Cyclone Separators (168 Nos) 4 Nos. of D139. Front / Rear wall firing.BOILER PRESSURE PARTS COMPARISON BETWEEN BHEL & MBEL (500 MW) Sl. 03.620 . 04. . SA240 Type 310/304.BS 3059 243 S2 Calls for optimisation with headers.C Tangential firing.48 Nos. PRIMARY SUPERHEATER Strap type support with hanger tubes.SA106 Gr. of D508 BS 3602 500Nb Supply pipes . Page 01 of 02 Description BHEL MBEL 01.C Risers are connected to the top of drum. RISERS 68 Nos.C D51 at 63.3 .No.

06.4 Centres SA210 Gr. . Only 2 DAGS of Material BS 3059 622 S2 & T91 .5 at 115 Centres . STEAM COOLED WALLS D63. Description PLATEN SH / FINAL SH BHEL Flex connectors for spacing between tubes. 08. ECONOMISER Two loop D51 .BS 3059 243 S2. Individual headers for both inlet & outlet of each Coil Assembly (Calls for optimisation).SA210 Gr. Liner is positioned with shell by support bar welded to liner out side and support ring. 09.Flex connectors for spacing. MBEL Wraparounds for spacing between tubes. 07. ATTEMPERATOR Liner is positioned with shell support screws.A1 Not covered in the scope. Tangent Flex tie at close spacings.Half the horizontal bottom portion of platen membraned. Common Header for inlet & outlet of all assemblies.Page 02 of 02 Sl.C D44.5 / D51 at 152.No. Tube strap support for both Front & Rear Reheater. Rear RH . REHEATER Front RH . 10.Alignment band for spacing.

30. 1 2 = Code case but covered in DIN. Downcomers. SA106 Gr.46 03.B / Gr.COST SAVINGS DUE TO NEW MATERIALS Sl.00 0 3.63 21% 0.00 0 3.5 02.10. = Published in ASME.000 6.42  Cost Savings projected by M/s.36 SA213 T232 SA213 T922 SA213 T922 23% 1.C Water wall Headers.76 TOTAL SAVINGS / YEAR 6. Risers 70. SA213 T91 SH / RH coils 257 1. . Pipe / Tube Specification Usage Area Annual Quantum (200304) Tons 2000 Cost/T on Total Cost Increase Substitute d Material WB361 Cost Savings  (%) Total Savings (in Crores) 01. V&M. SA213 TP347 H SH / RH coils 173 2.34 21% 0. SA213 T22 SH / RH coils 1060 60.7 04.000 14 25% 3. No .

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