ARCHITECTURAL THESIS REPORT

University School Of Planning & Architecture Kashmere Gate - 110006

Sumanyu Vasist 0441731604/ B.Arch/ U.S.A.P/ Semester X 2008 - 2009

To The Reader
To The Reader
This thesis report marks the impression of the five years of the school life. Architectural education gave many experiences, some were dark, some were light and some were shades of grey. This thesis report is also the combination of many thoughts, patterns, systems, fun, innovations and notions in the wonderful school life. The school life and environment have taught many things , here are some of them Hope the reader finds this effort a worth.

INDEX

INDEX

INDEX

INTRODUCTION

Brief Description of Project

Section A1 / Page 1

TATA CONSULTANCY SERVICES in collaboration with its sister company TATA BP SOLAR is developing an IT TRAINING FACILITY. The IT TRAINING FACILITY aims to be an high-tech, ultra modern building with latest facilities and amenities. In the emerging global energy concerns TATA wants to demonstrate their concerns and intent to play an vital role in global energy conservation initiatives. This project would echo the same. TATA BP SOLAR, a daughter company of TATA and sister company of TATA CONSULTANCY SERVICES have taken keen interest in solar power generation through photovoltaic applications in India. Hence, they both are coming together to express the greater intent of TATA with this project. And would intent to make an advanced IT TRAINING FACILITY on Solar Power. IT TRAINING FACILITY is dedicated for training purposes of the IT professionals and is directed to facilitate students, trainees & professionals. The facility would encourage Training Programme, Lectures, Class-room study and cultural programmes and other interactive activities. The user group would include Trainees, Students, Faculty, Management Staff & Visitors.

Thesis issue
Issues: Basically, there is intent to demonstrate an upcoming solar technology of Integrated Photovoltaic Application in the Indian Urban Context. Here in, we wish to investigate greater dimensions of solar technology of PV in building design. And aim to run an IT facility using the solar power purely generated by the PV technology. There is an emphasis on the Integrated PV because of its dual advantage of being a building element or material and also the generator of solar power. Overall it’s an answer to the advanced urban aspiration from hi-tech, green and clean technology. The aspects of architecture and architectural design it will investigate the potential of the application of Photovoltaic technology in the building design. Since sunlight is the basis of PV, it would be reflected in the architectural design too. It is obvious that the building design would fully respect the solar geometry of the region. The project might ultimately be able to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology (BiPV) in commercial applications. The relevance of these issues is immense with the growing awareness on the significance of solar energy in building design and construction. The emerging concerns for environmental protection and global energy saving have introduced new architectural rules. The solution is seen in the upcoming building technology and its apt applications. The chosen project particularly suited to the issues which are intended to be investigated as IT centre have all the components which make a typical case for advanced urban aspirations and it would give an opportunity to demonstrate the intrinsic aspects of this biomimicked technology of PV in an challenging way.

Section A2 / Page 2

Design Idea: Diagram / Ideogram

Section A3 / Page 3

Shade & Shelter Building
Solar cells actually play the game of nature. They are like little leaves in the forest. Solar cells take the energy from the sun & they project a shadow to create a canopy

Design Trigger: Ecological Footprint World Ecological Footprint
•Today humanity uses the equivalent of 1.3 planets to provide the resources we use and absorb our waste. This means it now takes the Earth, one year and four months to regenerate what we use in a year.

Section A4 / Page 4

Bio capacity

Energy Consumptions

India
•Rising difference between bio-capacity and ecological footprint

The Site: Gurgaon.
Alarming Facts about Gurgaon (TERI 2003) There is a widening gap between the demand and supply of electricity as the annual demand and consumption are increasing at a rate of 17-20% whilt supply is increasing only at 5-7%. About quarter of the electricity supplied (20- 25%) is lost in transmission and distribution. Most commercial and high-rise residential buildings are operated on 100% captive power plants that run on high –speed diesel. This has increased air pollution and higher level of particulate matter.

Section A5.1 / Page 5

It was intended to have a project in Gurgaon due to mentioned reasons. What would be better site to demonstrate the intent.

The Site: Climatic Data

Section A5.2 / Page 6

From different sources

The Site: At different levels and views

Section A5.3 / Page 7

Google Image with site marked

The Site & Surroundings

Section A5.4 / Page 8

IT TRAINING FACILITY SITE •The site is at the city edge •Sector 15, Gurgaon (near 32nd Mile stone), on NH-8 •The greater proximity includes IBM building, DLF Star Mall, Engineers India limited Gurgaon, IFFCO •The near by buildings are 32nd Milestone, Gabraiel India, Galaxy. Police station and Central Cottage India Emporium •Site North-South oriented •Have a larger southern edge •Uninterrupted sunlight throughout the day because of its position and orientation

Google Image with site marked

The Site : photographs
Police Station Galaxy Road Junction

Section A5.5 / Page 9

32nd Milestone

Plotted Houses

Warehouses

Road Junction

Site

Green Belt

Photographs by self as on May-June 2009

Site Analysis: Shadow Study of a Block
21 st December Shortest day of the year

Section A6.1 / Page 10

Shadow study: Done for the shortest day and the longest day of the year

06:00 Hrs

12:00 Hrs

18:00 Hrs

08:00 Hrs

14:00 Hrs

10:00 Hrs

16:00 Hrs

21 st June Longest day of the year

06:00 Hrs

12:00 Hrs

18:00 Hrs

08:00 Hrs

14:00 Hrs

10:00 Hrs

16:00 Hrs

For maximum hours of the day, sunlight on the southern side fall directly on the building facade

Site Analysis: FAR vs Ground Coverage Study

Section A6.2 / Page 11

This was realized that for the desired FAR and Ground Coverage the building of G+3 is desirable. Also for going beyond three, there is a by-law to add a passenger lift, which is undesirable because of the energy related to it.

CASE STUDIES

Case Studies

Section B1 / Page 12

Case Studies

Section B2 / Page 13

Case Studies

Section B3 / Page 14

Case Studies

Section B4 / Page 15

METHODOLOGY

The Overall Methodology

Section C / Page 16

Yes

THE `WHOLE’ BE DESIGNED FOR MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY

Building Integrated Photovoltaic Design is Determined
Naturally Integrated:

Section C1.1 / Page 17

Natural integration refers the way that the PV system forms a logical, natural part of the building. The system completes the building.

Architecturally Pleasing:

The PV system add eye-catching features to the design of the building. The building looks attractive and PV system improves the design. This is a very subjective issue, but there is no doubt that people find some building more pleasing than others

Building Integrated Photovoltaic Design is Determined
Well Contextualized:
The total image of the building is in harmony with the PV system and match the context of the building The entire appearance of the building is consistent with the PV system used and vice –versa. A high-tech PV system is used for a high-tech building.

Section C1.1 / Page 18

The Form and Color:

Solar cells here are blue (as the blue color cells have highest efficiency). The color of the cells is the color of the whole surface which looks like one. Frameless molecules give a very harmonious impression as they are not disturbed by the frames in the façade.

Core Design Issues with Building Integrated Photovoltaic
Orientation And Angles:

Section C1.2 / Page 19

The whole building is oriented towards North South. The PV façade which is the face with maximum PV application is tilted towards the south , which have maximum exposure to sun. All openings are at North to gain the benefits of North Light and east-west walls are blank

NORTH

SOUTH

Core Design Issues with Building Integrated Photovoltaic
Urban Aspect:

Section C1.2 / Page 20

Stone

Building Integrated Photovoltaic systems offer added functionality beyond power generation. PV structures can effectively displace conventional building materials and assist in reducing building costs. Integrating with building avoid the transportation and distribution losses of the value able energy. Urban Areas cannot have large solar fields to generate energy from this technology , so buildings act as the field for the application of the same.

Steel & Glass

Integrated Photovoltaic

Solar Farms away from the city

Integrated Photovoltaic application in the city

Building Integrated Photovoltaic Design is Determined
Warehouse Warehouse

Section C1.2 / Page 21

Other property Underground water tank

Green Belt

Distance from buildings and Trees:

The Photovoltaic application is at adequate distance from the buildings and trees around. Especially with the green belt at the south-side, there is no probability for a building to come up from south which may shadow the PV installation.

Building Integrated Photovoltaic Application Techniques

Section C1.3a / Page 22

The Form:

The overall form of the building is sensitive to the sun movement. The form is consciously designed for maximum exposure of sunlight to the Building Integrated Photovoltaic Applications .

The Form

Section C1.3a / Page 23

Not desirable

Not desirable

Form Generation: Initially the idea was to fully respond to the sun path diagram. Hence curved form was realized but since the greater idea was to have maximum output of the Photovoltaic Application the straight form was very beneficial •Maximum exposure to sun

Desirable

•Cost saving in making the building orthogonal

Shadow Study of the Building

Aim : to know the nature of shadow on the façade, all round the year. Status : NO self-shading of the façade = efficiency maximum

Section C1.3b / Page 24

22nd March

07:00 AM

08:00 AM

09:00 AM

10:00 AM

11:00 AM

12:00 AM

01:00 PM

02:00 PM

03:00 PM

Shadow Study of the Building

Aim : to know the nature of shadow on the façade, all round the year. Status : NO self-shading of the façade = efficiency maximum

Section C1.3b / Page 25

22nd June

07:00 AM

08:00 AM

09:00 AM

10:00 AM

11:00 AM

12:00 AM

01:00 PM

02:00 PM

03:00 PM

Shadow Study of the Building

Aim : to know the nature of shadow on the façade, all round the year. Status : NO self-shading of the façade = efficiency maximum

Section C1.3b / Page 26

22nd Sept

07:00 AM

08:00 AM

09:00 AM

10:00 AM

11:00 AM

12:00 AM

01:00 PM

02:00 PM

03:00 PM

Shadow Study of the Building

Aim : to know the nature of shadow on the façade, all round the year. Status : NO self-shading of the façade = efficiency maximum

Section C1.3b / Page 27

22nd Dec

07:00 AM

08:00 AM

09:00 AM

10:00 AM

11:00 AM

12:00 AM

01:00 PM

02:00 PM

03:00 PM

Building Integrated Photovoltaic Application Techniques

Section C1.3c / Page 28

Roof:

The Photovoltaic application on roof, with full tracking system add to greater efficiencies. Roof is the only obvious place where the sunlight is available all round the year.

The Roof: Calculations for PV output
Photovoltaic Application on the Roof:

Section C1.3c / Page 29

Study done for a unit area of application. The 2D tracking system adds on to the efficiency of the PV application. The Tracking system adds to the dynamism of the overall form of the building

(3D Tracking)

Jan   618

Feb   573

Mar   693

Apr   702

May   718

June   662

July   532

Aug   525

Sept   558

Oct   618

Nov   585

Dec   605

Photovoltaic Output in KWh for corresponding months and angles. Study of a single panel using default settings

Building Integrated Photovoltaic Application Techniques
Atrium & Skylights:
Possibly one of the most elaborate and architecturally innovating applications of Photovoltaic has been in Atria. Not only the atria is covered with PV, it also provides with multi-functional use of daylight, shading and passive cooling. Because of the play of light and shadow, it improves the quality of space beneath.

Section C1.3d / Page 30

Building Integrated Photovoltaic Application Techniques
The Facade:

Section C1.3e / Page 31

The application of Integrated Photovoltaic in the façade was an obvious choice but it was not so easy to do, as the solar angles in this part of the world are favorable for façade integration. It was a greater challenge to make this application optimum. The Integrated Photovoltaic application also replaces the expensive cladding material which would otherwise be used. Hence, improving on the costs

Façade: Ideal Approach
Ideal PV installation is the application of PV at 28 degrees towards the south side

Section C1.3e / Page 32

Façade: Towards The Section

Section C1.3e / Page 33

MAXIMIZING THE SURFACE AREA FOR PV APPLICATION •Target to achieve is maximum surface area • Would be a major part of the whole •Section of the tilted façade. •What will happen inside? •Can it act as a shading device too? •What would happen to the internal environment?

WHOLE Profile

Façade: The Optimization of Façade Angle
MAXIMIZING THE SURFACE AREA FOR PV APPLICATION •Target to achieve is maximum surface area • Would be a major part of the whole •Largest surface area available. •South oriented. •Panels at a tilt of 28 degrees.

Section C1.3e / Page 34

It is clear that the lesser angle of the façade the more efficient the PV installation becomes

Wastage Factor = 0.25

Wastage Factor = 0.20

Wastage Factor = 0.15

WHOLE Profile

Shadow Study of Panels on Inclined Facade
CASE -A Shadow Study Aim : To know the exact distance between the two panels

Section C1.3e / Page 35

Shadow study would tell the number of panels in the façade. Will provide with crucial input that which mechanism is most efficient How: All panels are studies with their shadows drawn on important dates. Hence getting inferences from the dimensions. Status: Aim Achieved

CASE -B

Solar Panels

Shadow Study of Panels on Inclined Facade

Section C1.3e / Page 36

Shadow Study of Panels on Inclined Facade

Section C1.3e / Page 37

Shadow Study of Panels on Inclined Facade

Section C1.3e / Page 38

Calculations for PV output: Fixed at given angle
 
DEG

Section C1.3e / Page 39

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Total

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

340 376 408 436 461 482 500 514 526 534 538 540 538 532 524 512 497 479 457

359 384 406 425 441 455 455 472 477 479 478 474 468 458 445 430 411 390 364

492 512 530 544 554 561 564 564 561 554 543 530 512 492 468 440 408 373 334

547 557 564 567 567 564 557 547 533 516 496 472 445 414 378 340 299 256 212

587 589 588 583 576 564 549 531 509 483 455 423 387 348 306 263 219 178 143

541 540 535 537 517 503 486 466 443 416 386 353 317 280 242 202 165 134 112

460 460 458 453 445 435 423 407 390 369 345 318 290 260 230 198 166 137 112

438 443 445 444 441 436 428 417 403 388 369 348 324 299 272 243 213 180 148

430 443 453 461 456 468 467 464 458 449 438 424 408 388 366 340 311 280 247

414 439 461 479 594 505 514 520 522 521 517 511 501 488 472 452 429 403 371

329 362 391 417 439 458 473 486 495 501 504 505 502 496 486 474 459 440 418

315 354 390 421 447 470 489 505 516 528 534 537 537 533 527 517 503 487 467

5252 5459 5629 5767 5938 5901 5905 5893 5833 5738 5603 5435 5229 4988 4716 4411 4080 3737 3385

Photovoltaic Output in KWh for corresponding months and angles Study of a single panel using default settings

Another inference got from the data is the angle of the façade plane will be 55 Deg

Shadow Study: Fixed at 28
Shadow study of the Central panel Solar Panel Angle= 28 Deg Façade Angle = 55 Deg

Section C1.3e / Page 40

•Shading is no way acceptable

Panel Angle= 28

Façade Angle= 55

Solar panels in elevation (TOWARS SOUTH)

Calculations for PV output: Four Part Tracking
Set I 20 Feb Mar Apr 441 554 567 25 455 561 564 30 456 564 557 31 467 565 556 32 468 565 554 33 470 565 552 34 471 465 549 35 472 564 547 40 477 561 533 45 534 479 516

Section C1.3e / Page 41

Total

1562

1580

1577

1588

1587

1587

1485

1583

1571

1529

The exact angle for maximum PV output for first quarter of months is 31 Deg

Set II 0 May jun July 587 541 460 1 587 541 464 2 588 541 461 3 588 541 461 4 589 540 461 5 589 540 460

Total

1588

1592

1590

1590

1590

1589

The exact angle for maximum PV output for Second quarter of months is 3 Deg

Photovoltaic Output in KWh for corresponding months and angles, Determination of Exact angle. Study of a single panel using default settings

Calculations for PV output: Four Part Tracking
Set III 10 Aug Sept Oct 445 453 461 15 444 461 479 20 441 456 404 25 436 458 505 26 434 468 507 27 433 468 509 28 431 468 511 29 429 467 513 30 428 467 514 35 417 464 520 40 403 458 522

Section C1.3e / Page 42

Total

1359

1384

1301

1399

1409

1410

1410

1409

1409

1401

1383

The exact angle for maximum PV output for first quarter of months is 28 Deg

Set IV 54 Nov Dec Jan 505 536 540 55 505 537 540 56 504 537 539 57 504 537 539 58 503 537 539 59 503 537 538 60 502 537 538

Total

1581

1582

1580

1580

1579

1578

1577

The exact angle for maximum PV output for Second quarter of months is 55 Deg

Photovoltaic Output in KWh for corresponding months and angles, Determination of Exact angle. Study of a single panel using default settings

Calculations for PV output: The Results
Type Description KWh/year % gain or loss Inferences from the PV panel study •% gain in going from fixed to part tracking is 4.8% which would be further discounted with the energy taken by the tracking system itself.

Section C1.3e / Page 43

No tracking (tilt at 28) 4 part tracking difference 12part tracking difference difference Full tracking (single axis) difference difference difference full-4 part full-fixed 28 full-12 part 12 part-4 part 12 part-fixed at 28 4 part - fixed at 28

5915 6170 255 6217 47 302 7107 937 1192 890 15.18% 20.15% 14.31% 0.76% 4.89% 4.31%

•% gain from going 4-part tracking to 12 part tracking is 0.76, which will be further discounted by the energy taken by the tracking system. •% gain from part tracking and full tracking is huge (14-15%), hence if tracking is an option, Full tracking should be highly efficient. •% gain from full tracking over no tracking is immense (~20%). Hence full tracking system would be efficient and eventually be economical

Photovoltaic Output in KWh for corresponding months and angles. Study of a single panel using default settings

The Façade: Calculations for PV output
Building Integrated Photovoltaic Application on the Facade:
Study done for a unit area of application. The tracking system adds on to the efficiency of the PV application. The Tracking system adds to the dynamism of the overall elevation of the building

Section C1.3e / Page 44

Jan   618

Feb   573

Mar   693

Apr   702

May   718

June   662

July   532

Aug   525

Sept   558

Oct   618

Nov   585

Dec   605

Photovoltaic Output in KWh for corresponding months and angles, Determination of Exact angle. Study of a single panel using default settings

EFFICIENT & CONSERVATIVE APPROACH

The Wall: Section

Section C2.1 / Page 45

Concrete Slab (~200mm) Extruded Polystyrene ( 1 inch) Finished with polymerized plaster and paint with a mesh Beam (~600mm) False Ceiling Level

AAC Block (4 inch) inside Insulation Rockwool (2 inch) AAC Block (4 inch) outside Finished with plaster and paint
INTERIOR EXTERIOR

The Wall: Section
Detail A

Section C2.1 / Page 46

AAC Block Rockwool AAC Block Polymerized Plaster with white paint Angle ,cast with the cast of the slab Another angle fixed on site, give base to ACC block Extruded Polystyrene Polymerized Plaster with white paint Concrete
INTERIOR EXTERIOR

The Wall: Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

Section C2.1 / Page 47

Autoclaved Aerated Concrete offers several advantages: •Lightweight: 75 percent lighter than normal concrete. •Easy to Work: Can be drilled, sawed, chiseled and nailed with conventional woodworking tools. •Cost-effective: Reduces construction time and labor •Energy-saving: AAC blocks alone provide insulating value up to R-1.5 per inch compared with R-0.1 to 0.2 per inch for hollow concrete blocks and R-1.25 per inch for wood. •Strong and Stable: Autoclaving gives blocks strength, dimensional stability and durability. •Durable: Resists decay and insects. •Fire Resistant: Does not burn or emit environmentally damaging gases. How the Autoclaved Aerated Concrete used ? •Used for exterior and interior wall section •Thickness = 4” •R-Value = 1.07 per inch (IP units) •Wall section includes a double wall with Rockwood as insulation sandwiched between two 4” ACC walls •Sound Absorptive: Provides highly effective sound barrier. •Easy Availability on Site: Hindustan Prefab Limited plant at Jangpura, New Delhi is the plant manufacturing Autoclaved Aerated Concrete in Delhi. Low embodied energy. •Environmental Benefits / Reuse: Fly ash which is an harmful industrial residue generated during the combustion of coal. Fly ash is released to atmosphere or used in landfills (both of these method have massive environmental and health hazards). Here Fly ash is used in the manufacture of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks.

The Wall: Insulation Rockwool Insulation
Rockwool Insulation offers several advantages:

Section C2.1 / Page 48

•Rockwool insulation products are the excellent insulation materials •Fully safe to use under all conditions •Dusts released during installation are not classified as hazardous. •Rockwool is incombustible and can be used as a fire barrier in certain applications, protecting personnel or the public in case of fire. How the Rockwool Insulation is used ? •Used in exterior wall sections •Thickness = 2” •R-Value = 3.5 per inch (IP units) •Wall section includes a double wall with 2” Rockwool as insulation sandwiched between two 4” ACC walls •Light weight, easy to install and won't settle over time •Insulation could be recycled in the future, without creating extra demand for landfill

Polystyrene Insulation
Polystyrene Insulation offers several advantages: •Exceptional ability to insulate against noise and extreme temperatures •Waterproof and long-lasting •Light weight & Rigid How the Polystyrene Insulation is used ? •Used in exterior wall sections where concrete is exposed •Thickness = 1” •R-Value = 4.8 per inch (IP Units) •Used as foam board for better R Values

Flooring & Ceiling Flooring
Locally available material (Delhi)

Section C2.1 / Page 49

Locally available material (Jhansi, RJ)

Kota stone for passage and service areas

Pre-Dressed Indian granite for office floors
Acts as a path for the return air (see Air-conditioning)

Ceilings

False ceiling for conditioned areas

The Window

Section C2.2 / Page 50

How Window is perceived ? A window in the building play a dominant role in determining the consumption of electricity for lighting as well as HVAC. As compared to other parts of the building envelope, windows offer much less resistance to the entry of loss of heat

Low-E Coating

Air Filled

Double Panes

Spacer

Window in the building: •Used in exterior wall section •1/8” Glass used •R-Value = 3.31 (in IP units) •Window section includes a double glass with air gap as insulation.

Sill

Weather stripping Wall

The use of Glass
Use of Glass offers several advantages:

Section C2.2 / Page 51

•Glass is extremely durable. •Low coefficient of thermal expansion, hence can with stand lower and higher temperatures. •Impermeable to gases and moisture. •Can be fabricated in seal units. •Can be coated easily. •Glass is inflammable.

Double Glass with Air Gap
Double Glass with Air Gap offers several advantages: •The air gap between the two glazing layers is responsible for minimizing the heat gain •It is observed that air space between the layers of glass reaches its optimum insulating value at about 12mm with air filled •No Gas filling is needed as the windows are only in North-Side of the building

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient = 0.63 63% of solar heat gain transmitted

Visible Transmittance = 0.78 78% of visible light transmitted EXTERIOR INTERIOR

Thermally Improved Edge Spacers
Thermally Improved Edge Spacers offers several advantages:

Section C2.2 / Page 52

•Accommodate stress induced by thermal expansion and pressure differences •Provide moisture barrier that prevents passage of water or water vapor that would fog the unit •Provide a gas/air-tight seal that prevents the loss of gas/air •Create an insulating barrier that reduces the formation of interior condensation at the edge •A silicon foam spacer is used over aluminum, stainless steel because of its great thermal properties, easy application. Compressible, flexible, conforms to irregular surfaces.

EXTERIOR

INTERIOR

Low- E Coatings
Low-E Coatings offers several advantages:

Surface 1 exterior of exterior face Surface 2 interior of exterior face Surface 3 exterior of interior face Surface 4 interior of interior face

•These are useful in multi-pane glazing as our case •The coating provides a break to thermal radiation between warm pane of glass to the cooler pane of glass. •Placement of Low-E coating: In hot climates like in the case, coating on the #2 surface (inside surface of the outer pane) is generally best to reduce heat gain from outside to inside •Coatings are colorless and optically clear

Bamboo Wood Frames
Bamboo Wood Frames offers several advantages: •Great thermal performance. •Easy to mill into complex shapes suitable for windows. •Attractive interior appearance. •Easy to repair and maintain with simple tools and materials.

Section C2.2 / Page 53

•Harder, more moisture resistant and more stable than even hardwoods •Bamboo wood attains its full strength in about 4- 5 years time. •Bamboo wood products are available which do not use Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) as adhesive, which is a general practice in wood.
oMinimal short or long-term impact on health

•Bamboo from managed forests
oBamboo is the fastest growing plant on earth. It is known to produce greater biomass and 30% more oxygen than a hardwood forest of comparable size, while improving watersheds, preventing erosion, restoring soil, providing sweet edible shoots and removing toxins from contaminated soil. oBamboo helps reduce carbon dioxide gases blamed for global warming. Some bamboo sequesters up to 12 tons of carbon dioxide per hectare, which makes it a highly efficient plant, and conducive to fresh air. oBamboo can restore degraded lands. It is a pioneering plant and can be grown in soil damaged by overgrazing and poor agriculture.

Day lighting: Skylight / Light well
S
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Section C2.3 / Page 54

N

Day-lighting strategy : •Skylight/Light well adds to the day-lighting of the building •The shape of the building enables the light to penetrate further. •Day-light not only enters the building from North but also from south and top

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Aim : To know the nature of shadow on the inside of the building through skylight, all round the year. Status : Sunlight penetrates deep inside the building = Useful

Day lighting: Skylight / Light well Study

Section C2.3 / Page 55

Day lighting Window Area Study
Aim : To know the Actual window area needed in the rooms , so that the lighting requirements of the building are largely achieved by the daylighting. Very useful strategy to minimize the lighting load, herein eventually minimizing the electrical demand of the building Window lintel level is maximum to make the light penetrate as far as possible How it is done:

Section C2.3 / Page 56

Daylight Factor (DF) = 2% (known) Floor Area (Af) = Known Window geometry (W) = Rectangular = 0.1 Actual visible transmittance (Ta) = 0.77 Minimum visible transmittance (Tm) = 0.4 Height Factor (HF) = 0.8 Window area (Aw) = Can be calculated

Status : In every space, the window area is calculated and windows are accommodated. Hence, every space have adequate day-lighting with a daylight factor of 2%

Formula Applied DF = Aw/Af X W X Ta/Tm X HF From the above formula we get the total area of the window required for the Daylight Factor of (2%). Area (known) = Length (known) X Breath Width can be known.

Day lighting Window Area Study

Section C2.3 / Page 57

All area in Sqm.

Day lighting: Window Geometry Study
Aim : To know the geometry of the window to be near to the desired lux level needed in the room How: we are already aware of the approximate area needed for the daylight factor of 2%, hence a simulation study of the geometry of the window is done. Status: A proper geometry of the window was developed, with a good quality of light and approximate level of lux was also achieved

Section C2.3 / Page 58

VS

Day lighting: Window Geometry Study

Section C2.3 / Page 59

VS
See glare levels in each case

An improved quality of light Uniform and desired lux level achieved

VS

The study is done for New Delhi on 21st June at 12 noon. The double windows on the north side & shaded windows on the south side.

Room dimension 7m X 10m, which is in accordance of the grid. All levels in Foot Candles

The Wall Section

Section C2.4 / Page 60

Vegetation from above floor Concrete Slab Gypsum Board Ceiling Window for penetrated daylight

Concrete Slit
INSIDE OUTSIDE

View Window

Bamboo Frame

Vegetation ACC Block with Rockwool insulation

Illumination: Interior Lighting Design
Lighting Strategies: •Daylight will be the primary source of illumination.

Section C2.5 / Page 61

•Artificial illumination is on the ceiling grid with compact fluorescent luminaries at 5W/sqm of floor area. •Most of the work is done on computers and the working hours are limited to daylight hours. •The illumination level offered by this system supplements with day light when necessary, and is comfortable for short working hours. •Task lamps are provided on desks for more detailed work, whenever needed.

Illumination: Interior Lighting Design

Section C2.5 / Page 62

Lighting Strategies: •The control circuits for ceiling lights are arranged in zones running parallel to the daylight source. •The can be switched on progressively to compensate for the variation in falling daylight levels. •They will be controlled by automatic timer automatic timer switches with timing set for all seasons (provision for manual override for unusual cloudy weather) •Accent lighting done to break the monotonous nature and to give an interest lighting

Illumination: Street / Exterior Lighting
Lighting Type: •Stand-alone Solar PV lighting for exterior and street lighting. •Not connected to the building PV system nor to the grid.

Section C2.5 / Page 63

Illumination: Interior Lighting Uses
Interior Lighting Uses: •Ambient Lighting: separate Florescent Lamps are used

Section C2.5 / Page 64

Installation of fluorescent light fixtures for all ceiling and wall mountings that will be ON for more than 2 hours Installation of dedicated Compact Florescent Fixtures, rather than CFL’s in incandescent fixtures, so that florescent bulbs are used for the life of the building Fluorescent lamps use 25%–35% of the energy used by incandescent lamps to provide the same amount of illumination (efficacy of 30–110 lumens per watt). They also last about 10 times longer (7,000–24,000 hours).

•Task Lighting: LED’s on desks

Efficiency: LEDs produce more light per watt than incandescent Color: LEDs can emit light of an intended color. Size: LEDs can be very small (smaller than 2 mm). On/Off time: LEDs light up very quickly. Cycling: LEDs are ideal for use in applications that are subject to frequent on-off cycling, unlike fluorescent lamps that burn out more quickly when cycled frequently. Cool light:LEDs radiate very little heat in the form of IR that can cause damage to sensitive objects or fabrics. Lifetime: LEDs can have a relatively long useful life. One report estimates 35,000 to 50,000 hours of useful life, though time to complete failure may be longer Fluorescent tubes typically are rated at about 10,000 to 15,000 hours, Shock resistance: LEDs, being solid state components, are difficult to damage with external shock, unlike fluorescent and incandescent bulbs which are fragile. Toxicity: LEDs do not contain mercury, unlike fluorescent lamps.

•Accent Lighting: use of down lights and other light fixtures to make interesting lighting

Interior Lighting Design: Visual Display & Turning Off the Lights
Visual Display and Glare: •There is a recognized problem of glare on the computer screens or the visual display terminal. •Since, in this case Laptops are used, the problem is reduced, but it is very intense when curved fixtures are used. •Laptops etc have a lighter background, which reduces the problem but do not eliminate and glare continues to be a problem •Strategy can be adopted to position computers at angles that do not promote reflections of windows and lights •Use of anti-glare screens can help •Avoiding overhead glare zone Turning off the lights:
Overhead Glare Zone

Section C2.5 / Page 65

Nominal angles of view

Turn-off the lights

•A general rule-of-thumb for when to turn off a fluorescent light is if you leave a room for more than 15 minutes, it is probably more cost effective to turn the light off. •But it is a bit complicated
•Fluorescent lights are more expensive to buy, and their operating life is more affected by the number of times they are switched on and off, relative to incandescent lights. Therefore, it is a cost tradeoff between saving energy and money by turning a light off "frequently" and having to replace the bulbs "more" frequently. This is because the reduction in usable lamp life due to frequent on/off switching will probably be greater than the benefit of extending the useful life of the bulb from reduced use.

Plug-ins
•Energy efficient appliances and electronics to be used •Importance and preference to star ratings •Using efficient equipment would ultimately affect on the running cost of the equipment

Section C2.6 / Page 66

•Use of Laptops over whole work stations
CPU awake / asleep = 120 / 30 watts Monitor awake / asleep = 150 / 130 watts Laptop awake = 50 watts Using of sleep mode which consumes only 15 watts saves electricity by 70% Turning off the monitors when there is no work for 20 min saves 35% of electricity

•Use of CFL’s over incandescent lamps

Fluorescent lamps use 25%–35% of the energy used by incandescent lamps to provide the same amount of illumination (efficacy of 30–110 lumens per watt). They also last about 10 times longer (7,000–24,000 hours).

Air Conditioning System Study

Air Conditioning System 1

Section C2.7 / Page 67

~25-26 Deg False ceiling

Return Air

Avoid Short Circuit

Picks up heat from body and equipment

~22-23 Deg Supply Air

Picks up heat from body and equipment Towards Return

Air Conditioning System 1 characteristics: •Sensible Temperature = ~24-26 Deg C (Adaptive Comfort)
Supply Air

•Inlet Air Temperature = ~22-23 Deg C (work done = 9X)
•Outside Temperature = 32 Deg C •Work done to lower down the temperature by 1 Deg C = X •gain in work done wrt System 2 = 2X (18%) •gain in work done wrt System 3 = 7X (43%)

•Conditioned Air Volume = 0.8m to 1.8m(table level to standing level) = 1m X L (length) X B (breath) = 1 L*B
•gain in volume wrt System 2 = 0.8L*B (44%) •gain in volume wrt System 3 = 1.2L*B (66%)

•The inlet air is forced and the movement of air is against the natural movement of air

Sensible Temperature = ~24-26 Deg C (Adaptive Comfort) •Inlet Air Temperature = ~20-21 Deg C (work done = 11X)
•Outside Temperature = 32 Deg C •Work done to lower down the temperature by 1 Deg C = X •loss in work done wrt System 1 = 2X •gain in work done wrt System 3 = 5X ~26 Deg

Air Conditioning System 2

Section C2.7 / Page 68

Return Air ~22-24 Deg Picks up heat from body and equipment

•Conditioned Air Volume = 0.0m to 1.8m (floor to standing level) = 1m X L (length) X B (breath) = 1.8 L*B
•loss in volume wrt System 1 = 0.8L*B •gain in volume wrt System 3 = 0.4L*B

~20 Deg

Supply Air

•The inlet air is forced and the movement of air is against the natural movement of air Sensible Temperature = ~24-26 Deg C (Adaptive Comfort) •Inlet Air Temperature = ~16-17 Deg C (work done = 16X)
•Outside Temperature = 32 Deg C •Work done to lower down the temperature by 1 Deg C = X •loss in work done wrt System 1 = 7X •loss in work done wrt System 2 = 5X Return Air ~17 Deg ~26 Deg Supply Air

Air Conditioning System 3

•Conditioned Air Volume = 3.0m to 0.8m(table level to standing level) = 1m X L (length) X B (breath) = 2.2 L*B
•loss in volume wrt System 1 = 1.2L*B •loss in volume wrt System 2 = 0.4L*B

~22-24 Deg

Picks up heat from body and equipment

•The inlet air is forced and the movement of air is against the natural movement of air

Air Conditioning: Energy Conservation Strategies
•Use of high R-value insulation throughout the building. •Using inside design dry bulb temperature of 27 Deg C . This provide adequate comfort for most applications. The general practice of designing for 24 Deg C is wasteful. (Adaptive comfort) •Minimum use of Glass, use of double glazed low-E windows. •Orientation of the building. •Avoiding unnecessary excessive lighting levels. •Using type of lighting and other equipments that convert electrical energy efficiently.

Section C2.7 / Page 69

WATTS

Temperature fluctuation of different building systems.

Heat Gains by various systems on a peak July afternoon in Gurgaon.

Landscape: Roof Garden
Roof Garden advantages: •Create green open spaces Increasing urban density decreases ground level green space. Roof gardens negate, to some extent, high density development. •Provide diverse habitats Roof gardens, when planted with indigenous flora, can provide important habitats for native bird and insect populations. •Modify urban micro-climates Cities, of concrete, retain heat and create "urban heat islands”. Plants, through transpiration, directly cool the air •Insulate against heat and sound Buildings with roof gardens lose 30% less heat in the winter, are cooler in the summer, and offer year-round sound insulation. •Provide economic benefits Roof gardens and green roofs extend the life of the existing roof fabric by up to 70%. Further savings are also made from improved insulation.

Section C2.8 / Page 70

Landscape: The Section of The Roof

Section C2.8 / Page 71

Grass / Vegetation

Soil (6-12”) Sand (3”) Geo-Textile (3mm) Drainage Media (2”) Root Barrier (3mm) Insulation (2”) Water Proofing Membrane (5mm) Screeding (1-3”) Concrete Slab (200mm)

Landscape: Creation of Microclimate
Microclimate advantages: •Increasing urban density decreases ground level green space. Green negate, to some extent, high density development. •Gardens, when planted with indigenous flora, can provide important habitats for native bird and insect populations. •Plants, through transpiration, directly cool the air. •Buildings with roof gardens lose 30% less heat in the winter, are cooler in the summer, and offer year-round sound insulation. •It is in the southern side of the building, hence the benefit is most. •The above PV installations secure the plantation by physical damage.

Section C2.8 / Page 72

Landscape: Vegetated Facade
Vegetated facade: •Symbolizes the statement of green •Added area to the green in the building •Acts as an element in the elevation •Great visual kick •Great views from inside too •Shade the wall, hence reduce direct heat gain •Creates a microclimate between wall and the green, lowering down the temperature further.

Section C2.8 / Page 73

INSIDE

OUTSIDE

TESTING

Energy Calculations for Total PV Output: PV Watts
Aim for study is to optimize the Photovoltaic installations in the building A software was used for determining the output of the PV installations All the study is done for panel of unit area Site Location : New Delhi (28.5N,77.2E), 216m Weather Data: IWEC DC Rating: 4.0 (standard) DC to AC Derate Factor: 0.77

Section D1 / Page 88

Array Type: As desired in each case Tilt angle: As per case Azimuth angle: As per case

Energy Calculations for Total PV Output: Result
Building Integrated Photovoltaic Application on the whole building:
Study done for the whole area of application. Both uni-dimensional and multi-dimensional tracking incorporated.

Section D1 / Page 89

304056 kWh/Year

Jan   24974.06

Feb   23762.97

Mar   29242.4

Apr   29403.03

May   29305.37

June   26476.34

July   21609.6

Aug   21793.71

Sept   23606.51

Oct   25901.2

Nov   23828.8

Dec   24161.03

Photovoltaic Output in KWh for corresponding months. Study of full building application.

Energy Calculations for Total Consumptions: Designed Parameters and Assumptions

Section D2 / Page 90

•Fuel Type : Electricity •Building Use : Institutional •Space Heating Temperature: 19 Deg C •Space Cooling Temperature: 28 Deg C •Temperature Variation : +_ 3 Deg C •Occupancy rate - daily Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Occupancy rate - annual
h/d 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 0.5 0.5 1,877

•It is assumed that people will not wear heavy coat in summers and light t-shirts in extreme winters •All wall, windows etc assembly are (medium) leaky.

Energy Calculations for Total Consumptions: Building Envelope

Section D2 / Page 91

Energy Calculations for Total Consumptions: Others
Ventilation Electrical Equipment

Section D2 / Page 92

Lights

Energy Calculations for Total Consumptions: Result
Show: Energy - proposed case Heating system 0 Cooling system Building envelope 11 Ventilation 4 Lights Electrical equipment
-

Section D2 / Page 93

Heating MWh

Cooling MWh 0 320 46 -

Electricity MWh 6
41

Total

15

365

47

GRAND TOTAL = 428 MWh per Year E.P.I (Energy Performance Index) = 116 kWh/ Sqm per year

Comparison: Energy Generated and Energy Consumed

Section D3 / Page 94

Total Energy Consumption Of the Facility = 428 MWh per Year

Total Energy Generated by Photovoltaic Application = 304 MWh per Year
Energy Difference per Year = 124 MWh Percentage Offset = 71 %

Building as a Generator

Section D4 / Page 95

304 MWh per Year

Economic Viability Of Photovoltaic Application: Building as an Investment
With the rise in crude prices energy sector is seen as a sector for investment. The PV installation here would provide an opportunity for investing and will give handsome and assured returns.

Section D5 / Page 96

As per the policies of Ministry of NonConventional Energy Sources under Section 3/3. UIAC (SC)

Economic Viability Of Photovoltaic Application: Building as an Investment

Section D5 / Page 97

This is what you get back

This is what you invest

The final results is showing the Repo Rate and the Investment vs Return curve with respect to time

Environmental Viability of The Facility
Environmental Impact of proposed of TATA IT Training Centre, Gurgaon

Section D6 / Page 98

406 – 195 = 211 Tonnes of Carbon dioxide

140 – 67 =73 Hectares of forest absorbing Carbon dioxide

82.5 – 39.6 = 42.9 Cars and Light Trucks off the road

137 – 65 = 72 Tonnes of waste recycled

165080 – 79000 = 86080 Liters of Gasoline not used

Acknowledgement

I would like to express my thanks to my guide Ar. Neeraj Kapoor. His advice, expertise and encouragement always pushed me to think new and better. And, for parting his valuable time for this Thesis. I would like to express my thanks to my year coordinator Prof. A.B Lall and Ar. Ruchita Garg for leading us and always being around even in tough times. Their directions and guidance have a pivotal role in completion of the Thesis. Also, thanks to my dear friends especially Anshul, Nitu, Raju, Rahul & Sudhanshu who have given unconditional support to me. In addition, a special thanks to Mili Majumdar & Priyanka Khochhar of TERI who also guided me in this topic via emails and internet discussions. My gratitude to Dr. Neha Gulati, for her valuable time, encouragement and trust for the Thesis Project. Finally, thanks to the school friends, faculty and management for their supportive role.

Sumanyu Vasist (0441731604) University School of Architecture and Planning

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