T2: Individual Behavior, Personality & Work Values

2.1 2.2 MARS Model of Individual Behavior & Performance Personality 2.2.1 Determinants of Personality 2.2.2 Relationship between Personality-Situation 2.2.3 Personality Theories Work Values 2.3.1 Values 2.3.2 Intrinsic-Extrinsic Work Values 2.3.3 Importance of Value Congruence/Similarity 2.3.4 Cultural Differences in Work Values
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1 MARS Model of Individual Behavior & Performance Jun 2008 Apply the MARS model of individual behavior and performance to provide 4 reasons why employees of an organization might be performing at below average level. Support your answer with a diagram.2. (20m) MARS Model is a useful model to understand that there are 4 factors that have a combined and direct effect on employee’s voluntary behavior and resulting performance: SITUATIONAL FACTORS Values Personality Perception Emotion Attitude Stress MOTIVATION ABILITY ROLE PERCEPTION INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR 2 . (20m) Apr 2011/Jan 2012 Discuss the MARS model of individual behavior.

thinks & behaves.2. Determinant: Biological Heritage (nature) Life Experiences (nurture) 3 .2. It account for why employees act the way they do & why they have favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward their jobs and organization.1 Determinant of Personality Personality is the pattern of relatively enduring ways (stable in short run and only change over a long time) in which a person feels.2 Personality 2.

(20m) 2 issues: i. hence ability is more importance than personality (eg.2 Relationship between Personality-Situation Apr 2006 Two department managers are discussing the importance of personality to organizational performance. workers forced to follow SOP.2. workers need certain personality to perform best in their job scope (eg. a production manager. Hotel‟s GROs) 4 . personality is less important in determining organizational performance on the assembly line that he manages.2. Whereas Sarah says that personality is crucial for employees to contribute to the success of her marketing team. Manager need to recognize that certain situation may force employees to behave in a certain way regardless of personalities ie. can both views be accepted? Justify your answers. According to Hariz. Manager should recognize the various ways that personality and situation interact to help employees perform better ie. In your opinion. SOP of fast food outlet) ii.

2. registration of patients. Use the Big Five Personality Dimension to describe the personality of an employee.3 Personality Theories Jun 2009 a) What benefits can be gained through subordinates with recognizable low self-monitoring personality? (5m) b) You have just taken up the job as the Customer Relations Manager of a large new private hospital in PJ.2. (10m) Sept 2012 Define personality. processing payment and handling general enquiries. Discuss 3 personality traits from the Big Five Model that you would look for in those candidates in order to achieve the goal of providing quality customer services. (15m) Apr 2011 Describe 5 characteristics of Type A and type B personality. You are in the process of interviewing potential candidates to be employed as Customer Services Reps whose main job scope includes organizing doctor‟s appointments. (20m) 5 .

1) Five-Factor Model (FFM)/Big Five Personality Dimension Personality is typically described in terms of traits. . average or low for each dimension. it is just a matter of either high. Everyone has all 5 dimensions.no such thing as a good or bad personality Traits of BIG FIVE Personality: Extroversion +ve Emotions Outgoing Warmth Sociable Affectionate Talkative Confident Neuroticism Anxious Self-Conscious Vulnerability Critical of own performance Play Devil Hostile Depressed Agreeableness Trust Straightforward Tender-Mindedness Good team player Courteous Caring Emphatic Good Nature Conscientiousness Competence Order Self-Disciplined Careful Meticulous Persistent Dependable Openness to Experience Fantasy/Creative Full of Actions Many Idea Originality Risk-taker Flexible Curious 6 .

2) locus of control .m.c. people behave in a socially acceptable manner .m. provides open. behave insensitive & not concerned what others think . people believe that own actions & behaviors determine what happen to one .o.internal l.high s.o.c. honest feedback useful to review group decision 7 . believes that outside forces are largely responsible for one‟s fate . while low s. are more motivated & need less direct supervision 3) self-monitoring .low s.o. likely to do well in sales/public relations jobs.external l.m.internal l.m.high s.c.

4) Type A versus Type B 8 .

e.5) self esteem . however low s.e. people doubt own capabilities & apprehensive . can be just as capable in spite of their weaknesses 9 . likely to choose challenging careers.e.high s.high s. people believe in own abilities & set higher goals .e.low s.

He is pleasant. (10m) 10 . One Sunday morning. the market for a programmer analyst is very tight & in order for the company to attract qualified candidates. he likes working with the company & thoroughly appreciates the creative demands required in his job. He accepts opinions & suggestions from his subordinates as well as always providing positive feedbacks. “Your salary will be evaluated at the regular time. Even though Harith is good natured. my friend. he was bewildered & was very dismayed by the salary given to the new recruit. Iskandar. Harith discovered that his department had hired a recent university graduate as a programmer analyst. He loves his job very much & constantly keeps up with the latest issues pertaining to his job. He works hard to reach his current position. Iskandar apologetically admitted the news & attempted to explain to Harith the company‟s dilemma. seldom complain & is hardworking. He decided to meet old time friend. He values cooperation & is a team-player.Case Study: Does Seniority Matter Harith had been employed by TRIK for 5 years & is now a senior programmer analyst. In addition. “Harith. during a squash game with his colleague. Iskandar‟s reply was. He feels that the company is not being fair to him. He later thanked Iskandar & left the office dragging his feet while shaking his head. No hard feelings. He found out that the new recruit‟s starting salary was only RM20 a month lower than his own. I am sure the boss will recommend you for a raise. We desperately needed another analyst & this would be the only way we could get one. You are doing a great job.” Harith was speechless. ok. so keep it up. helpful & well-liked by his subordinates & colleagues. Rashid. the company has offered a premium salary. He reprimands his employees. just be patient. He wonders how his future with TRIK would be like! Question Describe Harith‟s personality according to the Big Five Personality model and explain what determines an individual‟s personality characteristics.” Harith then inquired from Iskandar whether his salary would be adjusted accordingly. the Human Resource Manager to clarify the news & demand explanations.

Some individuals value new challenges more than they value conformity. religious institutions. personal experiences & the society in which the person lives 11 . friends.2. . called a value system.each person‟s unique value system is developed and reinforced through socialization with parents.People arrange values into a hierarchy of preferences. right or wrong that influence people decisions. . They are perceptions about what is good or bad.1 Work Values Values Values are stable. while others value generosity more than stingy and so on.3. long lasting beliefs that guide our preference for outcomes or courses of action in a variety of situations.3 2.

3.2 Intrinsic-Extrinsic Work Values 12 .2.

3. (8m) Importance of Value congruence/similarity between org-employee: .hence the need for org to adopt “family values with work-life balance” instead.Orgs are more effective when they align their org‟s values with those held by employees (personal values) and the society (society values) in which they operate. .3 Importance of Value Congruence/Similarity Jun 2010 Explain why value congruence is important. the org may experience conflict with the larger society and have difficulty attracting and retaining talented employees. Otherwise.g. An org‟s value “It’s a family company with family values” may clash with many of its employees‟ personal value “I rather keep my personal life separate from work life”.2. 13 . e.

2. (10m) b) Discuss any 2 major organizational implications of the cultural differences in values. 14 . This is particularly important as companies develop global operations & usage of advance IT increases the frequency of crosscultural communication. (10m) Managers need to understand cultural value differences to avoid unnecessary conflicts & delicate tensions between employees from different countries.4 Cultural Differences in Work Values Oct 2008/Jun2011 a) Discuss any 2 major values commonly studied across culture.3.

Norway) long term v. Taiwan) ii. Denmark) iii. tradition & fulfill social obligation (eg. collectivism „independent & personal uniqueness‟ (eg. Indonesia) iv. individualism v. prudence.5 cultural differences in work values are: i. confidence & materialism values‟ (eg. nurturing „competitiveness. v. Italy. uncertainty avoidance „wiling to tolerate ambiguity & uncertainty‟ (eg. power distance „accept unequal distribution of power where employee value obedience to authority & are comfortable receiving commands from superiors without question‟ (eg. Denmark. Denmark) versus „unwilling to tolerate ambiguity & uncertainty (eg. Sweden. Japan) versus „past & present. USA) versus „good relationships & caring‟ (eg. Japan) achievement v. savings & persistence (eg. 15 . India) versus „expect relatively equal power sharing where employee views their boss as also dependent on subordinates‟ (eg. USA) versus „duty to groups & to group harmony‟ (eg. short term orientation „future. assertiveness. Japan.

says Datuk Ahmed. He was so happy and enjoyed working because he has become the expert in Purepine‟s operation. He does his work very carefully. he has a very minimum knowledge and skills in the marketing area and this will affect his job performance. Romeo is not happy with the offer because he is uncertain about the new task and social expectations from the new team. the Most Promising Manager Romeo has been in the Operation Department manufacturing piano for 10 years since he joined Purepine Corp.Case Study: Romeo. Due to his dynamic personality and remarkable achievements. “You may want to take the offer now or else you may not get the same opportunity later at all. He believes that if the CEO is supportive of his new appointment. Who knows! You may be our future CEO”. Romeo is now ready for the challenge. He derives satisfaction from precision and quality and he connected that. He maintains a very good relationship with all levels of employees and he believes that having a good relationship with them keeps him motivated to perform well in his job. (5m) 16 . Question 1. the CEO is happy since Romeo and team were able to reduce the overall operation‟s cost. Datuk Ahmed decided to offer Romeo a promotion to become a Senior Manager in the Marketing Department. he will be able to perform his new task even better. “Details makes the difference!” Romeo also carries a reputable image amongst his subordinates because he is known as the most caring manager in the company. Describe Romeo‟s type of work values. Romeo realizes that he could not turn down the offer because of the trust place on his credibility. I personally reserve the position for you because I think it may be a training ground for your future career development. Datuk Ahmed. Furthermore.. “I place my hope on you Romeo. Datuk Ahmed convinces Romeo that the offer is a chance of a lifetime which is very significant to his career advancement.‟” says Datuk Ahmed during a ceremony held at the factory. no other managers in this company can achieve what you have accomplished so far…. he was promoted to Operation Manager a year later.

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