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Global System for Mobile

System Overview

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Main Features of GSM (1)

(1) Spectrum efficiency: due to the adoption of highefficiency modulator, channel coding, interleaving, equalization and voice coding technologies, the system has a high spectrum efficiency. (2) Capacity: due to the increase of the transmission bandwidth of each channel, the requirement of cochannel reuse carrier-to-interference ratio is lowered to 9dB,

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Main Features of GSM

So,the cofrequency reuse mode of the GSM system can be narrowed down to 4/12 or 3/9 or even less (for a analog system, it is 7/21).
GSM system capacity is 3~5 times higher than that of a TACS system.

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Main Features of GSM

(3) due to digital transmission technology, GSM system has a strong anti-interference capability compared with analog system, thus the voice quality is guaranteed.
(4) Interfaces openness: the open interfaces provided by GSM standards refer not only to air interface (Um), but also A interface and to some degreee, Abis interface.

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Main Features of GSM

(5) Security: security is guaranteed with authentification, encryption and TMSI. (6) Interconnection with ISDN, PSTN, etc.: interconnections with other networks normally use the existing standard interfaces, such as ISUP or TUP. (7) Roaming: roaming is realized on basis of SIM cards.

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GSM System Architecture

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Block Diagram of GSM System

OMC

Um interface BS interface Abis interface

B T S

ISDN MSC/VLR PLMN PSTN PSPDN B T S

MS

BSC
BSS(1) SC HLR/AUC EIR

BSS (n)

……
A interface Fig.1-1 GSM Mobile Communication Network Structure

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Block Diagram of GSM System

• • • • • • •

BSS: Base Station Subsystem BSC: Base Station Controller BTS: Base Transceiver Station MSC: Mobile Services Switching Center OMC: Operation and Maintenance Center AUC: Authentication Center EIR: Equipment Identification Register

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Block Diagram of GSM System

• • • • • • •

HLR: Home Location Register VLR: Visitor Location Register MS: Mobile Station ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network PSPDN: Packet Switched Public DataNetwork PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network

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Mobile Station

• Mobile stations are not fixed to one subscriber. On any mobile station in the system, we can identify the subscriber with the SIM card (Subscriber Identity Module). The personal identification number (PIN) can be used to prevent unauthorized use of the SIM card.

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Mobile Station

• Each mobile station has its own identification number, i.e., the International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI). IMEI mainly consists of the type permission code and the related manufacturer product number. • Each mobile subscriber has its own international mobile subscriber identifier (IMSI), which is stored in the SIM card and in HLR.

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Wireless coverage area structure

GSM service area
PLMN service area MSC Service area Location area cell

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BSS System Architecture

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ZXG-10 BSS Structure

BTS BIE MS Um interface Abis interface BSC BIE OMC Q3 interface

TC: TransCoder SM: SubMultiplexing
BIE: Base station Interface Equipment

BTS

SM

SM TC

MSC A interface

BS interface Ater interface Fig.1-3 BSS Structure

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Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

• It is the radio tranmission part of the base station system. Controlled by BSC, it serves cell radio transceiver equipment, handles conversion between BSC and radio channels, and performs radio transmission between BTS and MS via air interfaces as well as related control functions.

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Base Station Controller (BSC)
• As the control part of BSS, BSC performs the switching function in BSS. BSC may be connected with multiple BTSs at one end, and MSC and OMC at the other end. BSC mainly manages radio network and radio resources, supervises and manages radio base station, controls the establishment, connection and disconnection of radio links in MS and BTS and the location updating, hand-over and paging of mobile station, provides functions such as voice encoding, transcoding, rate adaptation, as well as the operation and maintenance functions of BSS.
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TransCoder (TC)

• TC mainly completes voice conversion between the 16kbit/s RPE-LTP (regular pulse excited long-term prediction) codes and 64kbit/s A-law PCM codes. • Meu-law used in N. aMERICA
In a typical application pattern, ZXG10-TC is located between MSC and BSC.

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Functional Layers of GSM

Service carrier

OAM

Subscriber

CM MM RR Transmission

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Functional Layers of GSM
• Transmission: data transmission function, providing methods of carrying subscriber data and transmitting signalings between different entities in various segments along the communication path.

• RR: radio resources management, setting up and releasing stable connections between mobile stations and MSC at the call setup stage, which is mainly performed by MS and BSC;

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Functional Layers of GSM

• MM: refers to mobility and safety management, mobile station processing -- environment changing, making choices of cells possibly belonging to different networks, so that the calling subscriber is able to set up a valid process; infrastructures are required to manage subscriber location data (location updating);

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Functional Layers of GSM
• CM: refers to communication management, i.e., under subscriber requests, setting up connections between subscribers, maintaining and releasing calls (which can be divided into CC - call control, SSM - supplementary service management, and SMS - short messages service); • OAM: Operation, Administration and Maintenance platform, providing operation methods for operators. The service is supplied by the transmission layer directly.

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Protocol Stack Structure of GSM System

MS CM MM RR RR

BTS

BSC

MSC CM

RR BTSM

BSSAP MTP3

MM BSSAP SCCP MTP3 MTP2 A

BTSM SCCP LAPD MTP2

LAPDm Um

LAPDm LAPD

Abis

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BSSAP handle 2 kinds of signaling:

DTAP MS BSC/BTS BSSMAP BSS •DTAP:transfer transparently through BSS (MM +CM) MSC

•BSSMAP:BSS management message (RR+BTSM)

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A Interface Signaling Protocol Model(1)
• The A interface is used in the message between BSC and MSC as well as the message coming into/out of MS. • Layer1—Physical and electrical parameter and channel architecture, defining the physical layer structure of MSC~BSC.
It is realized by employing the first level of the message transfer part (MTP) in the common channel signaling system NO.7 (CSS7), adopting 2Mbit/s PCM digital link as the transmission link.

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A Interface Signaling Protocol Model(2)

• Layer2: defining the data link layer and the network layer, namely MTP2, MTP3 and SCCP.
- MTP2 is a variant of HDLC protocol. - MTP3 and SCCP (Signal Connection Controlling Part) chiefly implement such functions as signaling route selection.

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A Interface Signaling Protocol Model(3)

• Layer3: Application layer, including BSS application part (BSSAP) and BSS operation and maintenance application part (BSSOMAP), maintains and manages the resources and the connections in BSS as well as controls both the connection and the disconnection of service.

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Abis Interface Signaling Protocol Model (1)
• The Abis interface complies with the requirements in 08.5X series of GSM standards. • Layer1:Physical layer, usually adopts the 2Mbit/sPCM link in accordance with the specifications stipulated in ITU-T G.703 and G.704

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Abis Interface Signaling Protocol Model (2)
• Layer2: data link layer employs the LAPD protocol, which is a point to multi-point communication protocol. LAPD also utilizes the frame structure including the flag field, the control field, the information field, the check field and the flag sequence. The service access point identification (SAPI) and the terminal equipment identification (TEI) are both found in the flag field, used to discriminate respectively the service and the entity to access.

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Frame Structure of LAPD

FLAG

ADDR CONTL

MESSAGE

FCS

FLAG

SAPI

TEI

N(S)

N(R)

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Frame Structure of LAPD

• • • • • • •

FLAG: Flag ADDR: Address FCS: Frame Check Sequence SAPI: Service Access Point Identifier TEI: Terminal Equipment Identifier N(S): Sending Frame No. N(R): Receiving Frame No.

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Frame Structure of LAPDm

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Abis Interface Signaling Protocol Model (3)
• Layer3: The upper layer part, mainly transmitting the application part of BTS, including the radio link management (RLM) function and the operation and maintenance function.

Through the Abis interface, BSC provides such signaling control information as BTS configuration, BTS monitoring, BTS testing, and service control.

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Um Interface Signaling Protocol Model (1)

• Layer1: Transmission layer (physical layer), the lowest layer of Um interface, provides transmission channel for radio link and provides differently functional logic channels (control channel and traffic channel ) for higher layer.

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Um Interface Signaling Protocol Model (2)

• Layer2: Data link layer, provides reliable dedicated data link for and between MS and BTS. It’s based on link access protocol of D channel (LAPD), but add some protocols of mobile applications that are unique to GSM.
(LAPDm, the difference is that no FCS and sync flag in LAPDm).

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Um Interface Signaling Protocol Model (3)

• Layer3: Application layer, mainly performs controlling and management functions.
It includes three sub-layers (CM, MM and RR), each realizes call control, supplementary service management and short message management respectively.

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GSM Wireless Operating Band
GSM900:
890~915MHZ (upward) 935~960MHZ (downward)
Duplex interval is 45MHZ, working bandwidth is 25MHZ, and carrier frequency interval is 200KHZ.

GSM(DCS)1800:
1710-1785MHZ (upward) 1805-1880MHZ (downward)
Duplex interval is 95MHZ, working bandwidth is 75MHZ, and carrier frequency interval is 200kHZ.

EGSM900:
880~915MHZ (upward) 925~960MHZ (downward)
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Timeslot in Time-domain and Frequency-domain

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Types of Burst Pulse(1)

• NB(Normal Burst): used for traffic channel and control channels except for RACH, SCH, FCCH.
• AB(Access Burst): Transmitted on RACH channel and used as access request made by MS to BTS. AB is the sole short BP sequence defined by GSM protocol.

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Types of Burst Pulse(1)
• SB (Synchronization Burst): Transmitted on SCH channel and used for initial synchronization seizing by MS. • FB (Frequency Correction Burst) : Used for carrierfrequency correction of MS. • DB (Dummy Burst): Has the same format with NB, mainly used for bit filling

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Channel types

In a GSM system, channels are divided into logical and physical channels. Time slots are basic physical channels; thus each carrier frequency contains 8 physical channels. Physical channels of radio sub-systems support logical channels which can be subdivided funcationally into Traffic Channels (TCH) and Control Channels (CCH).

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Traffic Channel (TCH)

• Traffic channel carries encoded speech or subscriber data, including full-rate traffic channel and half-rate traffic channel:
– Full-rate traffic channel (TCH/F): total rate is 22.8kbit/s – Half-rate traffic channel (TCH/H): total rate is 11.4kbit/s

1) Speech channel
– TCH/FS: full-rate speech traffic channel – TCH/HS: half-rate speech traffic channel

2) Data channel
– TCH/F9.6: 9.6kbit/s full-rate data traffic channel

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Control Channel

• Control channel carries signaling or synchronized data. There are three types of control channels:
1) Broadcasting Channels (BCH) Broadcasting channels are used only as downward channels, i.e., one-way transmission from the base station to mobile stations.

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Control Channel-BCH
BCH can be divided into three types of channels:

FCCH: Frequency Correction Channel, carrying information used in MS frequency calibration. SCH: Synchronization Channel, carrying information of MS frame synchronization and Base Transceiver Station (BTS) identification. BCCH: Broadcasting Control Channel; this channel broadcasts general BTS information. Among transceivers at each base station, there is always one transceiver that contains such a channel, so as to broadcast system information to mobile stations.
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Common Control Channel(CCCH)
2) Common Control Channel(CCCH) are shared by all mobile stations in the network.
There are 3 types of such channels: PCH: paging channels, used by a base station to page mobile stations (downward). RACH: random access channel, used by mobile stations for random access network application, i.e.,requesting the allocation of SDCCH channels (upward). AGCH: access granted channel, used by a base station to respond to random access requests of mobile stations, i.e., to assign one SDCCH or directly assign one TCH (downward).

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Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
3) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) In application, the base station will assign it to a mobile station, so as to make point-to-point transmission between the base station and the mobile station. There are 3 types of such channels: SDCCH: a stand-alone dedicated control channel, used to transmit such information as channel assignment.

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Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
SACCH: slow-speed associated control channel, Used in combination with one traffic channel or one SDCCH, to send some specific subscriber information, e.g.,power and frame adjustment control information, measurement data, etc.

FACCH: fast associated control channel, combining with one traffic channel to carry the same signals as SDCCH, but it is assigned only when SDCCH has not been assigned. Call connection is realized via frames borrowed from traffic channels to transmit such commands as ―handover ―
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Channel Combination 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) tCHFull TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/TF tCHHalf TCH/H)+FACCH/H+ SACCH/TH tCHHalf2 TCH/H + FACCH/H+ SACCH/TH+ TCH/H mainBCCH FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH bCCHCombined FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH+ SDCCH/4+ SACCH/C4 bCH BCCH + CCCH sDCCH SDCCH/8+ SACCH/C8 bCCHwithCBCH FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH+ SDCCH/4 + SACCH/C4 + CBCH sDCCHwithCBCH SDCCH/8+SACCH/C8+CBCH

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Structure of 26-Frame Traffic Channel

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Structure of 51-Frame Control Channel
51 Ö¡ BCCH+CCCH F S £¨ÏÂÐУ© B C F S C C F S C C F S C C F S C C I

BCCH+CCCH RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR £¨ÉÏÐУ© (a) FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH 8 SDCCH/8 £¨ÏÂÐУ© D0 D0 8 SDCCH/8 £¨ÉÏÐУ© A1 A5 D1 D1 A2 A6 D2 D2 A3 A7 D3 D3 I I I I I I D4 D4 D0 D0 D5 D5 D1 D1 D6 D6 D2 D2 D7 D7 D3 D3 A0 A4 D4 D4 A1 A5 D5 D5 A2 A6 D6 D6 A3 A7 D7 D7 I I I I I I A0 A4

(b) SDCCH/8(0,...,7)+SACCH/C8(0,...,7) BCCH+CCCH F S +4SDCCH/4 £¨ÏÂÐУ© F S BCCH+CCCH +4SDCCH/4 £¨ÉÏÐУ© D3 D3 B B RR RR C C A2 A0 F S F S A3 A1 C C C C F S F S D0 D0 D1 D1 F S F S D2 D2 D3 D3 D0 D0 F S F S A0 A2 D1 D1 F S F S A1 A3 D2 D2 I I

RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR (c) FCCH+SCH+CCCH+SDCCH/4(0,...,3)+SACCH/C4(0,...,3)

F£ºFCCH B£ºBCCH R£ºRACH A£ºSACCH/C

S£ºSCH C£ºCCCH£¨CCCH=PCH+AGCH+RACH£© D£ºSDCCH I£ºidle

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Channel Assignment inside Cells
• Small capacity cell with only 1 TRX TN0:FCCH+SCH+CCCH+BCCH+SDCCH/4(0,_,3)+ SACCH/C4(0,_,3); TN1_7: TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF • The medium-size cell with 4 TRXs 1TN0 group: FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH; 2 SDCCH/8(0,_,7)+SACCH/C8(0,_,7); 29 TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF

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Channel Assignment inside Cells

Large-size cell with 12 TRXs

1 TN0 group: FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH; 1 TN2 group, 1 TN4 group and 1 TN6 group: BCCH+CCCH; 5 SDCCH/8(0,_,7)+SACCH/C8(0,_,7); 87 TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF

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Traffic
• Traffic refers to the numbers of subscribers the network can support and is usually described as follows: A=n×T/3600 where, n- calls made by a subscriber within an hour; T- average duration of each call(in seconds) A - Traffic, in Erlang If one call is made by a subscriber within an hour and last 120 seconds, the traffic is calculated as: A=1×120/3600=33mErl。 For convenience of engineering calculation, the traffic is usually defined as 25mErl per subscriber.
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GOS
• Grade of Service(GOS):GOS refers to the degree of network congestion or call loss rate. GOS=2% means that 98% of subscribers can make calls successfully and 2% of subscribers will end up with unsuccessfulness. For network operators, 2-5% of GoS is adopted.

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Erlang-B Traffic Tables Abbreviated - For P.02 Grade of Service Only
#TrunksErlangs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0.0204 0.223 0.602 1.09 1.66 2.28 2.94 3.63 4.34 5.08 5.84 6.61 7.4 8.2 9.01 9.83 10.7 11.5 12.3 13.2 14 14.9 15.8 16.6 17.5

#TrunksErlangs #TrunksErlangs
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 18.4 19.3 20.2 21 21.9 22.8 23.7 24.6 25.5 26.4 27.3 28.3 29.2 30.1 31 31.9 32.8 33.8 34.7 35.6 36.5 37.5 38.4 39.3 40.3 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 41.2 42.1 43.1 44 44.9 45.9 46.8 47.8 48.7 49.6 50.6 51.5 52.5 53.4 54.4 55.3 56.3 57.2 58.2 59.1 60.1 61 62 62.9 63.9

#TrunksErlangs #TrunksErlangs 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 64.9 65.8 66.8 67.7 68.7 69.6 70.6 71.6 72.5 73.5 74.5 75.4 76.4 77.3 78.3 79.3 80.2 81.2 82.2 83.1 84.1 85.1 86 87 88 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 88 89.9 91.9 93.8 95.7 97.7 99.6 101.6 103.5 105.5 107.4 109.4 111.3 113.3 115.2 117.2 119.1 121.1 123.1 125 127 128.9 130.9 132.9 134.8

#TrunksErlangs 150 152 154 156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 136.8 138.8 140.7 142.7 144.7 146.6 148.6 150.6 152.6 154.5 156.5 158.5 160.4 162.4 164.4 166.4 168.3 170.3 172.4 174.3 176.3 178.2 180.2 182.2 184.2

#TrunksErlangs 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216 218 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 186.2 188.1 190.1 192.1 194.1 196.1 198.1 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 213.9 215.9 217.9 219.9 221.9 223.9 225.9 227.9 229.9 231.8 233.8

#Trunks Erlangs 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 235.8 285.7 335.7 385.9 436.1 486.4 587.2 688.2 789.3 890.6 999.1 1093

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Suggested Channel Configuration

• Based on 2% GoS, Zhongxing adopts followed traffic model.
TRXs 1 2 3 CCHs 1 2 2 TCHs 7 7 14 22 Traffic(Erl) 2.94 8.2 14.9 4 2 30 22 5 6 3 3 37 45 28 35.5 7 3 53 43

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Training Sequence of GSM

TSC 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Hexadecimal 970897 B778B7 10EE90E 11ED11E 6B906B 13AC13A 29F629F 3BC4BBC

Binary BN61 BN86

00100101110000100010010111 00101101110111100010110111 01000011101110100100001110 01000111101101000100011110 00011010111001000001101011 01001110101100000100111010 1010011110110001010011111 11101111000100101110111100

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Channel Encoding
• In order to enhance channel anti-interference capacity and transmission quality, special redundancy technologies should be adopted to increase the bulk of transmitted information which can be inserted at a certain pattern (encoding) at the sending end and extracted at an agreed pattern (decoding) at the receiving end. This is called the encoding/decoding process of channels. Commonly used channel coding methods are: 1) convolutional coding; 2) Fire coding; 3) parity check coding.

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Convolutional Coding
260bit/20ms

50bit(Ia) 132bit(Ib)
O/E

78bit(Ic)

50
Block coding

3

132

4
Protection bits

78

Fire code
53bit 189bit 136bit

+
Convolutional coder

G0
378bit

78bit

1

X2

X3

X4

+

G1

456bit

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Channel Interleaving
• In radio telecommunication, error bits often occurs in the burst pulse sequence because of deep signal fading. Check and correction of errors cannot be efficiently done merely by means of channel encoding mentioned above. Interleaving technique is thus adopted, by which the continuous bits in an information block are segmented and transmitted individually according to certain rules. That is, the originally continuous block in the transmission process becomes discontinuous, forming a group of interwoven message transmitting blocks, which are to be recovered (de-interleaving) into the original information blocks at the receiving end.
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Block A 456bit

Block B 456bit

Block A+1 456bit

Block B+1 456bit

01 2 3 45 6 7 8 9 101112131415

0 1 23 4 5 67 8 9 101112131415

0 1 23 4 5 67 8 9 101112131415

01 2 3 45 6 7 8 9 101112131415

12 3 4 56 7 8

1 2 34 5 6 78

1 2 34 5 6 78

12 3 4 56 7 8

Odd N+4

Odd N+5 Even N+3 Even N+1 Even N+2 Even N Odd N+6 Odd N+7 57 1 57 1 57 1 57 1 57 1 57 1

57 1

57 1

116-bit block

116-bit block

116-bit block

116-bit block

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DTX
Two aims can be achieved by adopting DTX mode. One is to lower the total interference level in the air, and the other is to save transmitter power. The DTX mode and the normal mode are optional, since the former will slightly lower the transmission quality.

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TA Signals sent by a base station on the broadcasting channel help mobile stations to synchronize with the base station. After connection is set up between a mobile station and the base station, the base station will make continuous tests, and provide the time advance (TA) on the SACCH channel to all mobile stations twice every second according to the BS-MS-BS broadcasting delay. Mobile stations will make self-adaptive frame adjustment according to time advance so that the time of mobile station transmission to the base station matches that of base station reception.

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Frequency Hopping (1)
• To enhance system anti-interference ability, the GSM system adopts the frequency hopping technology. Frequency hopping refers to the hopping of carrier wave frequencies according to a certain sequence in a very wide frequency range. Data of control information are converted into base band signals after modulation, which are then sent into carrier wave modulation. Afterwards, the carrier frequency changes under the control of pseudo-random codes, the sequence of which is frequency-hopping sequence. Finally, when filtered by radio filter, the carrier is transmitted to and radiated by antenna.
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transmission Information modulation Synchronous circuit receiving I n f o r m a t i o n demodulation Frequency hopping sequence generator

Up conversion

Variable frequency synthesizer

Down conversion

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Frequency Hopping (2)

• Frequency hopping is to avoid external interference. In other words, it is to prevent or greatly reduce cochannel interference and frequency selective fading effect by converting frequencies to an extent that interference cannot catch up with.
• There are two frequency hopping modes: base band frequency hopping and radio frequency hopping.

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