Digital imaging

• Numeric format of the image content=digital • The sensor is more sensitive to xrays than conventional film • Exposure time is 50 to 80% less than that required for conventional radiography

• 3 methods to obtain a digital image – Direct digital imaging – Indirect digital imaging – Storage phosphor imaging .

Direct digital imaging • A sensor is placed in the patient’s mouth and exposed to radiation • The sensor captures the radiographic image and transmits the image to a computer monitor .

then digitize and display it on the computer monitor .Indirect digital imaging • An existing x-ray film is digitized using a CCD camera which scans the image.

flexible imaging plate coated with phosphor is used • In this.Storage Phosphor Imaging • A wireless digital radiographic system • The reusable. the diagnostic data on the plates following exposure to the xray source and uses a high speed scanner to convert the information to electronic files which can be displayed on the computer screen .

Equipment • X radiation source • Intra oral sensor • Digital image display .

Formation Of Digital Image • Steps are • Analog process • Analog To Digital Conversion (ADC) – Sampling: small range of voltage values are grouped together as a single value – Quantization: every sampled signal is assigned a value .

Advantages • Lower dose of radiation reqd • No need for the conventional processing • Hazardous wastes (processing. lead) can be eliminated • Easy storage of patient information • Easy transfer of images electronically • Image enhancement and processing .

risk of systems becoming obsolete . costly to replace.Disadvantage • Expensive – high initial cost • Long term storage of images • Connecting cable can make intra oral placement of these system’s sensors difficult • Loss of image quality and resolution • Image modification can be time consuming • Sensors susceptible to rough handling.

Digital detectors • Solid Detectors: – Charge Coupled Device – Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors – Flat Panel Detectors • Photostimulable Phosphor Plates .

CCD • Direct digital image receptor • Uses a thin wafer of silicon • Silicon crystals are formed in a picture element (pixel) matrix .

Process of image formation in ccd • Absorption of x rays • Breaks the covalent bond between silicon atoms • Production of electron hole pair • Electrons attracted towards the most positive potential in the device .

• Image is read by bucket brigade fashion .• Electron forms charge packets • Each packet corresponds to 1 pixel • Charge pattern formed from individual pixels represents latent image.

.• Charge reaches the end of its row • Charge conveyed to read out amplifier • Voltage from the amplifier conveyed to analog to digital convertor • The quantization of each sample • The values stored in the computer and represent the image.

g. Gadolinium oxybromidem Cesium iodide . E.Disadvantage • More sensitive to light than to x-rays – So manufacturers use a layer of scintillating material coated directly on CCD surfaace or coupled to surface by fiberoptics.

CMOS • Detectors are silicon based semi conductors • Differ from CCD the way that pixel charges are read • Each pixel is isolated from its neighboring pixels and is directly connected to a transistor .

Process Of Formation Of Image In CMOS • Absorption of x rays • Breaks the covalent bond between silicon atoms • Production of electron hole pair • Charge is transferred to transistor as a small voltage .

• Read by frame grabber • Stored and displayed as digital gray value .

Photo Stimulable Phosphor Plates • Absorb and store energy from x rays • Release this energy as light • Material used: – Europium doped barium fluorohalide .

Process Of Formation Of Image • Absorption of x rays • Moves valence electrons in europium to the conduction band • Migration of this electrons into f centres in fluorohalide lattice .

of trapped electrons in the F centres is proportional to x ray exposure and represents a latent image • When stimulated by red light. BFH releases trapped electrons to the conduction band • When an electron returns to europium ion energy is released in the green spectrum • Fibre optics conduct light from the phosphor plate to a photo multiplier tube • Pmt converts light into electrical energy .• No.

• A red filter at the photo multiplier tube selectively removes the stimulating light and the remaining green light is detected and converted to a varying voltage • The voltage signal is quantified by an ADC and stored and displayed as a digital image .

Common Problems in Digital Imaging • Noisy images (resembles x-ray underexposure) • Nonuniform Image Density (plates overlapped while exposed to ambient light) • Distorted images (bending of PSP plates) • Double images (scratched phosphor surface) • Improper use of image processing tools (such as filters) .