You are on page 1of 24


Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 11/e Global Edition
Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge

Chapter 2

Job Attitudes

Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

Contrast the three components of an attitude. Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior. Compare and contrast the major job attitudes. Define job satisfaction and show how we can measure it. Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction. Show whether job satisfaction is a relevant concept in countries other than the United States.
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education

people or events Attitudes reflect how one feels about something  Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education .Attitudes 2-3  Evaluative statements – either favorable or unfavorable – concerning objects.

” Behavior – the intention to behave in a certain way “I am going to quit this job soon as I can and tell everyone how terrible this company is.2-4 Three Main Components of Attitudes Cognition – an opinion or belief “I just found out I am paid 20% less than my coworkers.” Affect – the emotional or feeling segment associated with that belief “I feel angry that I am not being treated fairly.” Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education .

My car is not economic – This parfume smells nice Affect – I am angry for that – I hate that – I liked that Behavior – I will look for another job – I will change it – I will buy it Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education .2-5 Three Main Components of Attitudes Cognition – My pay is low .

or between behavior and attitudes Some argues that people hold what they do. But we always do not do what we say. Ford Car.Attitudes Follow Behavior: Cognitive Dissonance 2-6 -Any inconsistency between two or more attitudes. Festinger says ‘Attitudes follow behavior’. (Blonde Girl. Mother.should not drink coke) So this leads to incompatibilities (cognitive Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education dissonance) . Poeple watch TV programs they like. Employees avoid assignments they do not like.

(Smoking) Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education .Attitudes Follow Behavior: Cognitive Dissonance 2-7 But This is very uncomfortable and people will seek to act more consistent.

or between behavior and attitudes -Cognitive dissonance occurs when there are inconsistencies between a person’s attitudes or between a person’s behavior and attitudes   Individuals seek to minimize dissonance The desire to reduce dissonance is determined by: The importance of the elements creating the dissonance  The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements  The rewards that may be involved in dissonance  Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education .Attitudes Follow Behavior: Cognitive Dissonance 2-8 -Any inconsistency between two or more attitudes.

Behavior Follows Attitudes: Moderating Variables 2-9 The most powerful moderators of the attitudebehavior relationships are:      Importance Correspondence to behavior Accessibility Social pressures Direct personal experience Knowing attitudes helps predict behavior Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education .

Major Job Attitudes 2-10    Job Satisfaction Job Involvement Psychological Empowerment  Organizational Commitment Affective commitment  Continuance commitment  Normative commitment    Perceived Organizational Support (POS) Employee Engagement Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education .

 Job satisfaction refers to a collection of feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job. It can be positive or negative Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education .

 Job Involvement Job involvement looks at the degree of psychological identification with the job. An additional job attitude is psychological empowerment. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education . competence in the job and job meaningfulness. the belief in the degree of influence over the job.

2. Continuance commitment: perceived economic value of remaining with the org. Affective commitment: is an emotional attachment to the org and belief in its values. (moral/ethical) Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education . 1. 3. Normative Commitment: is an obligation to remain with the org. Organisational Commitment Employee identifies with a particular organisation and its goals and wishes to remain a member.

 Perceived Organisational Support (POS) It is the degree to which employees believe the org. Research shows that employees with strong POS perceptions are more likely to have higher levels of org. Citizenship behaviors. Values their contributions and cares about their wellbeing. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education . lower levels of tardiness and better customer service.

Measuring Job Satisfaction 2-15 Average Job Satisfaction by Facets  Single Global Rating Method  Only a few general questions  Remarkably accurate  Summation Score Method  Identifies Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education key elements in the job and asks for specific feeling about them .

What Determines Job Satisfaction? Mentally challenging work  Equitable rewards  Supportive working conditions  Supportive colleagues  Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education .

What Causes Job Satisfaction? 2-17  The Work Itself – the strongest correlation with overall satisfaction Social Component – there is a strong correlation with how people view the social context of their work   Pay – not correlated after individual reaches a level of comfortable living  Advancement   Supervision Coworkers Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education .

The Consequences of Dissatisfaction 2-18 Destructive to Constructive Passive to Active Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education .

The Benefits of Satisfaction 2-19   Better job and organizational performance Better organizational citizenship behaviors  (OCB – Discretionary behaviors that contribute to organizational effectiveness but are not part of employees’ formal job description) Greater levels of customer satisfaction  Generally lower absenteeism and turnover  Decreased instances of workplace Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education  .

S. but that may be due to the greater value Westerners put on positive emotions and happiness. concept?  Cross-cultural differences do exist but job satisfaction seems to be a global concern Are employees in Western cultures more satisfied with their jobs?  Yes. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education .Global Implications 2-20 Is job satisfaction a U.

Implications for Managers 2-21 Employee attitudes give warnings of potential problems and influence behavior     Satisfied and committed employees exhibit behaviors that increase organizational outcomes Managers must measure job attitudes in order to improve them Most important elements a manager can focus on are the intrinsic parts of the job: making the work challenging and interesting High pay is not enough to create satisfaction Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education .

Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education . but when they are not.Keep in Mind… 2-22    Individuals have many kinds of attitudes about their job. Most employees are satisfied with their jobs. a host of actions in response to the satisfaction might be expected. Job satisfaction is related to organizational effectiveness.

2. Showed that job satisfaction is a relevant concept in countries other than the United States. Defined job satisfaction and showed how we can measure it. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education . Summarized the relationship between attitudes and behavior. Summarized the main causes of job satisfaction. 4.Summary 2-23 1. 3. 5. 6. Contrasted the three components of an attitude. Compared and contrasted the major job attitudes.

2-24 All rights reserved. stored in a retrieval system. photocopying. mechanical. without the prior written permission of the publisher. or transmitted. electronic. recording. in any form or by any means. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education . or otherwise.