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Woven Fabric Geometry

Dr Jimmy Lam Institute of Textiles & Clothing

Learning Objectives
1. 2. Introduction Fabric Geometry Models 1. Pierces Model 2. Modified Pierces Model 3. Kemps racetrack Model 4. Hearles Lenticular Model 3. Mathematical descriptions of each model 4. Limitations on fabric geometry

Introduction
The objectives of fabric geometry (math models for fabric) is to: 1. Prediction of the maximum sett (density) of fabric and fabric dimensions; 2. Find out relationship between geometrical parameters (picks and ends); 3. Prediction of mechanical properties by combining fabric and yarn properties; 4. Understanding fabric performance (handle and surface effect).
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Geometry Theories Approach


1. 2. In conventional approaches, the general character of fabrics was idealized into simple geometrical forms (circle, ellipse, rectangle) They treated the micro-mechanics of fabrics on the basis of the unit-cell approach, ie fabrics are considered as a repeating network of identical unit cells in the form of crimp weaves and constant yarn cross-section in the woven structure. By combining this kind of geometry with or without physical parameters (material), mathematical deductions could be obtained.
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Four Fabric Models (geometry models)


By using circle, ellipse, rack-track approaches, four fabric geometrical models are formed

1. Pierce model 2. Modified model (ellipse) 3. Kemps race track model (rectangle & circle) 4. Hearles lenticular model

Mathematical Notation for each model

Pierces Model (Classical Model)

Pierces Model (1)


In this model, a two-dimensional unit cell of fabric was built by superimposing linear and circular yarn segments to produce the desired shaped. The yarns were assumed to be circular in crosssection and highly incompressible, but perfectly flexible so that each set of yarns had a uniform curvature imposed by the circular cross-sectional shape of interlacing yarns. Geometrical parameters such as thread spacing (p), weave crimp, weave angle and fabric thickness (h) can be found.
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Pierces Model (2) Results

Pick spacing (p1) and end spacing (p2), warp thickness (h1), weft thickness (h2) can be found from this model

Pierces Model Limitations


This model is convenient for calculation and is valid for open structure (loose density) However, the assumptions of circular crosssection, uniform structure along the longitudinal direction, perfect flexibility and incompressibility are all unrealistic.

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Pierces Elliptic Model


In more tightly woven fabrics, however, the inter-thread pressures setup during weaving cause considerable thread flattening normal to the plane of cloth. Pierce recongized this and proposed an elliptic section theory as shown in Fig 3.2 Because such model would be too complex and laborious in operation, he adopted an approximate treatment, which involved merely replacing the circular thread diameter in his circular-thread geometry with minor diameter as shown in Fig 3.2 This modified model is good for reasonable open fabric but cannot be applied for very closed jammed fabric.
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Pierces Elliptic Model

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Kemp Model (Race-track section)


To overcome the jammed structure, Kemp proposed a racetrack section to modified cross-section shape. The model consisted of a rectangle enclosed by two semi-circular ends and had the advantage that it allowed the relatively simple relations of circular-thread geometry, already worked out by Pierce, to be applied to a flatted threads.
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Kemp Model (Race-track section)

A rectangle and semi-circular cross section of Kemp Model


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Kemp Model Results

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Hearles Model
Using energy method for calculations in fabric mechanics, a lenticular geometry was proposed by Hearle as shown in Fig 3.5

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Hearles Model

Energy approach for Hearles model

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Hearles Model Results

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Limitations Fabric Geometry Models


1. Firstly, fabrics are complicated materials that do not conform even approximately to any of the ideal features suggested by these four fabric models. 2. Secondly, the measurement of geometrical parameters is not easy in practice. 3. Thirdly, the relationship between fabric mechanic (tensile, elongation, bending) to fabric geometry is not fully explored.

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Conclusion
What is fabric geometry? Why are objectives to study fabric geometry? Suggest Pierces model and its limitations

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References
Structure and mechanics of woven fabrics by Jinlan HU Chapter 3 Structural properties of fabric pp61-89

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