Class Gastropoda and Class Bivalvia
Dr. Wan Fatma Zuharah Wan Musthapa
Also most widely distributed. . visceral mass and nerve
system undergoes torsion Presence of protein shield-operculum at foot Presence of columella muscle Most diversified of all mollusc. Symmetry bilateral in origin but due to torsion-assymetric.
* Columella.The solid or hollow pillar of a univalve shell around which the whorls are arranged
Form and function
During embryonic development. This muscle allows flexible interchange between shell and visceral mass. Visceral mass is linked to shell with columella muscle from foot to columella groove in shell.
directly above the head.Torsion
Torsion is a phenomena where veliger larva
undergo a 180 degress torsion of visceral mass Due to the imbalance growth in retractor muscle system connecting head foot region with shell. This creates a pull of the visceral mass As a result.
. the mantle cavity moves from original posterior to anterior region.
.Advantage and disadvantage of torsion
Without torsion. the foot will be withdrawn to the mantle cavity first whihe the head is
Anus is situated near head
last Cleaner water enter the mantle cavity if its in the anterior position.
loss of gill. atrium. and kidney • Adaptation to carrying coiled shell
better weight distribution • Compactness –by conispiral shape •Right side.
Internal form and function
lung to small opening called pneumostome Single nephridium – circulatory and nervous system Sense organ. Respiration.osphradium Reproduction – dioecious and monoecious Courtship ceremony – exchange of spermatozoa After copulation – deposits eggs in shallow burrow
.ctenidium located in mantle.
where shell forming
material for secretion is stored.
. Dorsal part of the organism is characterized by presence of hinge while ventral is at the opening of the shell Umbo: situated near hinge.CLASS BIVALVIA
Also known as “hatched-footed” animals
Presence of bi-shell structure
Most of them sedentary filter feeder
Body compressed laterally.
held together by hinge
ligament Umbo-oldest part of shell. create jet propulsion Gas exchange.slender muscular foot. secrete nacre Locomotion. growth occurs in concentric line Pearl. pump blood – swell and work as anchor Longitudinal muscle contract to shorten foot Scallops-clapping valves together.through mantle and gills
.Form and function
Shell.laterally compressed.when foreign object lodged between shell and mantle.
.Bivalve gills is made of arranged layers of lamella. Movement of water through tiny pores in lamella allow exchange of gas between water and blood.
Reproduction and development
• Fertilization is external • Embryo develops into tracophore. veliger and spat stages •Freshwater clams: -Fertilization is internal .attached to specific fish host (gills or skin) -Parasitic for several week .sperm entering with incurrent water flow -Glochidium larvae (specialized veliger) .detach and sink to the bottom
water flowing over the gills. cellulose produce by symbiotic bacteria
Burrow in mud or sand Evolved mechanism burrowing into harder substances
(wooden ship) Teredo –slender posterior siphon. a pair of small globular valves on the anterior end Have microscopic teeth.