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Shakeel Ahmad Shah Hashmi

Cell: +92 321 5199887, +92 301 5372424 E-mail: URL:

Background About the Speaker:

28 years experience in the IT management in public and private sectors. Interests outside the profession:
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Stress Management Unani and Homeopathic Method of Treatment Treatment with Foods Acupressure Healing Reiki Healing Mind Sciences (4th Dimension) Spiritual Healing Palmistry


Understanding Dyslexia
• Dyslexic people hear and see normally but have difficulty remembering what they hear and see. This is called processing information. • Brain scan experiments have shown that dyslexic people use different areas of the brain to process information. • We all absorb information in different ways. Some people learn best through listening, some by seeing and others by doing. • There are also combinations of these. Understanding how you absorb and process information is useful in the workplace or during study.

Understanding Dyslexia...
• Minor adjustments can make a big difference to students with dyslexia and be helpful to all students. • Each dyslexic individual has different strengths and weaknesses. • They may have additional problems e.g. attentional deficit. • Individuals with dyslexia have a wide range of talents e.g. art, drama, entrepreneurial work etc.

What It Looks and Sounds Like?
• No two dyslexic are exactly alike. • No one has every symptom, but most have several. • Difficulty with:
– Pronouncing words correctly (e.g., “aminal” for animal, “hangaburg” for hamburger) – Rhyming (having terminal sounds) – Coloring, writing, and tying shoes – Learning letter names and sounds – Separating and blending word parts orally and while reading – Reading at a „normal‟ pace – Spelling

Myths about Dyslexia
• Dyslexia affects four times more boys than girls • All children who reverse b's and d's or p's and q's have dyslexia • Dyslexia is rare (5% or less) • Repeating a grade will often help children gain skills because it allows them to mature and become developmentally ready to read


Myths about Dyslexia…
• Dyslexia cannot be diagnosed until a child is 8 to 11 years old • If a dyslexic child doesn‟t read by age 12, it is too late. They won't be able to learn to read. • Many children who experience reading and writing problems in kindergarten through third grade will outgrow those problems • Children with dyslexia are just developmentally delayed


Myths about Dyslexia…
• Intelligence and learning how to read are related.
– Therefore if someone doesn't read well, they can't be smart

• Gifted children cannot be dyslexic or have other learning disabilities


How Dyslexia Affects a Student?
• Inefficiency in short term and working memory • Difficulties with phonological processing • Problems with visual processing • Difficulties with motor skills or co-ordination • Managing time and organisation • Also face difficulties in:
– – – – – – Reading/Writing Oral fluency Numeracy Organisation Attention Self-esteem

Causes of Dyslexia

Causes of Dyslexia
• The most common cause for dyslexia is genetic – the child has inherited the genetic material from one or both of the parents. • Far less common are head injuries where the cause is acquired brain damage. • One common finding relates to the question of timing in that with either visual or auditory (or both) information coming in through the eyes or ears, timing issues of discriminating one piece of information from the next may be faulty.

Causes of Dyslexia...
• In people with dyslexia, brain function does not work as well and thus, the end result is that the person struggles to learn reading, writing and spelling to a degree far greater than people expect.

Interpreting Results
• Dysphonetic (phonological) Dyslexia (~ 67%)
– (Decoding < reading comprehension) < AVERAGE – Sight word recognition somewhat better than decoding – Reading fluency is typically slow (this may persist even after remediation) – Primary deficits in phonological awareness (e.g., segmentation, deletion, blending, and so on of syllables, phonemes, etc.) – Often weak in auditory working memory and factual information – Has trouble spelling phonetically regular words


Symptoms of Dyslexia
• Which of the following are/can be symptoms of dyslexia?
– – – – – Number and letter reversal Difficulty in copying from board Poor short term memory Difficulty in taking dictation Difficulty in reading silently

Symptoms of Dyslexia...
• Difficulty in reading aloud • Poor handwriting • Poor / bizarre / inconsistent spelling • Tendency to mix upper and lower case in writing • Difficulty in sequencing • Poor sense of direction • Lack of concentration / distractibility

Symptoms of Dyslexia...
• Defective / delayed speech • Signs of ambidexterity • Inability to plan / organise • Poor sense of direction • Difficulty in telling the time • Lack of sense of time • Physical uncoordination

Symptoms of Dyslexia...
BUT KEEP IN MIND: • They ALL can be, but you would very rarely find any dyslexic exhibiting all symptoms. • Different clusters of symptoms will be found in different dyslexics. • Many people who are not dyslexic display SOME of these symptoms. • Also, younger children will display some as a normal developmental stage.

Interpreting Results

Interpreting Results…
• Dyseidetic (Surface) Dyslexia (~ 14%)
– – – – – Primary deficit in orthographic processing Decoding better than sight word recognition Over-reliance on sound/symbol associations Try to sound out every word (e.g., sign = /sig-en/) Very slow and laborious reading speed

Interpreting Results…
• Mixed Dyslexia
– Involves reading/spelling features of both dysphonetic and dyseidetic dyslexia – Severely impaired in reading, and progress will be very slow – Results in very bizarre error patterns & poor syllabic representation:
– e.g., Advice read as “Exvices” – e.g., Material read as “Mitear”

DRD Subtypes

Rare Reading Disorder Subtypes
Hyperlexia - uncanny ability to decode words despite significant cognitive deficiency. Comprehension very poor. Deep Dyslexia - a reading comprehension disorder characterized by impairments reading words with abstract meanings; but reading more concrete, easily imagined words are intact. DeJerine Syndrome - dyslexia without dysgraphia. Student has little difficulty writing, though cannot read.

Diagnosis & Tests


Why Screen for Dyslexia?
• Commonest developmental disorder (around 5%) • Genetic origin, 50% chance of child suffering if their parent is dyslexic, persists into adult life • Appropriate teaching support improves reading, phonological skills, spelling and confidence (Rack, 1994) • Lack of support leads to continuing failure, problems become entrenched and generalised • The earlier support can be provided, the more costeffective it will be. The stitch in time approach • Our aim - to identify problems before children fail!

Diagnosis for Dyslexia
• Physical check-up • Abilities test • Oral and written language tests • School performance and family background • Academic tests on reading, spelling, oral language, handwriting, composition • Evaluation of social skills/emotions • Development of IEP

Eight Domains to Assess
• Reading single words in isolation • Word decoding (real and non-words) • Phonological awareness • Letter knowledge (name & sound) • Rapid naming • Fluency / rate and accuracy • Reading Comprehension and/or • Spelling

Identifying Symptoms
• Preschool
– delay in talking – difficulty with rhymes and rhythm – difficulty with remembering rote information, e.g. telephone no., names – difficulty in remembering and following directions

• What to do:
– Follow up child‟s verbal language skills – Read to child, encourage songs and rhymes – Note emerging literacy skills

Identifying Symptoms…
• Primary School
– difficulty in learning letters, characters, symbols and their sounds. – unusual reading and writing errors. – difficulty in remembering words over time. – difficulty in comprehension from text. – difficulty in organizing ideas in text writing.

• Other features accompanying dyslexia:
– – – – poor pencil grip and handwriting. poor sense of time. poor organization and ability to keep belongings. poor study habits.

Identifying Symptoms…
• Primary School: What to do?
– Find schools and teachers who specifically know about the condition and how to help – Teaching should be evidenced based, supportive to the child, but demanding

• Program should have:
– – – – direct instruction in area of deficit multi-sensory approach to learning systematic step-by-step teaching appropriate accommodations

• Reading: difficulties in visual short-term memory, word recognition, speed of reading and comprehension, extracting main points, misreading, the need to re-read several times. • Writing: difficulties in expression, sentence structure, punctuation, planning and structuring essays, sequencing and transition between ideas. • Auditory assimilation: difficulties in auditory shortterm memory, remembering series (e.g telephone numbers), polysyllabic words and remembering mathematical formulae. • Memory: may be less effective, revision can be a longer process and support for study skills is needed.

• Spelling: each new word needs to be learned, may inhibit writing (fear of negative reaction), may affect the teacher’s understanding and evaluation of student work, reversal of letters and figures (eg b /d, 15/51), basic grammar rules not applied (eg likeing, lookd) and may not remember how a word sounds • Proof reading: difficulty in identifying errors, a document may require proof-reading 4 or 5 times • Handwriting: letters may not be joined, printing may be found to be of help • Vocabulary: language acquisition will take longer as more examples of a new word or sentence structure are required before they are learned

The PAL-II Model of Diagnosing
Step 1
Has the child had insufficient opportunity to learn English? Does the child have MR, ASD, Language Disorder, or social emotional disorder Does the child have any known genetic disorders or brain injury or disease that affects brain function?

Step 2

Step 2

1. Obtain a reliable measure of Verbal Comprehension/ Crystallized IQ - WISC-IV, WJ III, KABC-II, DAS-II, etc. 2. Assess the students: - Sight-Word Knowledge (WIAT-II Word Reading; WJ III Letter-Word Identification) - Reading Comprehension - Spelling - Word Attack (WIAT-II Pseudoword Decoding; WJ III Word Attack) - Reading Fluency (GORT-4; WJ III Reading Fluency)

• VIQ > 91? (and) • Any reading or spelling test fall 15 points below the mean?
Note: The size of the discrepancy may depend on the amount of specialized instruction

Step 3

Assess the student’s phonological awareness, orthographic coding, rapid automatic naming (naming facility), and executive abilities (inhibition & switching)

Reliable Tests for Step 3
Phonological Awareness

Rapid Automatic Naming •CTOPP •PAL-II RAN subtests

Executive Function

•NEPSY-II Speeded Naming

Orthographic Coding

•Inhibition/Self-Monitoring •D-KEFS Color-Word Interference •NEPSY-II Inhibition •NEPSY-II Auditory Attention •Switching Attention or Stimuli/ SelfMonitoring •NEPSY-II Letter/Number Naming •PAL-II RAS •NEPSY-II Inhibition •D-KEFS Verbal Fluency: Category Switching

•PAL-II Receptive Coding •PAL-II Expressive Coding

Some Mind Tests - 1
1- Find the C not use any cursor help:


Some Mind Tests - 2
2 - Now find the 6 below:

99999999999999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999 99999999969999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999

Some Mind Tests - 4
4 - Now find the N below. It's a little more difficult.


Some Mind Tests - 5
5 - Now find the “d” below:

bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb bbbbbdbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb

Some Mind Tests - 6
6 - Now find the “q” below:

pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ppppppppppppppppppppqppppppppppppppppp
If you were able to pass the six tests above, you can cancel your annual visit to your neurologist. Your brain is great.

Some Mind Tests - 7
7 - Eonvrye whocan raed this rsaie your hnad.

To my 'selected' strange-minded friends:
If you can read the following paragraph, forward it on to your friends and the person that sent it to you with 'yes' in the subject line... Only great minds can read this This is weird, but interesting! If you can raed this, you have a sgtrane mnid too

Some Mind Tests - 8
8 - Can you raed this?

I cdnuolt blveiee that I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd what I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, dseno't mtaetr in what oerdr the ltteres in a word are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is that the frsit and last ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can still raed it whotuit a pboerlm. This is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the word as a wlohe. Azanmig huh? Yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt!

Dyslexia is not a disease to be cured of, but a different way of thinking and learning.



Treatment Linguistic Approach
• Used with individuals with writing and reading disorders.
– Emphasis on listening, speaking, reading, and writing skill.

• Readiness skills
– learning letter-sound correspondences and phonetic analysis.

Treatment… Instructional Aids
• Used primarily in Dyslexic cases. • Individuals perform better with aids
– – – – such as tape recorded lectures tutors writing editors Supervised School tasks and peer groups.

Treatment… Modified Speech Stimuli
• Individuals with language disorders find improvement in intensive training in modified speech stimuli.
– Specific computer games aimed at language learning. – Audio Tapes – all incorporate slowed speech sounds

• Modified Speech Stimuli exhibited far better results then did unmodified speech stimuli.

Treatment… Megavitamin Therapy
• Some learning disabled children suffer from biochemical imbalances and genetic metabolic deficiencies (LePerchia, 1987)
– Megavitamin therapy may be helpful in controlling disability (LePerchia, 1987)

Anti-motion Sickness Drugs
• Anti-motion sickness medications such as Dramamine have found favorable responses in dyslexic children (Levinson, 1991)

Treatment… Vision Therapy
• Vision care is a key part in helping children and adults with learning • Vision therapy improves efficiency and visual processing thereby allowing the individual to be more responsive to educational instruction. • Disabilities cure.

Interdisciplinary Treatments
u Individual therapy u Therapy with mother

u Sensory modulation & processing - esp. vestibular u Oculomotor skills u Joint stability u Visual perceptual skills u Balance u Movement perception u Sequencing.

u Phonological Awareness (LiPS Program®) u Mental Imagery (Visualizing & Verbalizing®) u Written Composition (Visual-Kinesthetic Sentence Structure).

Interdisciplinary Treatment…
Treatment Schedule: uDaily u4-6 hours treatment per day
u ~1 hour of OT u ~3-5 hours language

Treatment Hours:
u Phonological/Cognitive: ~150 (LiPS) u Semantic/Memory (V/V): ~50 u Syntax/Cognitive (VKSS): ~50 u Physical Medicine: ~45.

u5 days per week u~12 weeks

How to Teach a Dyslexic?

How to Teach a Dyslexic?
 Kids with dyslexic have a hard time paying attention in class.  The words will float around the page sometimes the pages with change colors.  It‟s YOUR job as their teacher to help them.  Try recording the reading assignment on a tape recorder so that the student can listen to the assignment.  NEVER EVER SHOULD YOU TELL AND/OR MAKE A STUDENT FEEL THAT THEY ARE STUPID!

How to Teach a Dyslexic?...
• Provide structured, explicit, direct instructions. • Provide multi-sensory, structured language instructions.

See it
Hear it Say it

Touch it

How to Teach a Dyslexic?... • Greater intensity of instruction. • Increased frequency and duration of instruction. • Research-based instruction in the five components of reading (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension), as well as writing, and spelling.


How to Teach a Dyslexic?... • Have patience, yet high expectations • Break work into doable chunks • Focus child on your lips when pronouncing words or listening for sounds • Give more time and patience to finishing work • Give additional testing time • Provide a quiet work area

Possible Clues of Dyslexic People
• A noticeable difference between the pupil's ability and their actual achievement; • A family history of learning difficulties; • Difficulties with spelling; • Confusion over left and right; • Writing letters or numbers backwards; • Difficulties with maths; • Difficulties with organizing themselves; • Difficulty following 2- or 3-step instructions.

Accommodations for Dyslexia
• Timing/Scheduling
– more time in completing written work / exams – avoid closely packed multiple exam sessions

• Setting
– Testing in a small separate group – Limit distractions

• Presentation Format
– Larger print with less crowding – Questions and answers on same page – Directions in simple wording, child‟s understanding checked – Test items read to student

Accommodations for Dyslexia….
• Response Format
– – – – – Answers on large-spaced paper Students answers verbally Spelling etc requirements waived Aids allowed e.g. Dictionaries Use of word processor

What Happens In a Lesson?
• Speech sound awareness • Sound-symbol links (see, say, write) • Learning a new letter pattern in print • Blending sounds in the printed word • Increasing speed in word, phrase, sentence, and book reading • Writing words with the patterns learned • Vocabulary – building word meanings • Applying comprehension strategies

Phoneme Awareness AND Phonics: They Are Not The Same! • Phoneme awareness provides the foundation for learning phonics and for differentiating similar words in speech

/b/ b

/r/ r

/I/ igh

/t/ t


The Alphabetic Principle: PhonemeGrapheme Mapping

sh s



t u i dge ng

ou l









Phoneme-Grapheme Fluency:
• Read as fast as you can:

rid ride hid hide kit kite ride hide rid hid kit hide hid kit rid hid kite kit ride


Word Identification Fluency
• Read as fast as you can: do does done don‟t any does any done do does any does many do don‟t does any many don‟t does many do any does do

many don‟t done done


Pattern Recognition & Recall
How do we spell /j/ at the ends of words?

charge splurge bilge indulge sponge

wage stooge stage oblige huge

dodge ridge fudge wedge badge


Syllable Types and Connections napkin muffin connect helmet amaze admire circus perfect turkey market describe awake Friday lady motor even poodle cattle people hobble

complete postpone


From Syllables to Morphemes

• trac-tor • gen-tle • mo-vie • wan-ted • ma-king

• tract-or • gent-le • mov-ie • want-ed • mak(e) – ing


Beyond Phonics – Word Study and Spelling Layers of English AngloSaxon Latin Greek Soundsymbol
truck, bump, grab, smell

shinny surface

dumped leftover department observe bronchitis


Systematic Instruction
•Directly teach a set of sound-letter, syllable, and morpheme spellings •Give guided and independent practice of what has been taught The past tense “ed” is pronounced three different ways, /t/, /d/, and /ed/. Let‟s see if we can tell which sound ends each word: liked hoped recovered decided

•Follow a developmental sequence until fluency is achieved

Systematic Instruction (2)
1. listen for the endings 2. identify the endings in print 3. read words with the endings 4. write words and sentences with the endings 5. add the right ending on to fit the meaning of a passage 6. use words with endings in own writing wiped

reminded frightened watched enchanted forested picnicked


Instructional Goal:
• Accuracy of sound and symbol identification • Accuracy at syllable, morpheme, and whole word levels • Speed and automaticity – word recognition without conscious attention • Reading passages fluently for meaning and enjoyment


Reading Aloud Builds His Vocabulary


A Child with Large Vocabulary has an Advantage in Learning to Read

He learns the word while listening to the story...
“When we flash you a signal you will have to open the door and bail out with the help of emergency rockets.” ...Then your child can more easily sound out the word if it is part of his listening and speaking vocabulary.


Most Children Can Learn to Read
• Incidence of “below basic” reading was 5% in the 1st grade regular classrooms where the code-based program was well implemented; very few children had severe reading problems (NICHD Early Interventions Project, Washington, DC)


Good Programs and Approaches
• Orton-Gillingham • Wilson Language • Alphabetic Phonics • Phonographix • SpellRead P.A.T. • Spalding: Writing Road to Reading • Lexia Learning Systems • Slingerland • Lindamood-Bell • Project Read • LANGUAGE! • REACH – Direct Instruction • ReadWell, SpellWell • Watchword


Education of Educators
• Structure of language • Language development and issues in second language learning • Psychology of reading acquisition • Use of screening, progress-monitoring, and diagnostic assessments to inform instruction
– Familiarity with lower incidence handicapping conditions – Internship in teaching a structured language approach with students of different disability profiles


Teaching Strategies: Not to Do
• Make them read aloud in public • Ridicule or employ sarcasm • Correct all mistakes in written work – it is too discouraging • Give lists of spelling words to learn, no more than 3 and related words e.g. plate and cake • Make them write out work again • Compare them to other students • Make them change their writing e.g. printing is easier than cursive for them.

Teaching Strategies: To Do
• Build confidence in the students • Praise wherever possible and Encourage • Find something they are good at • Give less homework • Mark on oral responses where possible • Make sure they understand instructions • Make teaching material more dyslexia-friendly • Have expectations of success • Seat them at the front of the class, closer to the teacher

Tips for Teachers
• A person with dyslexia tires more quickly than others – greater concentration is required. • They suffer from constant nagging uncertainty. • They are often disorganised and may also be clumsy and forgetful, despite trying hard. • Use wooden or plastic letters to teach them the feel and shape of letters. • Use pictures and memory books (Letter land). • Give as much practice as possible in reading, writing and spelling as dyslexics need more practice than most children. • Talk about letters, words and stories to create interest in words and books.

An Achievable Goal
• Almost every child with reading difficulty will progress yearly in relative standing, as a consequence of early, expert, intensive, collaborative intervention based on an understanding of best practices supported by research.


The Parents Role!!!
The Most Important…

Parents Questions to School
• How are students with dyslexia served under 504? • Is there a dyslexia specialist at the school? If so, is it a pull-out or push-in program? • What training has the teacher been provided in order to work with students with dyslexia? • Is there evidence that the program is effective? • How are children taught to approach unfamiliar words? • Does the program include opportunities to practice reading, to develop fluency, to build vocabulary, to develop reading comprehension strategies, to write, and to listen and talk about stories?

Strategies & Resources


Strategies to Use with Child
• Frequent breaks • Reading to the child • Perception of body language of the child • Scribing for the child • Typing for the child • Talk about words and word meanings • Teach the child to “think out loud” when completing mathematics problems or answering reading questions.
– This will allow you to listen to your child‟s thought processes and check for understanding

Reading Pen & Audible Dictionary
• The Reading Pen is a fully portable, reading device that is designed especially for people who have reading difficulties, learning disabilities or dyslexia. • This portable reading tool provides immediate word support and helps students read and understand independently. • It helps users with learning disabilities by providing a definition of the scanned word or line of text. • It reads both the words and definitions aloud using its miniaturized text-tospeech technology.

WordQ™ Writing Software
• WordQ™ is a software tool used along with standard writing software. • WordQ suggests words for you to use and provides spoken feedback to help you find mistakes. • Users of all ages who have problems writing and editing, particularly those with learning disabilities (LD), can benefit from using WordQ.

• Technology can help support the needs of students with specific learning difficulties. • Sometimes simple technology can work more effectively. • Technology does not replace the need for specialist learning support, but it does give students more independence and freedom to work using their skills and strengths.

He’s my Brother by Joe Lasker Level MP-UP The Don’t-Give-up Kid by Jeanne Gehret Level LP Different, Not Dumb by Margot Marek Level LP-MP The Gift of Dyslexia by Ron Davis Mark by Encyclopedia Brittania (Video) Level LSUS

Key To Student Levels P – Preschool EC – Early Childhood LP – Lower Primary MP – Middle Primary UP – Upper Primary LS – Lower Secondary US – Upper Secondary

 Miles T.R. & Miles E. (1999) Dyslexia: A Hundred Years On, 2nd ed., Philadelphia, Open University Press  Lost for Words by BBC Worldwide (Video)

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Good Websites
• The International Dyslexia Association

• Dyslexia Parents Resource

• Learning Disabilities Association of America

• Bright Solutions for Dyslexia