BN qN cN q
q c ult
5 . 0 + + =
For Square foundations:
For Continuous foundations:
BN qN cN q
q c ult
4 . 0 3 . 1 + + =
For Circular foundations:
BN qN cN q
q c ult
3 . 0 3 . 1 + + =
11
Terzaghi Bearing Capacity Factors
General Shear Failure
12
13
Terzaghi Bearing Capacity Formulas
Local Shear Failure
c c
3
2
=
) tan
3
2
( tan
tan
3
2
tan
1
 
 
=
Modified General Ultimate Bearing
Capacity Formula
i d s
qi qd qs q
ci cd cs c ult
F F F BN
F F F qN
F F F cN q
5 . 0
+
+
=
14
15
Modified General Ultimate Bearing
Capacity Formula
1
4 . 0 1
tan 1
1
s

.

\


.

\

=

.

\

+ =


.

\


.

\

+ =
L
B
L
B
F
L
B
F
N
N
L
B
F
s
qs
c
q
cs

16
Modified General Ultimate Bearing
Capacity Formula
1
1
tan ) sin 1 ( 2 1
4 . 0 1
2
s


.

\



.

\

+ =


.

\

+ =
B
D
F
B
D
F
B
D
F
f
d
f
qd
f
cd
 
17
Modified General Ultimate Bearing
Capacity Formula
1
1
tan tan ) sin 1 ( 2 1
tan 4 . 0 1
1 2
1
>


.

\

=


.

\

+ =


.

\

+ =
B
D
F
B
D
F
B
D
F
f
d
f
qd
f
cd
 
18
Modified General Ultimate Bearing
Capacity Formula
cal the verti respect to load with
ied f the appl lination o is the inc
F
F F
i
qi ci
) (
1
90
1
2
2






.

\

=


.

\

= =
19
Effect of GWT Level
Case I: 0 D
1
D
f
'
2 1
D D q + =
' =
20
Effect of GWT Level
w sat
=
'
Case II: 0 d B
f
D q =
( )
'
+ =
B
d
'
21
Effect of GWT Level
w sat
=
'
Case III: d > B
22
Effect of GWT Level
f
D q =
=
Selection of Soil Strength
Parameters
Use saturated strength parameters
Use undrained strength in clays (c
u
)
Use drained strength in sands
For intermediate soils with partially drained
conditions, undrained shear strength can be
used but it will be conservative
23
Other Approaching Methods
Skempton (1951)
Meyerhof (1953, 1963)
De Beer and Ladanyi (1961)
Brinch Hanson (1961, 1970)
Vesic' (1973, 1975)
Others
24
Factor of Safety
Depends on:
Type of soil
Level of uncertainty in soil strength
Importance of structure
Consequences of failure
Likelihood of design load occurrence
25
Gross Allowable Bearing Capacity
Net Allowable Bearing Capacity
26
Factor of Safety
27
Factor of Safety
28
Design Factor of Safety
Use Terzaghis formula to determine the gross
allowable load for the square footing shown
below at a general shear failure condition with
no GWT effect. Take N
c
= 17.69, N
q
= 7.44, N
=
3.64, and F
S
= 3.0.
29
Example 1
30
Example 1  Solution
lb A q Q
f t lb
F
q
q
f t lb
BN qN N c q
all all
S
ult
all
q c ult
28 . 41041 ) 4 )( 4 )( 08 . 2565 (
/ 08 . 2565
3
24 . 7659
/ 24 . 7659
) 64 . 3 )( 4 )( 110 ( 4 . 0 ) 44 . 7 )( 110 )( 3 ( ) 69 . 17 )( 200 ( 3 . 1
4 . 0 ' 3 . 1
2
2
= = =
= = =
=
+ + =
+ + =
= 1.12, and F
S
= 3.0.
31
Example 2
32
Example 2  Solution
lb A q Q
f t lb
F
q
q
f t lb
BN qN N c q
f t lb c c
all all
S
ult
all
q c ult
72 . 18834 ) 4 )( 4 )( 17 . 1177 (
/ 17 . 1177
3
52 . 3531
/ 52 . 3531
) 12 . 1 )( 4 )( 110 ( 4 . 0 ) 88 . 3 )( 110 )( 3 ( ) 85 . 11 )( 200 )(
3
2
( 3 . 1
4 . 0 ' 3 . 1
64 . 13 )) 20 tan(
3
2
( tan ) ' tan
3
2
( tan '
/ ) 200 (
3
2
'
3
2
'
2
2
1 1
2
= = =
= = =
=
+ + =
+ + =
= = =
= =
 
Refer to the previous example to determine the
net allowable load. Use Terzaghis formula. Take
F
S
= 3.0.
33
Example 3
34
Example 3  Solution
lb A q Q
f t lb
F
q
q
f t lb
q q q
net all net all
S
net
net all
ult net
72 . 17074 ) 4 )( 4 )( 17 . 1067 (
/ 17 . 1067
3
52 . 3201
/ 52 . 3201
) 110 )( 3 ( 52 . 3531
) ( ) (
2
) (
2
= = =
= = =
=
=
=
Determine the breadth of the square footing
shown below using Terzaghis formula to
withstand a gross mass of 30 tons with no GWT
level effects. N
c
= 57.75, N
q
= 41.44, N
= 45.41,
and F
S
= 3.0.
35
Example 4
36
Example 4  Solution
cm B
B f or Solving
B B
B
BN qN N c q
B A Q q
kN F Q Q
m kN
q c ult
ult ult
S all ult
50 . 91
/ 90 . 882 68 . 329 14 . 752
) 41 . 45 )( )( 15 . 18 ( 4 . 0 ) 44 . 41 )( 15 . 18 )( 1 ( ) 75 . 57 )( 0 ( 3 . 1
4 . 0 ' 3 . 1
/ 90 . 882 /
90 . 882 ) 1000 /( ) 3 )( 81 . 9 )( 30000 (
/ 15 . 18 ) 1000 /( ) 81 . 9 )( 1850 (
2
2
3
=
= + =
+ + =
+ + =
= =
= = =
= =
\

=

.

\

=
=

.

\

+ =

.

\

+ =
+
+
=
B
B
L
B
F
B
B
L
B
F
F F F BN
F F F qN
F F F N c q
s
qs
i d s
qi qd qs q
ci cd cs c ult
39
Example 5  Solution
1
1
2021 . 0
1
30 tan ) 30 sin 1 (
7 . 0
2 1
' tan ) ' sin 1 ( 2 1
2
2
s


.

\

=

.

\

+ =

.

\

+ =


.

\

+ =
B
D
F
B
B
B
D
F
f
d
f
qd
 
40
Example 5  Solution
2
2 2
2 2
/ 450 /
450 ) 3 )( 150 (
111 . 0
30
20
1 1
605 . 0
90
20
1
90
1
B A Q q
kN F Q Q
F
F F
ult ult
S all ult
i
qi ci
= =
= = =
=


.

\

=


.

\

=
=


.

\

=


.

\

= =



41
Example 5  Solution
OK
B
D
cm B
B f or Solving
B B
B
B
B
q
f
ult
1
282 . 1
7 . 0
20 . 128
/ 450 44 . 13 )
2021 . 0
1 )( 62 . 221 (
) 111 . 0 )( 1 )( 60 . 0 )( 4 . 22 )( )( 18 )( 5 . 0 (
) 605 . 0 )(
2021 . 0
1 )( 58 . 1 )( 4 . 18 )( 18 )( 7 . 0 (
2
s

.

\

=


.

\

=
= +

.

\

+ =
+

.

\

+ =
Determine the safe gross vertical loading for the
square footing shown below using Terzaghis
formula. Take N
q
= 23.18, N
= 22.02, and F
S
= 3.0.
42
Example 6
43
Example 6  Solution
tons kN A q Q
m kN
F
q
q
m kN q
m kN
m kN
D D q
BN qN N c q
all all
S
ult
all
ult
q c ult
59 . 19 13 . 192 ) 2 . 1 )( 2 . 1 )( 43 . 133 (
/ 43 . 133
3
28 . 400
/ 28 . 400 ) 02 . 22 )( 2 . 1 )( 69 . 9 ( 4 . 0 ) 18 . 23 )( 85 . 12 (
/ 69 . 9 81 . 9 5 . 19 '
/ 85 . 12 ) 81 . 9 5 . 19 )( 5 . 0 ( ) 16 )( 5 . 0 (
'
4 . 0 ' 3 . 1
3
3
3
3
2 1
= = = =
= = =
= + =
= = =
= + =
+ =
+ + =