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Bolt tightening with new materials

BOLTED JOINTS
by Erik Galdames Translation and adaptation of the presentation “Condiciones reales de montaje” at the Technical Meeting held on 20th July, 2012 organized by Galol, L’Olleria (Spain)

Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions
Basic considerations
 Tightening of bolts with new materials show a

challenge when trying to obtain new results in the design of bolted joints  Not only considerations of individual components are to be taken into account in a separate way, it is necessary to know their interaction and behaviour in their different combinations  Theoretical data or data from charts are not only the sources to be considered, it is of vital importance to know the behaviour of the different materials in contact  These facts have contributed to seek for practical solutions in the different specifications of some industrial sectors, mainly automotive industry, to study and determine solutions forr different problems that may occur
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Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Basic considerations  Types of fasteners  Types of coatings  Mating materials  Thread length  Environmental conditions 3 .

nuts  Self-tapping metric screws  Self-tapping screws  Studs 4 .Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Types of fasteners  Metric threaded bolts.

type of material to fasten 5 . externally driven  Clearance hole  Thread length  Surface pressure.Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Design considerations  Geometry of parts  Dimensions and tolerances  Internally driven fasteners. Use of washers.

The following families of coatings for fasteners exist in the automotive industry nowadays.Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Coatings of fasteners  The selection of the adequate coating for a certain application plays an important role. not exclusively:  Zinc flake coatings with/without top-coats  Electroplated zinc. zinc-nickel with/without top-coats  Phosphating + oil 6 .

zinc-nickel with/without top- coats  KTL  No coating (e. Al-alloys) 7 .Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Coatings of the mating surfaces  Coatings applied to the mating surfaces to be fastened with bolts/nuts  Zinc flake coatings with/without top-coats  Electroplated zinc.g.

Hydrogen embrittlement       avoidance Tightening with hexalobular tool. Presence of pilot (form of the tip of the bolt) Service temperature Use in combination with locking features or microencapsulated coatigns DIN 267-27 or DIN 267-28 Contact with magnesium alloys Ground connections 8 . etc.Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Coatings  Factors to be taken into account in their selection:  Colour  Property class of fasteners. internal hexagonal tool.

oil circuits or transportation Parts in motion without corrosion exposure Transport and limited storage in warehouses Parts in contact with magnesium alloys Weld parts Parts not multi-component Service temperature > 180ºC Zn+passivation+top-coat (silicate) Zn+passivation Mg alloys Weld parts Bolts ≥ 10. ≥ 1000 N/mm 2 Though less hydrogen embrittlement risk than pure eplated Zn. Service temperature > 150ºC Bolts ≥ 10. Service temperature > 150ºC ZnNi ZnNi black External thread < M6 with internal drive feature Internal thread <M10 Self-tapping screws Phosphating + oil Multicomponent.9.Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Coatings Coating Zinc flake coatings Typical applications Chassis Motor compartment (areas exposed to high corrosivity) Aluminium joints Chassis Motor compartment (areas exposed to high corrosivity) Aluminium joints Chassis Motor compartment (areas exposed to high corrosivity) Aluminium joints Adequate for Bolts ≥ 10.9.9 Bolts ≥ 10.9 Microencapsulated coating allowed (without lubricated topcoat) External thread < M6 Internal thread < M10 Less adequate for Ground connections External thread <M6 Internal thread <M10 Internal drive features T30 Bolts ≥ 10. ≥ 1000 N/mm 2 Though less hydrogen embrittlement risk than pure eplated Zn.9 9 .

Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Materials  Typical materials found in bolted joints          Chassis metal sheet Non-structural steel Sintered materials Cast steel Wrought Al alloys Cast Al alloys Mg alloys Ti alloys Zinc cast alloys 10 .

0045 1.4980 EN-JL1020 EN-JS1072 EN-JS1082 EN-JS1092 Standard EN 10130 EN 10149-2 EN 10025-2 EN 10263-4 EN 10083-3 EN 10084 DIN 30910-4 EN 1008-3 EN 10269 EN 1561 EN 1563 Cast iron 11 .4401 1.8974 1.4303 1.1192 1.033 1.6582 1. 1.7131 1.Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Materials Material Cold formed steel Non-allied structural steel Steel for quenching and tempering Sintered materials Austenitic stainless steel Abbreviation DC01 S700MC S355JR C45EC 34CrNiMo6 16MnCr5 Sint – D30 X5CrNi18-12 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 X6NiCrTiMoVB25-15-2 EN-GJL-150 EN-GJS-40015U EN-GJS-500-7U EN-GJS-600-3U Material No.

Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Materials Material Cold formed Al alloys Abbreviation EN-AW-AlSi1MgMn-T6 EN AW-AlSi1MgMn-T4 EN AW-AlMg4.7165.7-H111 EN AC-AlSi6Cu4-SF EN AC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe) EN AC-AlSi7Mg0. 5Mn0.3-T6 EN MC-MgAl9Zn1(A)-F-D EN MC-MgAl6Mn-D TiAl6V4 ZP3 ZP5 Material No. EN AW-6082 EN AW-6082 EN AW-5083 EN AC-45000 EN AC-46000 EN AC-42100 EN-MC21120 EN-MC21230 3.1 ZP0400 ZP0410 Standard EN 754-2 Al alloy castings EN 1706 Mg alloys Ti alloys Zinc alloy castings EN 1753 DIN 17862 EN 12844 12 .

E.Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Mating materials  Some softer materials present problems in the assembly due to the increase of friction. Worst case concave surface. The same bolt with the same coating may present different behaviour when the mating material is an Al-alloy  Surface roughness plays an important role. When the mating surface between both elements to tighten is larger. as well as geometry of the bearing surface of the fastener (concave. This could influence the friction behaviour enormously. convex). Al and Mg alloys show higher friction compared to steel.  Thread length also has a strong influence. unexpected effects may occur.g. since friction in the thread is higher 13 .g. E.

9) Hardened steel. hardened Low-and unalloyed steel 1000 MPa 800 Mpa 400 Mpa 0.0·d 1.0·d (8.8) 2. (tornillos 10.7·d (≤ 8.8) 1.Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Thread length MATERIAL Min.3·d 1.0·d 14 .8·d 1. tempered Tempered steel. Rm Min.3·d Al and Mg alloy castings CuZn alloys Sintered parts 80 BHN 60 BHN 350 MPa 510 MPa 2.5·d (10. Brinell Hardness No.9) 2. (BHN) Longitud de roscado mín.

Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Other materials  Unions with self-tapping screws on plastics may show     unexpected effects Creep of polymers produces drop of preload. use of metal sleeves is recommended Microencapsulated coatings increase coefficient of friction during assembly.12 to 0. With the introduction of new developed products (µtot 0. thus loosening the union For unions with high preload.16) this effect can be avoided It is not allowed in some automotive specs to use microencapsulated coatings over top-coats with integrated lubricants due to the risk of lack of adhesion of the locking feature over the top-coat 15 .

Finally.Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Other factors    Use of washers. the bolt is corroded 16 . They change pressure applied on the bolted union Geometry of washers (Aussenträger or concave washer). Not recommended for fasteners with zinc flake coatings or electroplated zinc alloys Mg alloys. Not compatible with most of the coatings that provide cathodic protection Al alloy. Avoid relatively small areas of the less noble metal with a larger surface of the most noble metal  E.     Cu. Special attention to materials like Al. Not compatible with zinc flake coatings. A zinc plated bolt fastened to an anodized aluminium sheet or a stainless steel panel. zinc-nickel Anodized Al. Compatible with some electroplated zinc coatings with special top-coats  Specific surface. The surface of the bolt is smaller than the Al sheet (or stainless steel sheet). Mg or stainless steel.g. The most complicated case in bolted unions due to the reduced contact surface Galvanic compatibility (galvanic series). Compatible with zinc flake coatings.

Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Other factors Galvanic series Platinum Gold Graphite Titanium Silver Stainless steel (passive) Nickel (passive) Bronze Nickel (active) Lead Stainless steel (active) Cathodic Anodic Iron Steel Aluminium Zinc Magnesium 17 .

Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Temperature and relative humidity  Service temperature.  Relative humidity has influenced in the assembly conditions in some cases. There is a risk of self-loosening at high temperatures in some coatings with integrated lubricant due to loss of self-retention. For this reason. Before comparing results it is necessary that parts can be conditioned before testing. coating systems must comply with VDA 235-203 requirements before approval  Relative humidity also has a strong influence. so this has led to misinterpretation over the quality of the parts received by the customer  Too high humidity may produce a higher lubrication and a too dry environment may increase coefficient of friction 18 .

a torque variation of ± 15% ∆T can produce a preload variation of ∆F ± 35%. stop. thus friction effects may vary  Use of spindle 19 .g. friction under the head of the bolt plays a less important role with a torque/angle controlled tightening procedure  High speed tightening. final tightening at 20 rpm). When bolt is tightened within the plastic range. E. friction has a strong influence and a short variation in torque may influence in a greater variation of preload.Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Other factors  Type of tightening procedure  Tightening below yield point. Speed of rotation can be higher in some cases. 200 rpm. If torque controlled tightening is performed. The maximum design of the bolt is used when bolt is assembled beyond the yield point. In torque controlled tightening. With angle controlled tightening ∆F ± 13%  Tightening beyond yield point.g. Tightening in two steps (e.

not only the coating systems applied influence exclusively in the tightening process. other factors must be considered. The other materials used in the union play a vital role  Furthermore. their interaction and how they behave in the different situations encountered  Temperature and humidity conditions are also important.Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Summary  In the design of bolted joints not only the mechanical characteristics of the bolt have to be considered individually. mainly when comparing different unions 20 . A different coating system may influence tightening process dramatically  It is of vital importance to know the conditions of the bolted union of the different materials.

High-tensile bolted joints. Locking features K. H. Kübler. Design Parameters. 2006 Guía de las uniones atornilladas 21 .Bolted joints – Bolt tightening in real conditions Further reading       VDI 2230-1 VDA 235-203 KAMAX Schraubenbrevier Pierre R. Assembly. Roberge. Handbuch der hochfesten Schrauben  Erik Galdames. W. Handbook of corrosion engineering K. J. Mages. Kayser.