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# Content

## Bearing Capacity Concepts

Analysis for Shallow Foundations
2
Bearing Capacity Failures
Modes of Soil Failure:
General shear failure
Local shear failure
Punching shear failure
3
Terzaghi Bearing Capacity Formulas
4
General Shear Failure
5
Local Shear Failure
6
Punching Shear Failure
7
Model Tests - Vesic (1973)
8
General Guidelines
Footings on clays - general shear
Footings on dense sands (> 70%) - general
shear
Footings on loose to medium dense - local
shear
Footings on very loose sand (< 35%) -
punching shear
9
Terzaghis Basic Assumptions
D s B
No sliding between footing and soil
Soil is a homogeneous semi-infinite mass
General shear failure
Footing is very rigid compared to soil
10
Terzaghi Bearing Capacity Formulas
General Shear Failure

BN qN cN q
q c ult
5 . 0 + + =
For Square foundations:
For Continuous foundations:

BN qN cN q
q c ult
4 . 0 3 . 1 + + =
For Circular foundations:

BN qN cN q
q c ult
3 . 0 3 . 1 + + =
11
Terzaghi Bearing Capacity Factors
General Shear Failure
12
13
Terzaghi Bearing Capacity Formulas
Local Shear Failure
c c
3
2
=
) tan
3
2
( tan
tan
3
2
tan
1
| |
| |

=
Modified General Ultimate Bearing
Capacity Formula
i d s
qi qd qs q
ci cd cs c ult
F F F BN
F F F qN
F F F cN q

5 . 0

+
+
=
14
15
Modified General Ultimate Bearing
Capacity Formula
1
4 . 0 1
tan 1
1
s
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
L
B
L
B
F
L
B
F
N
N
L
B
F
s
qs
c
q
cs

|
16
Modified General Ultimate Bearing
Capacity Formula
1
1
tan ) sin 1 ( 2 1
4 . 0 1
2
s
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
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+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
B
D
F
B
D
F
B
D
F
f
d
f
qd
f
cd

| |
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Modified General Ultimate Bearing
Capacity Formula
1
1
tan tan ) sin 1 ( 2 1
tan 4 . 0 1
1 2
1
>
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

B
D
F
B
D
F
B
D
F
f
d
f
qd
f
cd

| |
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Modified General Ultimate Bearing
Capacity Formula
cal the verti respect to load with
ied f the appl lination o is the inc
F
F F
i
qi ci

) (
1
90
1

2
2
|
|
|
|

|
|
.
|

\
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=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

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Effect of GWT Level
Case I: 0 D
1
D
f
'
2 1
D D q + =
' =
20
Effect of GWT Level
w sat
=
'
Case II: 0 d B

f
D q =
( )
'
+ =
B
d
'
21
Effect of GWT Level
w sat
=
'
Case III: d > B

22
Effect of GWT Level
f
D q =
=
Selection of Soil Strength
Parameters
Use saturated strength parameters
Use undrained strength in clays (c
u
)
Use drained strength in sands
For intermediate soils with partially drained
conditions, undrained shear strength can be
used but it will be conservative
23
Other Approaching Methods
Skempton (1951)
Meyerhof (1953, 1963)
Brinch Hanson (1961, 1970)
Vesic' (1973, 1975)
Others
24
Factor of Safety
Depends on:
Type of soil
Level of uncertainty in soil strength
Importance of structure
Consequences of failure
25
Gross Allowable Bearing Capacity
Net Allowable Bearing Capacity
26
Factor of Safety
27
Factor of Safety
28
Design Factor of Safety
Use Terzaghis formula to determine the gross
allowable load for the square footing shown
below at a general shear failure condition with
no GWT effect. Take N
c
= 17.69, N
q
= 7.44, N

=
3.64, and F
S
= 3.0.
29
Example 1
30
Example 1 - Solution
lb A q Q
f t lb
F
q
q
f t lb
BN qN N c q
all all
S
ult
all
q c ult
28 . 41041 ) 4 )( 4 )( 08 . 2565 (
/ 08 . 2565
3
24 . 7659
/ 24 . 7659
) 64 . 3 )( 4 )( 110 ( 4 . 0 ) 44 . 7 )( 110 )( 3 ( ) 69 . 17 )( 200 ( 3 . 1
4 . 0 ' 3 . 1
2
2
= = =
= = =
=
+ + =
+ + =

## Redo the previuos example under a local shear

failure condition with no GWT effect. Use
Terzaghis formula. Take N
c
= 11.85, N
q
= 3.88, N

= 1.12, and F
S
= 3.0.
31
Example 2
32
Example 2 - Solution
lb A q Q
f t lb
F
q
q
f t lb
BN qN N c q
f t lb c c
all all
S
ult
all
q c ult
72 . 18834 ) 4 )( 4 )( 17 . 1177 (
/ 17 . 1177
3
52 . 3531
/ 52 . 3531
) 12 . 1 )( 4 )( 110 ( 4 . 0 ) 88 . 3 )( 110 )( 3 ( ) 85 . 11 )( 200 )(
3
2
( 3 . 1
4 . 0 ' 3 . 1
64 . 13 )) 20 tan(
3
2
( tan ) ' tan
3
2
( tan '
/ ) 200 (
3
2
'
3
2
'
2
2
1 1
2
= = =
= = =
=
+ + =
+ + =
= = =
= =

| |
Refer to the previous example to determine the
net allowable load. Use Terzaghis formula. Take
F
S
= 3.0.
33
Example 3
34
Example 3 - Solution
lb A q Q
f t lb
F
q
q
f t lb
q q q
net all net all
S
net
net all
ult net
72 . 17074 ) 4 )( 4 )( 17 . 1067 (
/ 17 . 1067
3
52 . 3201
/ 52 . 3201
) 110 )( 3 ( 52 . 3531
) ( ) (
2
) (
2
= = =
= = =
=
=
=
Determine the breadth of the square footing
shown below using Terzaghis formula to
withstand a gross mass of 30 tons with no GWT
level effects. N
c
= 57.75, N
q
= 41.44, N

= 45.41,
and F
S
= 3.0.
35
Example 4
36
Example 4 - Solution
cm B
B f or Solving
B B
B
BN qN N c q
B A Q q
kN F Q Q
m kN
q c ult
ult ult
S all ult
50 . 91

/ 90 . 882 68 . 329 14 . 752
) 41 . 45 )( )( 15 . 18 ( 4 . 0 ) 44 . 41 )( 15 . 18 )( 1 ( ) 75 . 57 )( 0 ( 3 . 1
4 . 0 ' 3 . 1
/ 90 . 882 /
90 . 882 ) 1000 /( ) 3 )( 81 . 9 )( 30000 (
/ 15 . 18 ) 1000 /( ) 81 . 9 )( 1850 (
2
2
3
=
= + =
+ + =
+ + =
= =
= = =
= =

## Determine the required breadth of a square

footing using the general bearing capacity
formula to withstand a gross load of 150 kN at a
depth of 0.7 m with no GWT level effects. The
applied load is inclined at angle of 20 to the
vertical. c = 0, | = 30, = 18 kN/m
3
, N
q
= 18.40,
N

= 22.40, and F
S
= 3.0.
37
Example 5
38
Example 5 - Solution
60 . 0 4 . 0 1 4 . 0 1
58 . 1 30 tan 1 ' tan 1
5 . 0

'
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
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=
=
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.
|

\
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+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
+
=
B
B
L
B
F
B
B
L
B
F
F F F BN
F F F qN
F F F N c q
s
qs
i d s
qi qd qs q
ci cd cs c ult

39
Example 5 - Solution
1
1
2021 . 0
1
30 tan ) 30 sin 1 (
7 . 0
2 1
' tan ) ' sin 1 ( 2 1
2
2
s
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
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+ =

|
.
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\
|
+ =

|
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.
|

\
|
+ =
B
D
F
B
B
B
D
F
f
d
f
qd

| |
40
Example 5 - Solution
2
2 2
2 2
/ 450 /
450 ) 3 )( 150 (
111 . 0
30
20
1 1
605 . 0
90
20
1
90
1
B A Q q
kN F Q Q
F
F F
ult ult
S all ult
i
qi ci
= =
= = =
=
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\
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=
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.
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\
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=
=
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.
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\
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=
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.
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\
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= =

|
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41
Example 5 - Solution
OK
B
D
cm B
B f or Solving
B B
B
B
B
q
f
ult
1
282 . 1
7 . 0
20 . 128

/ 450 44 . 13 )
2021 . 0
1 )( 62 . 221 (
) 111 . 0 )( 1 )( 60 . 0 )( 4 . 22 )( )( 18 )( 5 . 0 (
) 605 . 0 )(
2021 . 0
1 )( 58 . 1 )( 4 . 18 )( 18 )( 7 . 0 (
2
s
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
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.
|

\
|
=
= +
|
.
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\
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+ =
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
square footing shown below using Terzaghis
formula. Take N
q
= 23.18, N

= 22.02, and F
S
= 3.0.
42
Example 6
43
Example 6 - Solution
tons kN A q Q
m kN
F
q
q
m kN q
m kN
m kN
D D q
BN qN N c q
all all
S
ult
all
ult
q c ult
59 . 19 13 . 192 ) 2 . 1 )( 2 . 1 )( 43 . 133 (
/ 43 . 133
3
28 . 400
/ 28 . 400 ) 02 . 22 )( 2 . 1 )( 69 . 9 ( 4 . 0 ) 18 . 23 )( 85 . 12 (
/ 69 . 9 81 . 9 5 . 19 '
/ 85 . 12 ) 81 . 9 5 . 19 )( 5 . 0 ( ) 16 )( 5 . 0 (
'
4 . 0 ' 3 . 1
3
3
3
3
2 1
= = = =
= = =
= + =
= = =
= + =
+ =
+ + =