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ELEMENTS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (10 EME 14/24

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UNIT 7 : SOLDERING, BRAZING AND WELDING.
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screws etc. 2.  1. 4. material and thickness of the work metals and other several factors. The desired shape and size of such products can be obtained by joining two parts of same or different materials. 3. Adhesive bonding. nuts. 5. Metal fabrication involves joining of two metals together. . rivets. These parts are manufactured individually and are joined together to obtain the desired product.INTRODUCTION  Some products cannot be manufactured as a single piece. Various processes are used to join the metals together depending on the strength of the joint. Metal Joining processes are generally classified as: Welding Soldering Brazing 2 Mechanical Fasteners like bolts.

2. Types Plastic or Pressure Welding (Under pressure without additional filler metal) Fusion or non-pressure welding (With additional filler material) 3  1.WELDING  Definition Welding is a fabrication process of joining two similar or dissimilar metals by heating them to a suitable temperature and then fusing them together with or without the application of pressure and filler metal. .

The high temperature of the electric arc melts the base metal and at the same time the tip of filler metal also melts and mixes with molten base metal to form the weld metal. The weld metal cools and solidifies to form the weld.ARC WELDING  Working principle: Arc welding is a fusion welding process and basically works on the principle that the intense heat produced by an electrical arc struck between the electrode (filler rod) and the work metal is used to join the two metals. 4 . In this welding process the electrical energy is converted into heat energy producing a temperature of around 50000C in the welding zone.

Consumable electrodes 2.CONSTRUCTION The constructional details of an arc welding machine are as follows:  Power supply  Insulated cables  Electrode holder and Clamping system  Electrodes The two types of electrodes used in arc welding are: 1. Non-consumable electrodes 5 .

WORKING 6 .

in a welding torch. The molten metal is allowed to flow together thus forming a solid continuous joint upon cooling. in which a flame produced by the combustion of gases is employed to melt the metal.OXY-ACETYLENE WELDING Principle of operation: Oxy-Acetylene Welding is basically a fusion type of gas welding process. a filler metal is used to fill the joint. a flame upto 35000C can be attained. As in arc welding. By burning acetylene in combination with right proportion of pure oxygen. 7 .

CONSTRUCTION •Gas cylinders •Pressure regulators •Pressure gauges •Welding Torch •Hoses 8 .

Oxidizing Flame 3. Carburizing Flame 9 . is not uniform throughout the entire length of the flame. There are three kinds of flame: 1. indeed it varies with the gas composition.TYPES OF OXY-ACETYLENE FLAME The flame temp. Neutral Flame 2.

2.SOLDERING  Definition: Soldering is defined as the method of joining two similar or dissimilar metals by using another low temp. metal alloy called solder under the application of heat. Soft Soldering Hard Soldering  1. 10 . Types: Soldering is classified into.

A flux is employed to prevent oxidation. . The solder is heated by soldering iron and the molten filler metal is made to flow between the two closely placed adjacent surfaces by the capillary action. The soldered joints are not 11 suitable for high temperature applications because of the low melting temperatures of the filler metals used. the strength of the joint is limited. Though soldering results in a good joint between the two plates. In the soldering process only the solder melts and the workpieces does not.WORKING PRINCIPLE The surfaces to be joined are cleaned and are placed on each other.

6. 5.METHOD OF SOLDERING  The following operations are required to be performed sequentially for making soldered joints. 3. 4. Shaping and fitting of metal parts together Cleaning of surfaces Application of flux Tinning Application of heat Cooling and final clean up 1. 2. 12 .

3.BRAZING  Definition: Brazing is defined as the method of joining two similar or dissimilar metals by using a non-ferrous fusible filler metal called spelter (having melting point lower than that of the base metal) under the application of heat. Types: Brazing is classified into. Gas Torch Brazing Furnace Brazing Dip Brazing Electrical Brazing  1. 2. 4. 13 .

zinc and tin. The part to be joined is heated and the molten filler metal is made to flow between the two closely placed adjacent surfaces by the capillary action. If a large gap is present. The spelter is usually an alloy of copper. A flux is employed to prevent oxidation.WORKING PRINCIPLE The surfaces to be joined are cleaned and are placed in joining position. 14 . capillary action will not take place and the joint will not be strong Brazing gives a much stronger joint than soldering. The principal difference is the use of a harder filler material commercially known as spelter.

3. Cleaning may be done by wire brushing. The parts are aligned. Filler metal melts and fills the joint by capillary action. held in right position and clamped. 15 . Cleaning and preparing the surface to be brazed. 6. 4. 2. Coating the surface of both base metal and the filler metal with a flux. 5. 1. The joint is allowed to cool and later is cleaned with a solvent to remove the left out flux. filing or grinding. Heating the joint using a blow torch or other suitable mean in the presence of the filler metal.METHOD OF BRAZING  The following operations are required to be performed sequentially for making soldered joints.

COMPARISON BETWEEN WELDING. SOLDERING AND BRAZING 16 .

COMPARISON BETWEEN WELDING. SOLDERING AND BRAZING 17 .

THANK YOU 18 .