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Temperature Measurement

Mark Murphy, PE Technical Director, Fluor Corp.


Standards Certification Education & Training Publishing Conferences & Exhibits

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Types of Temperature Instrument

Thermocouple (T/C) Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) Thermowell Thermistor Bi-metallic Thermometers Filled Thermal Systems

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Various Units of Temperature Measurement

C degrees Celsius (or Centigrade) F degrees Fahrenheit K Kelvin R Rankine

Relationship between different units C = (F - 32)/1.8 F = 1.8 x C + 32 K = C + 273.15 R = F + 459.67 Conversion tables or software can be utilized to facilitate with converting between these units.

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Thermocouples (TCs)
Basic Theory
In 1821 a German physicist named Seebeck discovered the thermoelectric effect which forms the basis of modern thermocouple technology. He observed that an electric current flows in a closed circuit of two dissimilar metals if their two junctions are at different temperatures. The thermoelectric voltage produced depends on the metals used and on the temperature relationship between the junctions. If the same temperature exists at the two junctions, the voltage produced at each junction cancel each other out and no current flows in the circuit. With different temperatures at each junction, different voltages are produced and current flows in the circuit. A thermocouple can therefore only measure temperature differences between the two junctions, a fact which dictates how a practical thermocouple can be utilized.

Iron (Fe) 100C Constantan (CuNi) 0C

Thermocouple Circuit
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Thermocouples (TCs) Thermocouple measuring circuit


Equivalent to 80C reading
Iron (Fe) Copper (Cu)

100C
Hot Junction: In Process
Constantan (CuNi)

20C
Copper (Cu)

0 mV

10

Cold Junction:
Needs to be held constant to give a fixed reference. ( early methods held cold junction at 0C using ice or refrigeration unit).

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Thermocouples (TCs)
Standard Thermocouple Alloy Conductor Combinations
CONDUCTOR COMBINATION Platinum-30% Rhodium / Platinum-6% Rhodium Tungsten-5% Rhenium / Tungsten-26% Rhenium Tungsten-3% Rhenium / Tungsten-25% Rhenium TYPICAL OPERATING RANGE F +2500 to +3100 +3000 to +4200 +2800 to +3800

CODE B C D

E
J K N R S T

Nickel Chromium / Constantan


Iron / Constantan Nickel Chromium / Nickel Aluminium Nickel-Chromium-Silicon / Nickel-SiliconMagnesium Platinum-13% Rhodium / Platinum Platinum-10% Rhodium / Platinum Copper / Constantan

0 to +1650
+0 to +1400 0 to +2300 1200 to +2300 1600 to +2600 1800 to +2600 -300 to +650
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Thermocouples (TCs)

A graph of temperature vs. voltage shows thermocouple characteristics are not perfectly linear.

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Thermocouple Resolution

Temperature Change From 500 deg F to 510 deg F TYPE 500 OF 510 OF DIFF

C
E J K R S

4.140
14.110 2.017 1.962

4.248

0.108

17.945 18.371 0.426 14.418 0.308 2.070 2.012 0.053 0.050 10.561 10.789 0.228

12.574 12.887 0.313

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Thermocouples (TCs)
Thermocouple Construction
Sheath (normally stainless steel)

Normally element is in a thermowell


Arc Welded Junction (some are earthed at tip For improved response time) Conductors insulated by Magnesium Oxide Powder

Commonly element is 1/4 outside Diameter

Sheath material, normally Stainless steel but can be special material such as Inconel, Incoloy, Hastelloy etc.
Duplex thermocouples have 2 elements inside one sheath.
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Thermocouples (TCs)
Thermocouple Tip Types

Ungrounded For use in corrosive and pressurized apps. Slow response time. Offers electrical isolation.

Grounded For use in corrosive and pressurized apps. Quicker response time than ungrounded due to improved heat transfer.

Exposed For use in dry, non-corrosive, nonpressurized apps. Quickest response time of all three.

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Thermocouples (TCs)

Response time comparision among the different thermocouple tip types.

12#

RTDs
RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors) operate under the principle that the electrical resistance of certain metals increases and decreases in a repeatable and predictable manner with a temperature change.

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RTD Elements
Wire Wound Element
Precise lengths of wire are wrapped around a ceramic mandrel, then inserted inside a ceramic shell which acts to support and protect the wire windings.

Inner Coil Element


Wires are coiled then slid into the holes of a ceramic insulator. Some manufacturers backfill the bores with ceramic powder after the coils are inserted. This keeps the coils from shorting against each other.

Thin Film Element


Metallic ink is deposited onto a ceramic substrate. Lasers then etch the ink to provide a resistance path. The entire assembly is encapsulated in ceramic to support and protect.

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RTD Leadwire Configuration


2-wire: Should only be used with very short runs of leadwire. No compensation for leadwire resistance. 3-wire: Most commonly used for industrial applications. Leadwire compensation. 4-wire: Laboratory use historically, moving more into industrial applications. Full compensation for leadwire resistance.

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Wheatstone Bridge
The most common method for measuring the resistance of an RTD is to use a Wheatstone bridge circuit. In a Wheatstone bridge, electrical excitation current is passed through the bridge, and the bridge output current is an indication of the RTD resistance.

RTD

AMMETER

R 3

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RTDs
The most common material is Platinum. Its resistance is 100 at 0Celsius.
Hence the term PT100

Its resistance is 138.5 at 100Celsius.


Hence the Fundamental Interval of 38.5 Or 0.385 per 1Celsius Rise in Temperature.

There are other materials available for more unusual temperature ranges such as Germanium (e.g.10 to 100 Kelvin).

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RTDs and T/Cs


Temperature Sensor Selection Guide

RTD
Temperature Range Accuracy Response Time Stability -328F to 1562F 0.001F to 0.1F Moderate Stable over long periods

Thermocouple
-310F to 3308F 1F to 10F Fast Not as stable

<0.1% error / 5 yr.


Linearity Sensitivity Vibration applications Best High Poor

1F error / 1yr.
Moderate Low Good

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RTD vs T/C Accuracy


RTD Temp.C Grade B -200 1.10C -100 0.67C 0 0.25C 100 0.67C 200 1.10C 300 1.50C 400 1.90C 500 2.40C Thermocouple Type J & K Standard Premium

Grade A 0.47C 0.30C 0.13C 0.30C 0.47C 0.64C 0.81C 0.98C

2.2C 2.2C 2.2C 2.3C 3.0C 3.8C

1.1C 1.1C 1.1C 1.2C 1.6C 2.0C

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Temperature Element Assembly

Head

Nipple-Union-Nipple

Thermowell

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Thermowells

Straight Shank

Flanged
Van Stone

Step Shank Tapered Shank Plug with Chain

Plug

Threaded

Weld-in

Accessories
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Thermowells

Insertion Length

Lagging Extension
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Thermowell Installation
PIP Flanged Thermowell Installation Requirements

Perpendicular Pipe Installation

Elbow Installation
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Thermowell Design & Material


Considerations for Thermowell selection: Process temperature Environment / Process media Fluid or gas pressure Pipe or vessel size Flow velocity

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Wake Frequency
Thermowells must be carefully selected for processes where significant velocity is present. By penetrating the process flow, the thermowell is subject to the stress and friction of the flow. This may set up a natural vibration that may result in the shearing off of the thermowell into the process. This is called the Wake Frequency. ASME PTC 19-3 Thermowells This Standard establishes a mechanical design standard for reliable service of thermowells in a broad range of applications. This includes an evaluation of the forces caused by external pressure, and the static and dynamic forces resulting from fluid impingement.
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Wake Frequency Calculation


Energy Absorbed By Thermowell

Top View Vortices

Resonance Condition

fWake
Side View

fWake = fNatural

Wake Frequency (fWake)

fNatural

Thermowell Calculations 1) Ensure that: fWake fNatural

< 0.8
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Other TW Failure Modes: Process-Induced Bending Stress

Velocity Density

Diameter
Area Length

FDrag

FDrag

Flow

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Thermowell Insertion Modification

TYPICAL THERMOWELL CONSTRUCTION

SHORTENED THERMOWELL CONSTRUCTION

STEPPED THERMOWELL CONSTRUCTION

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Transmitters Signal Conditioner Low level inputs mV from thermocouples from RTDs High level outputs 4-20mA current Digital (i.e. Fieldbus)

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Thermistors

Thermistors are temperature sensing devices that are similar to RTDs in that their resistance changes as temperature changes. The major difference is that for most thermistors the resistance decreases as temperature increases. Thermistors are an inexpensive alternative to RTDs when temperature ranges are below 150C. Thermistors can be used from temperatures of 80C to 300C. Most thermistors have base resistances, which are much higher than RTDs. One of the greatest advantages of using a thermistor sensor is the large change in resistance to a relatively small change in temperature. This makes them very sensitive to small changes in temperature.

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Bimetallic Thermometers
A Bimetallic Thermometer consists of an indicating or recording device, a sensing element and a means for connecting the two.
A pointer is attached to the rotating coil which indicates the temperature on the dial.

Basic example: Two metal strips expand at different rates as the temperature changes.

Bimetal Coil
Coil rotation is caused by the difference in thermal expansions of the two metals.
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Filled Thermal Systems

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References
ISA MC 96.1 Temperature Measurement Thermocouples PIP PCETE001 Temperature Measurement Guidelines PIP PCFTE100 Thermowell Fabrication Details ASME PTC 19.3 Temperature Measurement Internet websites:
Sensorsmag.com Omega.com Isi-seal.com Sensortecinc.com Wikipedia.org Rosemount.com

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QUESTIONS

Any Questions???

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