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Aerodynamics 1 QDR

Team Canard September 19th, 2006

Team 1: Dane Batema Drew Capps Kyle Ryan John Tapee

Benoit Blier Patricia Roman Audrey Serra Carlos Vergara

Overview
Aircraft Geometry:
- Airfoil selection for wing and tail
- Wing and tail configuration - Aspect ratio and wetted area - 3-View drawing

Aerodynamic Mathematical Model:


- CL - CD

- CLMax

Summary

AAE 451 Team 1

Preliminary Airfoil Selection


Wing Airfoil: - Looked at pylon racers - MH 43 common airfoil - Low Reynolds number airfoil Tail Airfoil: - NACA 0009 common in tail surfaces - Thin, lower induced and parasite drag
MH 43

NACA 0009

AAE 451 Team 1

Wing Geometry
METHOD
Fixed thanks to historical data:
Aspect ratio = 10 Taper ratio = 0.45

To be determined:
Sweep angle Dihedral angle Wing span

AAE 451 Team 1

Wing Geometry
Top View s
Swing = 4.16 ft2

a b
C

S wing 2

ab 2

a 0.89 ft b 0.4 ft c 3.225 ft


Wing span = 6.45 ft

b 0.45 a

4c 2 10 S wing
Too much for structure

Wing span = 6 ft

Aspect ratio = 8.65

1 Sweep angle = tan (

a b ) = 9.3 degrees c
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AAE 451 Team 1

Wing Geometry
Front View ttip
d troot

Chordtip = 0.4 Chordroot Same airfoil all along the wing ttip = 0.4 troot

From the airfoil section, we know : troot = 0.0846 Chordroot ttip = 0.0846 Chordtip
1

t 0.0846 c
troot = 0.0753 ft ttip = 0.0338 ft

Dihedral angle = tan (


AAE 451 Team 1

t root ttip c

) = 0.73 degrees
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Tail Geometry
Horizontal tail :
Taper ratio : 0.6 Aspect ratio : 10 Sweep angle : 11.4 deg No dihedral

Top View
11.4 deg 0.47 ft

Shtail = 0.36 ft2

0.28 ft

1.88 ft

S htail

0.3S wing AAC D

with

Swing = 4.16 ft2 AAC = 0.65 ft D = 2.25 ft

Vertical tail :
0.7 ft

Degrees of freedom on the size for control and stability


0.65 ft AAE 451 Team 1

Wing and Tail Geometry


Wing Span 6 ft 9.3 Horizontal Tail 1.88 ft 11.4

Sweep Angle Taper Ratio


Dihedral Angle

0.45
0.73

0.6
0

AAE 451 Team 1

Aircraft Wetted Area


Wspan Laircraft 1.5 (Historical data)
Laircraft 4 ft H aircraft 0.45 ft Wspan 6 ft

Waircraft 0.27 ft

Atop At 0 At1 At 2 At 3 0.579 ft2


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Aside As1 As 2 As 3 1.117 ft 2


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Aircraft Wetted Area


Fuselage wetted area estimate : Wing/tail wetted area estimate : Fuselage : Swet-fuselage = 2.88 ft2 Wing : Sexposed-wing = 3.92 ft2 Horizontal tail : Sexposed-htail = 0.33 ft2 Vertical tail : Sexposed-vtail = 0.196 ft2 Swet-wing = 7.92 ft2

S wet 3.4(

Atop Aside 2

S wet 2.021 S exposed

Swet-htail = 0.67 ft2 Swet-vtail = 0.39 ft2

S wet aircraft S wet fuselage S wet wing S wet htail S wet vtail

Swet aircraft 11.86 ft2


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3-View Drawing

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Mathematical Model
CL: AR - CL Cl
AR 2

CD: 2 - CD CD o kCL

CLMax: - CL at stall

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Mathematical Model
2D Estimation from XFOIL
Cl vs Alpha
1.2 1 0.8 0.6

2D Coefficients Clo = 0.151 Cl = 0.104/ Clmax = 1.082


5 10 15

Cl

0.4 0.2 0 -10 -5 -0.2 0 -0.4 -0.6 Alpha (deg)

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Mathematical Model
2D Estimation Cont
Drag Polar 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1
Cd

2D Drag Coefficients Cdo = 0.00589

0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 -0.5

0.5
Cl

1.5

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2D to 3D Calculations
Find e : Find CL from lifting line :
CL Cl AR AR 2

e 1.78 (1 0.045 A0.68 ) 0.64


e 0.793
Find k :
1 Ae k 0.0464 k

C L m ax 0.845

Find CD for 3D :

CD CDo kCL

Find CDo :
C Do C f S wet S ref

C Do 0.0157

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2D/3D Comparison
2D plotted in blue 3D plotted in red
Lift Coefficient
1.4 1.2 1 0.8
Cd

Drag Polar 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04

0.6

Cl

0.4 0.2 0 -10 -5 -0.2 0 -0.4 -0.6 Alpha (deg) 5 10 15

0.02 0 -1 -0.5 0
Cl

0.5

1.5

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Summery
Aircraft Geometry:
- Airfoil selection for wing and tail
- Wing and tail configuration - Aspect ratio and wetted area - 3-View drawing

Aerodynamic Mathematical Model:


- CL - CD

- CLMax

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Questions

Any Questions?

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