# DENAVIT-HARTENBERG

CONVENTION
DENAVIT-HARTENBERG
 translational and rotational relationship between
 Matrix method(systematically establishing a co-
ordinate system to each link of a chain)
 Results in 4*4 matrix representing each link’s co-
ordinate system at the join with respect to previous link’
s coordinate system

 When joint i is actuated ,link i will move respect to link i-1
 ith co-ordinate system also moves along with link i ,as it is
 Base co-ordinates are the 0
th
coordinate frame which is also the
inertial coordinate frame of robot arm
 Hence for PUMA there are seven co-ordinate frames
RULES
 Z
i-1
axis lies along the axis of motion of the ith joint
 X
i
axis is normal to the Z
i-1
axis, and pointing away from
it
 Y
i
axis completes the right handed coordinate system as
required
 Joint angle : the angle of rotation from the X
i-1
axis to the X
i
axis
i-1
axis. It is the joint variable if joint i is rotary.

 Joint distance : the distance from the origin of the (i-1)
coordinate system to the intersection of the Z
i-1
axis and the X
i

axis along the Z
i-1
axis. It is the joint variable if joint i is
prismatic.

 Link length : the distance from the intersection of the Z
i-1
axis
and the X
i
axis to the origin of the ith coordinate system along
the X
i
axis.

 Link twist angle : the angle of rotation from the Z
i-1
axis to the Z
i

i
axis.

i
u
i
d
i
a
i
o
DENAVIT-HARTENBERG CONVENTION
 Number the joints from 1 to n starting with the base and ending with the
end-effector.
 Establish the base coordinate system. Establish a right-handed orthonormal
coordinate system at the supporting base with axis lying along
the axis of motion of joint 1.
 Initialize loop
 Establish joint axis. Align the Z
i
with the axis of motion (rotary or sliding) of
joint i+1.
 Establish the origin of the ith coordinate system. Locate the origin of the ith
coordinate at the intersection of the Z
i
& Z
i-1
or at the intersection of
common normal between the Z
i
& Z
i-1
axes and the Z
i
axis.
) , , (
0 0 0
Z Y X
0
Z
 Establish X
i
axis. Establish or along the
common normal between the Z
i-1
& Z
i
axes when they are
parallel

 Establish Y
i
axis. Assign to complete the
right-handed coordinate system.

 Establish hand coordinate system
 Find the link and joint parameters

i i i i i
Z Z Z Z X × × ± =
÷ ÷ 1 1
/ ) (
i i i i i
X Z X Z Y × × + = / ) (
EXAMPLE I
• 3 Revolute Joints
a
0
a
1

Z
0

X
0

Y
0

Z
3

X
2

Y
1

X
1

Y
2

d
2

Z
1

X
3

3
O
2
O
1
O
0
O
Joint 1
Joint 2
Joint 3
 To describe the geometry of robot motion, we assign a Cartesian
coordinate frame (O
i
, X
i
,Y
i
,Z
i
) to each link, as follows:
 establish a right-handed orthonormal coordinate frame O
0
at the
supporting base with Z
0
lying along joint 1 motion axis.
 the Z
i
axis is directed along the axis of motion of joint (i + 1),
that is, link (i + 1) rotates about or translates along Z
i
;
a
0
a
1

Z
0

X
0

Y
0

Z
3

X
2

Y
1

X
1

Y
2

d
2

Z
1

X
3

3
O
2
O
1
O
0
O
Joint 1
Joint 2
Joint 3
 Locate the origin of the ith coordinate at the intersection of
the Z
i
& Z
i-1
or at the intersection of common normal
between the Z
i
& Z
i-1
axes and the Z
i
axis.
 the X
i
axis lies along the common normal from the Z
i-1
axis to
the Z
i
axis , (if Z
i-1
is parallel to Z
i
, then
X
i
is specified arbitrarily, subject only to X
i
being
perpendicular to Z
i
);

i i i i i
Z Z Z Z X × × ± =
÷ ÷ 1 1
/ ) (
a
0
a
1

Z
0

X
0

Y
0

Z
3

X
2

Y
1

X
1

Y
2

d
2

Z
1

X
3

3
O
2
O
1
O
0
O
Joint 1
Joint 2
Joint 3
 Assign to complete the right-handed
coordinate system.
 The hand coordinate frame is specified by the geometry of the
end-effector. Normally, establish Z
n
along the direction of Z
n-1

axis and pointing away from the robot; establish X
n
such that it is
normal to both Z
n-1
and Z
n
axes. Assign Y
n
to complete the right-
handed coordinate system.

i i i i i
X Z X Z Y × × + = / ) (
n
O
a
0
a
1

Z
0

X
0

Y
0

Z
3

X
2

Y
1

X
1

Y
2

d
2

Z
1

X
3

3
O
2
O
1
O
0
O
Joint 1
Joint 2
Joint 3
EXAMPLE I
Joint i
o
i
a
i
d
i

u
i
1 0 a
0
0
u
0

2 -90 a
1
0
u
1

3 0 0 d
2

u
2

: rotation angle from X
i-1

to X
i
i-1

i
u
: distance from origin of (i-1) coordinate to intersection of Z
i-1
& X
i
along Z
i-1

: distance from intersection of Z
i-1
& X
i

to origin of i coordinate along X
i

i
d
: rotation angle from Z
i-1
to Z
i
i

i
a
i
o
a
0

a
1

Z
0

X
0

Y
0

Z
3

X
2

Y
1

X
1

Y
2

d
2

Z
1

X
3

3
O
2
O
1
O
0
O
Joint
1
Joint
2
Joint
3
EXAMPLE II: PUMA 260
1
u
2
u
3
u
i i i i i
Z Z Z Z X × × ± =
÷ ÷ 1 1
/ ) (
i i i i i
X Z X Z Y × × + = / ) (
4
u
5
u
6
u
0
Z
1
Z
2
Z
3
Z
4
Z
5
Z
1
O
2
O
3
O
5
O
4
O
6
O
1
X
1
Y
2
X
2
Y
3
X
3
Y
4
X
4
Y
5
X
5
Y
6
X
6
Y
6
Z
1. Number the joints
2. Establish base frame
3. Establish joint axis Zi
4. Locate origin, (intersect.
of Zi & Zi-1) OR (intersect
of common normal & Zi )
5. Establish Xi,Yi
PUMA 260
t
1
u
2
u
3
u
4
u
5
u
6
u
0
Z
1
Z
2
Z
3
Z
4
Z
5
Z
1
O
2
O
3
O
5
O
4
O
6
O
1
X
1
Y
2
X
2
Y
3
X
3
Y
4
X
4
Y
5
X
5
Y
6
X
6
Y
6
Z
: angle from Z
i-1
to Z
i
i

: distance from intersection
of Z
i-1
& X
i
to Oi along X
i

Joint distance : distance from Oi-1 to intersection of Z
i-1
& X
i
along Z
i-1

: angle from X
i-1

to X
i
i-1

i
u
i
o
i
a
i
d
t 0 0 6
0 0 90 5
8 0 -90 4
0
0 90 3
8 0 2
13 0 -90 1
J
i
u
1
u
4
u
2
u
3
u
6
u
5
u
i
o
i
a
i
d
-l
TRANSFORMATION BETWEEN I-1 AND I
Four successive elementary transformations are
required to relate the i-th coordinate frame to the (i-
1)-th coordinate frame:
i-1
axis an angle of u
i
to align the X
i-1
axis with the X
i
axis.
 Translate along the Z
i-1
axis a distance of d
i
, to bring X
i-1
and X
i
axes into coincidence.
 Translate along the X
i
axis a distance of a
i
to bring the two
origins O
i-1
and O
i
as well as the X axis into coincidence.
i
axis an angle of α
i
( in the right-
handed sense), to bring the two coordinates into
coincidence.
TRANSFORMATION BETWEEN I-1 AND I
D-H transformation matrix for adjacent coordinate
frames, i and i-1.
 The position and orientation of the i-th frame coordinate can be
expressed in the (i-1)th frame by the following homogeneous
transformation matrix:

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
÷ ÷ ÷
1 0 0 0
0
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
1 1 1
i i i
i i i i i i i
i i i i i i i
i i i i i i i i
i
i
d C S
S a C S C C S
C a S S S C C
x R a x T z R d z T T
o o
u u o u o u
u u o u o u
o u
Source coordinate
Reference
Coordinate

QUERIES?