This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Computer Network Basic Concepts
Computer Networks Communication Model Transmission Modes Communication Types Classification Of Computer Networks By Scale By Structure By Topology Network Media Internetworking
A computer network is a group of interconnected computers.
It allows computers to communicate with each other and to share resources and information. First Network : The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) funded the design of the "Advanced Research Projects Agency Network" (ARPANET) for the United States Department of Defense
Communication Model .
Source Communication Model generates data to be transmitted Converts data into transmittable signals Transmitter Transmission System Carries data Converts received signal into data Takes incoming data Receiver Destination .
Communication Model .
telephone . Television Half duplex Either direction.g.g. but only one way at a time e.g.Transmission Modes Simplex One direction e. police radio Full duplex Both directions at the same time e.
Communication Types Unicasting (one-to-one) Multicasting (one-to-many) Broadcasting (one-to-all) .
Network Classification By Size or Scale LAN WAN MAN CAN PAN .
servers and computers Systems are close to each other Contained in one office or building Organizations often have several LANS .Local Area Network (LAN) Contains printers.
Wide Area Networks (WAN) Two or more LANs connected Over a large geographic area Typically use public or leased lines Phone lines Satellite The Internet is a WAN .
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Large network that connects different organizations Shares regional resources A network provider sells time .
Network Classification By Topology / Physical Connectivity BUS STAR RING MESH TREE .
Network Topology Logical layout of wires and equipment Choice affects Network performance Network size Network collision detection .
BUS Also called linear bus One wire connects all nodes Terminator ends the wires Advantages Easy to setup Small amount of wire Disadvantages Slow Easy to crash .
STAR All nodes connect to a hub Packets sent to hub Hub sends packet to destination Advantages Easy to setup One cable can not crash network Disadvantages One hub crashing downs entire network Uses lots of cable Most common topology .
RING Nodes connected in a circle Tokens used to transmit data Nodes must wait for token to send Advantages Time to send data is known No data collisions Disadvantages Slow Lots of cable .
MESH All computers connected together Internet is a mesh network Advantage Data will always be delivered Disadvantages Lots of cable Hard to setup .
TREE Hierarchal Model Advantages Scaleable Easy Implementation Easy Troubleshooting .
Network Media Links that connect nodes Choice impacts Speed Security Size .
Twisted-pair cabling Most common LAN cable Called Cat5 or 100BaseT Four pairs of copper cable twisted May be shielded from interference Speeds range from 1 Mbps to 1.000 Mbps .
Coaxial cable Similar to cable TV wire One wire runs through cable Shielded from interference Speeds up to 10 Mbps Nearly obsolete .
Fiber-optic cable Data is transmitted with light pulses Glass strand instead of cable Immune to interference Very secure Hard to work with Speeds up to 100 Gbps .
Wireless Media Data transmitted through the air LANs use radio waves WANs use microwave signals Easy to setup Difficult to secure .
private. .Internetwork An Internetwork is the connection of two or more distinct computer networks or network segments via a common routing technology. Any interconnection among or between public. commercial. or governmental networks may also be defined as an internetwork. industrial.
an intranet is the internal network of an organization Extranet An extranet is a network or internetwork that is limited in scope to a single organization or entity but which also has limited connections to the networks of one or more other usually.Internetwork Intranet An intranet is a set of networks. academic.S. and private networks based upon the networking technologies of the Internet Protocol Suite. using the Internet Protocol and IP-based tools such as web browsers and file transfer applications. The Internet consists of a worldwide interconnection of governmental. It is the successor of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) developed by DARPA of the U. that is under the control of a single administrative entity. The Internet is also the communications backbone underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). Department of Defense. public. it must have at least one connection with an external network. trusted organizations or entities by definition. Internet . but not necessarily. Most commonly. an extranet cannot consist of a single LAN.
An ISO standard that covers all aspects of network communications is the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. the International Standards Organization (ISO) is a multinational body dedicated to worldwide agreement on international standards.THE OSI MODEL Established in 1947. 2.27 . It was first introduced in the late 1970s.
2.Note ISO is the organization.28 . OSI is the model.
29 .2 Seven layers of the OSI model 2.Figure 2.
30 .4 An exchange using the OSI model 2.Figure 2.
2-3 LAYERS IN THE OSI MODEL In this section we briefly describe the functions of each layer in the OSI model. Topics discussed in this section: Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer 2.31 .
32 .Figure 2.5 Physical layer 2.
2.Note The physical layer is responsible for movements of individual bits from one hop (node) to the next.33 .
Figure 2.6 Data link layer 2.34 .
2.Note The data link layer is responsible for dividing message into smaller frames.35 .
Figure 2.36 .8 Network layer 2.
Note The network layer is responsibility is to determine the path through which packet will reach to destination .37 . 2.
Figure 2.10 Transport layer 2.38 .
Note The transport layer is responsible for the delivery of a message from one process to another. 2.39 .
11 Reliable process-to-process delivery of a message 2.40 .Figure 2.
41 .12 Session layer 2.Figure 2.
Note The session layer is responsible for dialog control and synchronization.42 . 2.
Figure 2.13 Presentation layer 2.43 .
and encryption. compression. 2.44 .Note The presentation layer is responsible for translation.
Figure 2.45 .14 Application layer 2.
46 .Note The application layer is responsible for providing services to the user. 2.
Figure 2.47 .15 Summary of layers 2.
TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE
The layers in the TCP/IP protocol suite do not exactly match those in the OSI model. The original TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as having four layers: host-to-network, internet, transport, and application. However, when TCP/IP is compared to OSI, we can say that the TCP/IP protocol suite is made of four layers: physical , network interface , transport, and application.
ISP, Internet Service Provide
These are the agencies that help you connect your computer to the Internet. The first cross-country link through the Internet was established in 1970
A simple analogy should make the concept easier to follow. Imagine you are in a huge mall where the goods are stored from floor 1 and above. You are standing on the ground floor. How do you get to the goods then? You can either take the stairs, the escalator or the elevator. These are the things which will take you where you want to go in the mall. The mall is like the Internet, and the stairs, escalators and elevators are the ISPs. They take you where you want to go on the Internet.
. the first e-mail message was sent by Ray Tomlinson. Though that was a very simple message based communication but it formed the basis of how advanced e-mails have become today. people were able to send messages to other people working on same system only. In 1971.E-mail Till 1971. The main components of an e-mail system that facilitate sending and receiving of e-mails on Internet are : An e-mail client An e-mail server (SMTP server) POP and IMAP servers.
It can use a network to replicate itself to other computer systems without user intervention. E. whose speed is more?: worm is faster than virus. Does it infect files?: Yes. The worm is code that replicate itself in order to consume resources to bring it down.Thecode red worm affected 3 lack PCs in just 14 Hrs. Computer Worm It exploits a weakness in an application or operating system by replicating itself. Usually not. Definition: The virus is the program code that attaches itself to application program and when application program run it runs along with it. How can it spread?: It has to rely on users transferring infected files/programs to other computer systems. it deletes or modifies files. . Worms usually only monopolize the CPU and memory. virus is slower than worm.I How does it infect a computer system?: Computer Virus It inserts itself into a file or executable program. Sometimes a virus also changes the location of files.g.
Computer Network Security Computer Security deals with the prevention and detection of unauthorised actions by users of a computer system. There are two types of attack on computer. Passive Attack Active Attack .
or monitoring of. . The goal of the opponent is to obtain information that is being transmitted. Passive attacks are in the nature of eavesdropping on. transmissions.
Passive Attacks (1) Release of Message Contents .
Passive Attacks (2) Traffic Analysis .
Passive attacks do not affect system resources Eavesdropping. monitoring Release of message contents Traffic analysis Message transmission apparently normal Two types of passive attacks Passive attacks are very difficult to detect No alteration of the data By means of encryption Emphasis on prevention rather than detection .
Active Attacks (1) Masquerade .
Active Attacks (2) Replay .
modification of messages. .Active Attacks Active attacks involve some modification of the data stream or the creation of a false stream and can be subdivided into four categories: masquerade. replay. and denial of service.
Active Attacks (3) Modification of Messages .
Active Attacks (4) Denial of Service .
Sniffing is a data interception technology. Tools Used For Sniffing There a many tools used for sniffing some of the best are mentioned below Wireshark Cain and Abel Ettercap Dsniff TcpDump Sniffing . Sniffer is a program that monitor or reading all network traffic passing in and out over a network.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.