STATE: JAMMU AND KASHMIR
Kashmir, also known as the paradise on land and is famous for its hillsides, excellent water bodies , its rich culture, Mughal gardens, Shikaras, House boats, Handloom Industry, its mouth watering cuisine. J&K is the top most state of India. It is surrounded by Himalayas, with China on one side & Pakistan &POK On the other. It basically comprises of three district :
Jammu: mainly a plain area. Kashmir: mainly a valley area. Ladakh: mainly a hilly area (hill desert).
HOW THE CAPITAL DEVELOPED….
•The river Jhelum played a very important role in the formation and development of the city of Srinagar. •The city has developed at a number of sites on the banks of the river and canals formed by it. A network of canals extends through the city structure inward from the river’s edge to the edge of Dal lake.
The spatial structure of the city has evolved in harmony with the water bodies and the topography. The river’s edge is defined by the buildings standing on retaining walls rising out of the water.
The main movement spine is formed by the river and parallel streets on both banks, connected across by a series of bridges. Narrow cross lanes run perpendicular to the river.
Bay windows(dub) are present overlooking the river or main street . with basements contained within the retaining walls along the river side. The dub is generally located on the southern side so that the sun was available in winter.TYPICAL DWELLING
The buildings were generally three to four storey high. The plans were generally square so that a minimum of external walls were exposed and heat was conserved in the cold winter.
This architectural style is solely represented by the residences of the city and broadly falls into two distinct categories. These two systems are:
• Taq Construction • Dhajji-Dewari or Timber Braced (patch-quilt) System
The oldest surviving examples of traditional vernacular architecture in the city of KASHMIR dates back to early 19th Century. based on the structural system involved.
The gap in between each TAQ would be filled in with either a window opening or brick masonry. The distance between two brick piers used to be normally around 3-4 ft and was known as a TAQ. thick brick masonry piers supporting wooden floor beams formed the basic structural system of the building.TAQ CONSTRUCTION
In this system of
construction 2-3 ft. The roof comprised a layer of earth covering over birch bark and wooden planks resting on wooden rafters.
Normally this system is limited to upper floor levels or attics ( kani ) of the building
Timber bracings used in upper floors . in which normally 4-9 inch thick brick or stone masonry is used to infill the gaps.
. ground floor is made of just stone masonary.DHAJJI-DEWARI CONSTRUCTION
The dhajji-dewari construction is based on a braced timber framed structural system.
The buildings can thus be subdivided into two categories on the basis of plan form : Square Plan Linear Plan
.SPATIAL ORGANISATION AND PLANNING
Most of the buildings constructed on the above mentioned structural systems show a common spatial arrangement and decorative elements.
The lobby is flanked by one or two rooms on either side. The second floor (kani) normally comprises a single large hall which can be subdivided into three smaller rooms whenever required with the help of partition screens. in ground as well as first floor.
.Many of the traditional buildings are based on a square plan with the main entrance opening into a centrally located staircase lobby. The space above entrance in first floor in some cases also encloses a projecting wooden bay window (dub).
two or in certain cases three storey buildings. also known as havelis comprise a linear.
• Many of the larger and
more aristocratic houses.• The entrance to these
buildings was from a staircase lobby located near one of the corners of the house.
Lattice work screens and window shutters.
. profusely carved wooden brackets. eaves board (morakh patt). pendants (dour) are some of the main architectural elements associated with them.
• The second floor is surmounted by a cruciform shaped attic space.
EVOLUTION AND HISTORY
• A number of building systems in various parts of Kashmir have developed over time to accommodate local natural and cultural factors. including the impact of earthquakes. bricks and wood for roofing as well as walling.
. • However. in recent times new materials have made their way into the valleys of Kashmir on account of their favorable economics as well as people’s aspiration to modernity.• architecture in many places continues to evolve. mud. and Kashmiri rural architecture is no exception. • They were expensive. and their use added logistical complications to the construction process. the buildings have depended completely upon stone. • Historically. Until very recently. non-local materials did not represent a valid option for local constructions. • These systems are not only part of the cultural heritage of Kashmir but also add to its beautiful landscape.
. But as durable wood like Deodar became very expensive. the reinforced concrete (RC) slab is gradually replacing the timber floor and load bearing masonry walls are replacing the timber framing.• Until the 1970s the most common building systems in Kashmir were brick or stone walls. CGI sheets have become the predominant roofing material. with timber and mud roofs. Some of them timber framed. • In areas where it is easy to transport these sheets. changing economic forces as well as people’s aspirations to a more contemporary lifestyle are encouraging such changes. Again. the change has been so far-reaching that CGI sheeting now constitutes the most common form of roofing in the region. corrugated galvanized iron (CGI) sheets came to replace wood planks and shingles. • Even in areas where just twenty years ago houses were mainly built with flat mud roofs. • Apart from this.
but the people who use this material often know little about this.
. • This is why. climatic. • The social. RC. new materials and techniques applied in an unprofessional way will threaten the safety of buildings and the people who live in them. economic and technical impacts of new interventions are often not fully understood. and this may have negative effects on people’s lives. for example. is a material that requires a high level of engineering. in many cases. • These impacts include the reaction of buildings to earthquakes and other natural disasters.• Thatch roofing on timber and burnt brick masonry wall CGI
sheet roofing on stone masonry and timber wall Architecture constantly adapts to suit the changing context so that it can best meet the common person’s needs.
Aspects of Rural Architecture
easy maintenance by the common person and effective response to local natural conditions such as extreme cold. strong winds or high earthquake risk.Factors governing the popularity of construction methods and materials are economics in relation to people’s spending capacity.
This is demonstrated most clearly by the use of brick for construction. these economic factors become very relevant. and the use of stone. which is most economical in the plains of the Kashmir Valley. The mountains. When people in the hills consider switching from stone to brick. baked or unbaked.
. on account of their easy availability in the respective areas. offer very little soil but have lots of stone and rock. which is most economical in the hills. on the other hand. The valley has soil that is most suitable to make bricks.
even today CGI sheets have made no inroads where timber is cheaply available and where access to the area is only by foot over long distances and steep terrain. 1-2 in Baramulla town (in the valley). can be Rs. cheaper timber varieties with shorter life are gaining acceptability. which is Rs. The cost per brick. Where roofing is concerned. In other areas. since the CGI roofing protects such timber from the natural elements and timber no longer gets exposed as it did when it was used for shingles or plank roofing. or even as high as Rs. 5-6 in a village a mere 2 km away from the road side where it has to be transported on mule back.
. 3-4 at a roadside village 60 km away.
as local builders are actively involved and engaged in the building and maintenance of traditional built environments. the maintenance of rural structures is easy and within the reach of ordinary people.
. Maintenance requires materials and skills. the maintenance of the structure would become expensive. However. if materials from outside the locality were to be used. Since these are no different from what is required in construction.MAINTENANCE
In vernacular architecture practical measures and procedural methods are already embedded in construction knowledge.
Thick walls of brick and stone with mud plaster provide excellent protection against this. The steep pitch of the light roof permits little accumulation of snow and prevents any water leakages. The lighter. pitched roof made of timber and CGI sheets in combination with the attic floor also ensures livable conditions inside the house in winter and summer.LOCAL NATURAL CONDITIONS
Winter cold is the most common natural factor governing most of Kashmir. as does a thick mud-timber roof.
ARCHITECTURE BY REGION
From the point of view of architecture Kashmir can be divided into several Regions with the following characteristics.
KASHMIR VALLEY: RURAL ARCHITECTURE
The most common wall types are load bearing:(a) Baked brick (external wall) masonry with mud or cement mortar (b) Unbaked brick (internal wall) with mud mortar and mud plaster (c) Unbaked brick with baked brick veneer (external wall) masonry with mud mortar (d) Dhajji timber framed constructions with infill of baked brick in cement mortar or unbaked brick masonry in mud mortar. baked or unbaked.
.(1) The major factors that dictate the local architecture here are :(a) easy access to good soil for brick-making and to water and timber (b) snow in winter (c) possibility of earthquakes 2) As a result. walls are made mainly out of timber and bricks.
. today CGI sheets on timber supports have become the most common type of roofing.and double-storey have Dhajji walls in the upper storey and the gables (The part of a wall that encloses the end of a pitched roof)
(4) Roofs slope steeply in two directions. Although planks or shingles of hardwood like Deodar were formerly the main roofing materials.(3) Many structures which are typically single.
KASHMIR VALLEY: URBAN ARCHITECTURE
: The timber frames in the Dhajji walls are generally well laid out with a system of diagonal bracings that provide a distinct path to the ground for the stresses caused by lateral seismic forces. This calls for vertical growth. the walls are lightweight and hence have less mass and less lateral seismic loads. In addition. resulting into three to four-storey structures. The main factor determining this architecture is the high density of development.
.(1) The urban areas of the Valley have architecture that is distinct from all other areas. (ii) Taaq type: consisting of brick masonry interlaced with heavy timber bands supported on large masonry piers made of baked bricks.
(2) The two most common walling systems observed are :(i) Dhajji type: with timber frame and infill consisting of baked or unbaked bricks.
(3) The Dhajji type. Thus this type of wall is able to withstand ground settlement and major earthquakes without suffering much damage.
(4)The Taaq type: The Taaq type of construction has a large number of windows (“ Taaq” means window). one in each gap between the piers. The wood shingle roofing that was once used in most structures has been replaced by the CGI sheeting on account of economics and availability. (5) This manual does not cover the traditional Dhajji Dewari and Taaq constructions since these have heritage value and thus call for a different approach to restoration and retrofitting than halfmodern/halftraditional composite rural constructions
.and four-sided pitched. The roofs are two.
HILLY AREAS SURROUNDING THE VALLEY
. mainly for the interior walls.(1)The major factors that dictate the local architecture in this zone are:(a) easy access to building-quality stone (b) limited availability of topsoil (c) varying availability of water. (2) The most common wall types are:(a) coursed random rubble masonry with or without mud mortar (b) Dhajji wall made of timber frame with small stones and plenty of mud mortar as infill. ranging from abundant to very little (d) better availability of timber than in other zones due to lesser deforestation (e) difficulty in carting non-local materials (f) heavy snow in winter (g) possibility of earthquakes.
since it encloses a large volume which provides insulation in the cold winters on account of the attic floor. (a) The flat roof made with timber understructure supporting the mud and vegetal (b) roofing is often used for summer dwellings in high altitude pastures. (c)It is also used animal shelters in this region on account of the warmth that it can provide. More commonly.(3) The roof can be sloping or flat.
. (d)This type of roofing requires extraordinarily heavy roofing elements on account of heavy snow buildup in winter. roofing consists of pitched CGI sheet roofing on timber supports.
FOOTHILLS SURROUNDING THE VALLEY
since availability of mud and water vary greatly
. (2) The most common wall types are coursed random rubble masonry with or without mud mortar. with or without mud plaster.(1) The main factors that dictate the local architecture in this zone are:(a) easy access to building quality stone (b) limited availability of topsoil (c) greatly varying availability of water (d) varying availability of timber (e) little snow in winter (g) possibility of earthquakes.
Even today.3) Historically. this type of roof is visible in plenty along the Jammu-Srinagar route as well as in many parts of Poonch area. the escalating cost of timber along with the easy availability of CGI sheeting has made the latter the most popular roof type in this region also.
. (4) CGI sheets are corrugated galvanized iron sheets that are the modern substitute. However. the flat roof has been the most popular on account of low snowfall.
TYPICAL RURAL HOUSE IN KASHMIR
The upper storey has a similar arrangement of rooms and passage as found on the ground floor. with a central corridor stretching from the main entrance in front to a large bathroom-cum-toilet in the rear. (2) In the ground storey it has approximately four rooms including a kitchen and a front verandah. with an aspect ratio generally not exceeding 1.(1) A typical rural Kashmiri house today is a large two storey structure. with walls that are not plastered from outside and a shining CGI roof that is pitched with one or more projections.2 to 1. The stairs lead from the front end of the corridor to the upper storey.
. and also has stairs that lead to the attic. The number of storeys depends on the resources at the disposal of the owner.3.
The attic area is invariably used for storage.(3) Unlike in other parts of the country.
. The upper storey rooms may be used as for storage as well as bedrooms. and kitchen. where rooms are gradually added as and when the need arises. here the basic structure is built in one go. bedrooms. On account of the joint-family system with several families living under one roof. But the upper storeys are enclosed and finished at a later date. In the case of single-storey houses. since the people are predominantly agriculturists. there is often more than one kitchen in the house. the attic space is often divided with lightweight internal walls to create more utilizable spaces. (4) The ground-storey rooms are used as a sitting area.
(3) In recent years. Electric water heaters have begun to come in.
. Wood-burning stoves are made from mud by the lady of the house. however.(1) Traditionally. An ingeniously efficient water heating system used to be incorporated in the construction of the kitchen wall just to one side of the stove. too. Electric water heaters have begun to come in. The system consisted of a copper vessel embedded in the masonry wall with openings for a water inlet and outlet. people have been heating water on a gas stove. however. with cooking gas slowly replacing wood. too. with cooking gas slowly replacing wood. A cavity is made in the wall such that the hot gases from the stove go round the tank and heat its content. While cooking is in progress the water is heated continuously 2) In recent years. timber has been the most used domestic fuel in the region. people have been heating water on a gas stove.