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BHAVINI

KALPAKKAM





Design Provisions for
Core Instrumentation of PFBR

C. Paramasivan Pillai

Indo-French Technical Seminar, France, 3
rd
– 8
th
April 2006.
The core instrumentation system
consists of
-Neutron Flux Monitoring System
-Core Temperature Monitoring System
-Flow Monitoring System
-Failed Fuel Detection System
Design provision for core instrumentation of PFBR
The functions of the system are
To monitor the core status in all states of the reactor –
shutdown, fuel handling, start-up, intermediate & power
ranges and during design basis events.
To detect errors during fuel handling

Type and Location of Neutron Detectors
The neutron flux around the reactor is very low as neutron
shields are provided to protect the components housed inside
the main vessel and to reduce the secondary sodium activity.
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
The neutron flux (total) at core centre varies from
1.7x10
7
nv (n/cm
2
/s) at shutdown to 8x10
15
nv at
nominal power.
The neutron flux at the control plug location varies
from 6nv (with auxiliary neutron source) to 2.7x10
9
nv
(U
235
equivalent thermal flux) from shutdown to
nominal power.
The neutron flux at the under vessel location varies
from 1.1x10
-5
nv to 2x10
5
nv (U
235
equivalent thermal
flux).
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
Neutron Flux
(U
235
fission equivalent
flux) in nv
Location
Shutdown
(473 K)
P
n
(820 K)
Core centre 1.3 x 10
4
2.7 x 10
13
Below SV 1.1 x 10
-5
2 x 10
5
Control Plug 6 2.7 x 10
9
Detectors under vessel for
power operation
Detectors in central subassembly
Six high temperature fission
chambers during startup and
intermediate operation (3 safety,
2 control, 1 insitu spare)
Detectors for Normal Operation
It is proposed to provide 6 (3 for safety, 2
for control and 1 insitu spare) high
temperature fission chambers at 3
locations 120
o
apart in the control plug
These detectors facilitate monitoring the
measurement range from shutdown to
intermediate power range with wide range
channels having pulse, Campbell modes
from 1 nv to 3.1 x 10
7
nv.
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
 Above 1% power, the response time and
accuracy of the control plug detectors in
campbell and dc modes of operation are not
meeting the requirements due to leakage and
gamma currents.
 Hence 6 fission chambers of sensitivity 0.2
cps/nv working in pulse mode (3 for safety, 2
for control and one in-situ spare) are
proposed to be placed under the safety
vessel with concrete over the detectors
removed for better flux availability during
power range.
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
1.7x10
7
8x10
15
15
16x10
15
25 166 2160 9
2.7x10
5.4x10
9
3.6 Wt 15 Wt 100 Wt 1 kWt 10 kWt 100 kWt 1 MWt 10 MWt 100 MWt 1000 1250 1500 2500
MWt MWt MWt MWt
NOMINAL POWER (Pn)
SHUTDOWN
POWER
CORE CENTRE FLUX
FLUX AT CP DETECTOR LOCATION
CRITICALITY
at 144 cps
1 100 1000 10 10 10
4 5 6
2x10 cps
6
PULSE MODE
25 kWt 250 kWt 2.5 MWt 25 MWt 250 MWt 2500 MWt
CAMPBELL MODE
PULSE MODE(LINEAR)
ABSOLUTE POWER TRIP
Lin N at 110% Pn
(1375 MWt)
TRIP ON CAMPBELL CHANNELS,
Log P at 20% Pn (250 MWt)
INTERLOCK ON TAKE OVER OF Lin P
CHANNELS FROM CAMPBELL
CHANNELS, Lin N1-IL at 5% Pn
(62.5 MWt)
TRIP ON PULSE CHANNELS,
Log N at 800 kWt (10 cps)
6
INTERLOCK ON TAKE OVER OF CAMPBELL
CHANNELS FROM PULSE CHANNELS,
Log P1-IL at 200 kWt
NON-AVAILIBILITY OF ADEQUATE
NEUTRONS, Log No at 3 cps
FUEL LOADING INTERLOCK,
Log N1-IL at 25 cps
HTFC
(0.2 cps/nv)
WITH WIDE
150 MWt 1500 MWt
(120% Pn)
RANGE CHANNEL
6 2.16x10
4 5 6 7 8 9
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
U THERMAL EQUIVALENT FLUX
235
9.6x10
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING - SAFETY CHANNELS -NORMAL OPERATION
*
7.1x10 4.7x10 6.4x10 6.4x10 6.4x10 6.4x10 6.4x10 6.4x10 6.4x10
2.16x10 2.16x10 2.16x10 2.16x10 2.16x10
(nv)
(nv)
3.24x10
9
(k = 0.93)
eff
15 MWt
(BOEC CORE, WITH SOURCE)
(0.2 cps/nv)
UNDER VESSEL
FISSION CHAMBER
10
1.2
FLUX AT UV DETECTOR LOCATION
* (nv)
2x10 2x10
3 4
1.66x10
5
2x10
5
3.3x10
5
Requirement of source

 During the first 4 fuel cycles, before the BOEC (Beginning
of Equilibrium Cycle) is achieved, the shutdown count rates
on control plug location are very less. It is planned to load
source subassemblies containing fresh Antimony Berilium
pins during first startup.

 These source assemblies get activated during reactor
operation during first fuel cycle and provide a min. shutdown
countrate of 6 cps on control plug detectors after 4 months of
operation.

NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
 Till the source gets activated a special
instrumentation namely Instrumented Central
Sub Assembly (ICSA) monitors the core
during shutdown and startup.
 The ICSA contains 3 high temperature
fission chambers of 0.1 cps/nv connected to
pulse counting channels for monitoring flux
and provides trips in the range from 10 nv to
10
7
nv (Core centre, U 235 thermal equivalent
flux) (~2 kWt).
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
3 fission chambers in ICSA
for flux monitoring during
core loading and low power
 The detectors in control plug takes over safety and
control action from the ICSA detectors arond ~10
3
nv
at control plug location well before the ICSA detectors
saturate. As the power goes up the ICSA is withdrawn
and kept at a higher elevation at ~ 1 kWt power.

 In case of long shutdown extending more than 4
months during reactor operation , the shutdown count
rate goes < 3 cps as the source decays with a half-life
of 60 days, The subsequent reactor startup is done
again with ICSA, till the source gets reactivated.

NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
1.7x10
7
8x10
15
15
16x10
15
25 166 2160
9
2.7x10
5.4x10
9
3.6 Wt 15 Wt 100 Wt 1 kWt 10 kWt 100 kWt 1 MWt 10 MWt 100 MWt 1000 1250 1500 2500
MWt MWt MWt MWt
NOMINAL POWER (Pn)
SHUTDOWN
POWER
CORE CENTRE FLUX
FLUX AT CP DETECTOR LOCATION
CRITICALITY
at 144 cps
1
100
1000 10 10 10
4 5 6
2x10 cps
6
PULSE MODE
NON-AVAILIBILITY OF
ADEQUATE NEUTRONS
FUEL LOADING INTERLOCK,
Log N1-IL at 25 cps
HTFC
(0.2 cps/nv)
WITH WIDE
RANGE CHANNEL
6 2.16x10
4 5
6 7 8 9
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
U THERMAL EQUIVALENT FLUX
235
9.6x10
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING - SAFETY CHANNELS
*
7.1x10 4.7x10 6.4x10 6.4x10 6.4x10 6.4x10 6.4x10 6.4x10 6.4x10
2.16x10 2.16x10 2.16x10 2.16x10 2.16x10
(nv)
(nv)
3.24x10
9
(k = 0.93)
eff
10
2x10 cps
6
6
10 10
5
10
4
1000 100
10
PULSE MODE
PULSE
WITH
(0.1cps/nv)
HTFC
CHANNEL
NON-AVAILABILITY OF
ADEQUATE NEUTRONS
TRIP ON PULSE CHANNELS,
Log C at 10 cps (~ 2 kWt)
Log Co at 3 cps
IL ON TAKE OVER OF CP DETECTORS
FROM ICSA CHANNELS
Log N2-IL at 200 cps
6
IN ICSA
1.2
(ICSA AND SOURCE RANGE)
Log No at 3 cps
Design Basis Events (DBE)

For the following DBE, Neutron Flux
monitoring system initiates automatic safety
action.
-Transient over power at low power
-Transient over power at start-up,
-Transient over power at power operation
-Short period during power raise
-Abnormal reactivity changes
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
Functions
- Monitor the temperatures at the outlets of FSA and core
inlets
- Derive parameters such as the
+Mean core outlet temperature (u
M
),
+Mean temperature rise in the core (Au
M
)
+Deviation in individual subassembly sodium outlet
temperature over the expected value (ou
I
).
- To provide SCRAM signals on
 Central sub assembly temperature (u
CSA
)
 Mean temperature rise in the core (Au
M
)
 Deviation in individual subassembly sodium outlet
temperature over the expected value (ou
I
).
 Core inlet temperature (u
RI
)

CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
Specification
- Thermocouple type: K type (Chromel-Alumel) Mineral
insulated, SS sheathed, ungrounded T/C
- Size : 1 mm.
- Sensitivity : 41 µV / K
- Range : 400 to 1100 K
- Overall accuracy : ± 3 K
- Time constant : ~300 ms (for the TC for CSA)
: 6±2 s (for the TC for other FSA)
- Scan interval : 1 Sec.
CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
Signal Processing
- Central Sub-assembly outlet and core inlet sodium
temperature signals are triplicated and processed
by hardwired electronics
- For all other fuel sub-assemblies sodium outlet
temperature is monitored with 2 T/C (in
thermowell) and each T/C signal is triplicated after
signal conditioning and processed by 3 different
Real Time Computers (RTC)

CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
Central SA Outlet Sodium Temperature Measurement
- TC are located on the central canal plug - directly
in contact with sodium
- Signals are processed by hardwired electronics
- SCRAM signal is generated through 2/3 logic.
- Connected to the RTC for calculating
- Mean core outlet temperature (u
M
)
- Deviation in individual subassembly sodium outlet
temperature over the expected value (ou
I
)

CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
Thermocouple in central canal plug
2

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SCU
SCU
SCU
Central Sub-assembly Outlet Sodium
Temperature Monitoring System
TCs in Central
canal plug
CR
CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
FSA Outlet Sodium
Temperature Measurement
- Two TC in thermowells at the
outlets of each SA (except
central sub assembly).
- RTC calculates u
M
, Au
M
, ou
I

- RTC initiates SCRAM on Au
M
and ou
I

- For calculating Au
M
and ou
I
,
Minimum of the Two u
RI
is
taken as u
RI
for calculation
- SCRAM on ou
I
is not effective
when (u
csa
- u
RI
)below a
setpoint
CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
26770
24355
28200
SODIUM LEVEL
FUEL SUB ASSEMBLY
SHIELDING PLATES
FFIM
RING CLAMP
CENTRAL CANAL
THERMOCOUPLE
TUBE SHEATH
CRDM & DSRDM
SHROUD TUBE
THERMAL SHIELDS
CORE COVER PLATE
30285
27400
22525
LATTICE PLATE
1
2
5
3
5
0
Ø2520
7
7
6
0
8
3
0
6
7
0
Ø2250
R1115 10 THK.
± 1.5
GRIPPER
GUIDE RING
SEAL PLUG
CONNECTOR
2-THERMOCOUPLES
EXTENSION
INTERMEDIATE
TUBE Ø4/5
Ø1mm
PIECE
Ø190 H8/f8
PLUG
CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
26770
24355
28200
SODIUM LEVEL
FUEL SUB ASSEMBLY
SHIELDING PLATES
FFIM
RING CLAMP
CENTRAL CANAL
THERMOCOUPLE
TUBE SHEATH
CRDM & DSRDM
SHROUD TUBE
THERMAL SHIELDS
CORE COVER PLATE
30285
27400
22525
LATTICE PLATE
1
2
5
3
5
0
Ø2520
7
7
6
0
8
3
0
6
7
0
Ø2250
R1115 10 THK.
± 1.5
GRIPPER
GUIDE RING
SEAL PLUG
CONNECTOR
2-THERMOCOUPLES
EXTENSION
INTERMEDIATE
TUBE Ø4/5
Ø1mm
PIECE
Ø190 H8/f8
PLUG
TC – A
210 Nos.
RTC-A
RTC-B
RTC-C
RCB Side
u -RI-1B,
u -RI-2B,
u -CSA-B
u -RI-1A,
u -RI-2A,
u -CSA-A
u -RI-1C,
u -RI-2C,
u -CSA-C
2

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FSA Outlet sodium Temperature Monitoring System
CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
ISO AMP
ISO AMP
ISO AMP
ISO
AMP
TC – B
210 Nos.
ISO AMP
ISO AMP
ISO AMP
ISO
AMP
Fig. 1 : LOCATION OF EDDY CURRENT FLOW METERS IN PUMPS
Thermocouple
Probes
CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
A A
Detail-A
Thermocouple Probe
Location
CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
EL. 22740
THERMOCOUPLE
PROBE
PUMP SUCTION
Thermocouple
Probe
EL. 22740
PSP
suction
Reactor Inlet Temperature Monitoring System
Thermocouple Probe
CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
GRIPPER
GUIDE RING
SEAL PLUG
CONNECTOR
2-THERMOCOUPLES
EXTENSION
INTERMEDIATE
TUBE Ø4/5
Ø1mm
PIECE
Reactor Inlet Temperature Monitoring System
Reactor Inlet Temperature Monitoring System
2

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SCU
SCU
SCU
2

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SCU
SCU
SCU
TCs in PSP-1
TCs in PSP-2
CR BCR
CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
Eddy current
Flowmeter
- Functions
Monitor sodium flow
through the core
Protect the reactor in
case of events like one
primary sodium pump
seizure/ trip, transient
over power, pipe rupture
and off-site power failure
Signal processing by
hardwired electronics
SCRAM on P/Q > 1.1 -
2/3 voting logic

 These probes can be
easily withdrawn for
maintenance/replacement
CORE FLOW MONITORING
P/Q>1.1
FLOW METER-1A
FLOW METER-2A
2

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FLOW METER-1B
FLOW METER-2B
FLOW METER-1C
FLOW METER-2C
P/Q
P/Q
P/Q
P/Q>1.1
P/Q>1.1
SCU
Q=Q1+Q2
CR
PRIMARY SODIUM FLOW MEASUREMENT (P/Q)
SCU
Q=Q1+Q2
Q1
Q2
Q1
Q2
SCU
Q=Q1+Q2
Q1
Q2
CR
CRT
CORE FLOW MONITORING
Fig. 1 : LOCATION OF EDDY CURRENT FLOW METERS IN PUMPS
Eddy current
Flowmeters
CORE FLOW MONITORING
Ø1850
1
3
3
0
1
4
4
5
INTERMEDIATE
SUPPORT SKIRT
SHAFT
HYDROSTATIC
BEARING BUSH
HYDROSTATIC
BEARING JOURNAL
SUCTION CASING
IMPELLER
DIFFUSER
EDDY CURRENT
FLOW METER
Fig.5 : LOCATION & GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF EDDY CURRENT FLOW METER IN PUMP
Eddy current
Flowmeters
CORE FLOW MONITORING
5
0
5
0
5
0
VIEW-A
A
GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF
EDDY CURRENT FLOW METER IN PRIMARY SODIUM PUMP
EL. 21865
EL.21740
EL. 22915
EL. 21254
SUCTION
CASING
WEB IN
SUCTION
CASING
SUCTION
CASING
CORE FLOW MONITORING
8
3
8
6
2
0
Ø14
Ø12
1
0
2
9
4
1
0
0
9
4
5
0
EL. 21274
S
E
N
S
O
R
-
1
S
E
N
S
O
R
-
2
0.1 mm SS FOIL COVER
SECONDARY COIL
PRIMARY COIL
SECONDARY COIL
IRON CORE
11.8 mm OD
EDDY CURRENT PROBE ASSEMBLY
Eddy current Flowmeter Probe
CORE FLOW MONITORING
Design Basis Events (DBE)

CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
 For the following DBE, Core temperature monitoring
system initiates automatic safety action.

1. Transient over power
2. Sub-assembly faults
3. One primary sodium pump (PSP) trip
4. One PSP seizure
5. Primary pipe rupture
6. Off-site power failure
7. One secondary sodium pump (SSP) trip
8. One SSP seizure
9. One BFP trip with the standby not starting
10. Loss of feed water to SG
 This system provides immediate indication and safety
action (SCRAM) on wet rupture of the failed fuel.

 The system consists of high temperature fission
chambers of sensitivity 0.2 cps/nv placed at the inlets
of each of the four IHX,

 It monitors the delayed neutrons emitted by the solid
fission products that get into sodium due to the fuel
clad failure (Bulk DND)

FAILED FUEL DETECTION SYSTEM

* The detector assemblies, each consisting of three high
temperature fission chambers surrounded by graphite
to thermalize the delayed neutrons and B
4
C for
shielding the streaming core neutrons background, are
installed in pockets at 8 locations near IHX inlet
windows.
* The studies carried out shows that a rupture of 10 cm
2

clad surface area can be detected with an accuracy of
±20 % with a total response time 16 to 59 s

BULK DND SENSITIVITY
FAILED FUEL DETECTION SYSTEM
CP
IHX
LRP
1
IHX
IHX
IHX
SRP
BULK DND PITS
TOP VIEW OF DND LOCATIONS
FAILED FUEL DETECTION SYSTEM
BUILK DND THIMBLE
FAILED FUEL DETECTION SYSTEM
FAILED FUEL DETECTION SYSTEM
INNER VESSEL
MAIN VESSEL
CP
HOT POOL
COLD POOL
Na LEVEL
DND PIT
IHX
EL 25910
2
IHX
LRP SRP CP
Na
Argon
ACTIVE
CORE
BULK DND SYSTEM FOR PFBR
Bulk DND location
DND Thimble
Design Basis Events (DBE)

For the following DBE, Failed Fuel
Detection System initiates automatic
safety action.

Sub-assembly faults
 Blockage
NEUTRON FLUX MONITORING
• Failure of the redundant signals

• The channels are designed with fail safe criteria.
Failure of any component or power supply of the
redundant channel results in trip condition of
respective parameter and “system unhealthy” trip
corresponding to faulty channel is initiated.

• In addition to the above, discordance system
constantly monitors all the trip parameters and
thresholds. Any malfunction or failure of any of the
above results in alarm in control room.
CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
• Failure of the redundant signals

• Instrumented channels are checked by
simulated signals daily.
• Healthiness of the TC are checked online by
RTC.
• Healthiness of the RTC is checked by online
diagnostics.
CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
Design Basis Events and SCRAM parameter (in the order of
their appearance)
CORE TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM
u
CSA
u
RI
One BFP trip and standby
not starting
u
CSA
u
RI
One SSP seizure
u
CSA
u
RI
One SSP trip
u
CSA
and Au
M
P/Q and µ Off-site power failure
u
CSA
P/Q, µ and LinP One PSP seizure
DND and ou
I
µ and DND SA faults
u
CSA
and Au
M
µ, t
p
and P/Q TOP at low power / start-up
u
CSA
u
RI
Loss of feedwater to SG
u
CSA
P/Q, µ and LinP Primary pipe rupture
u
CSA
and Au
M
P/Q One PSP trip
u
CSA
and Au
M
LinP, P/Q, µ TOP power operation
SDS-2 SDS-1 DBE
 Instrumented Central Sub Assembly to
monitor the core from shutdown to 1 kWt till
the source gets activated during reactor
operation.
 High temperature fission chambers of
0.2 cps/nv sensitivity in control plug for
startup and intermediate power range
operation.
 Under vessel fission chambers of 0.2 cps/nv
sensitivity in pulse mode for power operation
SUMMARY
 K type thermocouples in control plug for
monitoring sodium outlet temperatures of all
the fuel sub assemblies.
 Thermocouples in the primary Na pump to
measure the primary sodium inlet temperature
 Eddy current flow meters in the by pass flow on
discharge side of primary sodium pumps
 In vessel high temperature fission chambers on
either side of IHX for monitoring failed fuel
SUMMARY