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Learning outcome

• Determine frequency of sound from CRO

Determining frequency of sound • A microphone converts _____ into electrical _________.O) will produce a waveform on the CRO monitor display • The amplitude can be found from the vertical grids (Y-sensitivity) while the ______ can be determined from the horizontal grids (time base) .R. • This voltage when fed into a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (C.

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.

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Determining frequency of sound .

multiple slits (calculation) • Formation of standing or stationary waves .single slit (qualitative) • .Wave phenomena • Interference • .2 light waves • .2 sound waves • Diffraction • .

Learning outcome • Use principle of superposition to determine displacement of resultant wave at a point of interference • State conditions for interference • Describe how interference pattern looks like • State conditions for clear interference pattern • Calculate fringe spacing .

.

interference • Waves interfere with each other when • their amplitude or energy is changed • To determine the amplitude of the resultant. we need to use the principle of superposition .

.

O. the resultant displacement is equal to the sum of the individual displacements at that point. .S • Principle of superposition • States that when 2 or more waves overlap.P.

What’s the resultant amplitude? .

.

Maximum energy . • The resultant is a maximum amplitude.Constructive interference • When crest of one wave meets crest from another.

Minimum energy . the resultant amplitude is minimum or zero.Destructive interference • When crest from one wave meets a trough from another.

3 conditions for interference to happen • • • • This can only happen if A) the waves meet B) the waves are the same type C) both waves are polarised in the same plane or non-polarised .

Interference of two light waves .

• A series of bright and dark fringes are seen on the screen in front of the slits .

bright fringes formed due to constructive interference of two waves.• Can you explain the formation of • a) bright fringes • b) dark fringes ? • . The two waves are in antiphase (180o) .dark fringes formed due to destructive interference. The two waves are in phase with each other • .

Fringe spacing • The distance between the successive bright fringes can be calculated from the formula • X = λD/s where λ – wavelength • D – distance of screen • s – slit separation .

example • The slit separations is 0.0 m. calculate the fringe spacing (width) • Ans: 1. the wavelength of red light is 680 nm.4 mm .5 mm. The distance of screen is 1.

.

Ans: 670 nm • .example 12 mm • The distance between 7 bright fringes apart is 12 mm. Calculate the wavelength of the light used.

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Path difference .

a ________ interference occurs. ________ amplitude. They will still be in phase with each other at point O. . Bright fringe formed. • The waves are in phase with each other at the slits 1 and 2.• Waves from slit 1 and slit 2 travel the same distance to point O. Hence.

• λ/s = x / D • Therefore x = λD/s .• At point P. the waves arriving there will be in phase with each other. • Suppose the wave from slit 2 traveled one wavelength more than wave from slit 1. the waves from slit 1 will have traveled further than waves from slit 2. • From the triangles.

• If the path difference is 2λ. • Hence. a series of bright fringes are formed at equal interval if path difference = λ. • In between the bright fringes. 3λ…. 2λ. then there will be another bright fringe formed further away. Why? . 1½ λ … • ____ fringe will be formed. there are points where the path difference = ½ λ.

.

.

example • c) Mark with an X on the photograph the fringe or fringes where light from one slit has traveled a distance of two wavelengths further than the light from the other slit. .

Interference pattern • Refers to the series of alternate maxima and minima. • Conditions for clear pattern to be observed. • The waves from the sources must be • i) coherence • Ii) have comparable amplitude .

Coherence source • .the waves from these sources have • the same frequency and • constant phase difference .

say to 60 o or 20 o as time goes by. • If the phase difference changed. . a clear pattern can be observed. then no clear pattern can be observed. no clear pattern observed when they overlap • If both are 10 Hz and they have a constant phase difference (example 90 o) throughout the experiment.• If one wave is 10 Hz and another is 15 Hz.

then the waves are said to be coherent. As long as the phase difference is constant.• The waves need not to be in phase or antiphase. . • This ensures that the positions of the bright fringes (maxima) and dark fringes (minima) are fixed on the screen.

the amplitudes would not be comparable. • The contrast between the bright and dark fringes would not be obvious in the eyes of the viewer. Therefore. when destructive interference occurs. the waves do not cancel each other completely. .Comparable amplitude • If one source is more intense than the other.

.

.

Daily examples of interference: • • • • Rainbow in the sky after rainfall Rainbow in water spray from garden hose Rainbow from CD reflection Alternating loud and soft sound across field when two loud speakers face the field .

diffraction • Refers to the spreading or bending of waves when passing through a gap or round an obstacle. the greater the diffraction • If the gap is too big. no diffraction will happen . • The smaller the gap.

.

.

• Daily examples of diffraction of waves • Water surface waves bend around pillars • Sound bends around wall corner into next corridor • Light bend around the moon during eclipse of the sun .

• If separation of the 2 slits reduces. Hence more fringes seen.Single slit diffraction and double slit interference • Waves from a single slit spread out and arrive at double slits • Waves from each of these two slits spread out again and overlap in the region beyond. • Each fringe will be dimmer compared to the previous . more area of overlapping.

.

Diffraction grating

• Consists of multiple slits formed on surface of a glass coated with opaque layer. • Each slits diffracts light falling upon it. The diffracted light waves interfere in the region beyond and form a pattern. • Pattern observed using a moving telescope

. • The bright lines are formed due to constructive interference • The one at the center is known as zero order • On the right and left are the 1st order and followed by 2nd and 3rd order.• The pattern consists of very sharp bright lines separated quite apart from each other.

• The formula • d sinθ = mλ where d – slits separation • θ – angle made with • original direction • m – order • λ – wavelength .

.

.

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water surface to string waves. frequency and comparable amplitude travel in the opposite direction and meet. .Stationary waves • Stationary waves can occur for any waves from light. sound. • Formed when two waves of same speed.

edu.au/jw/strings.• http://www.phys.unsw.html • The frequency of the waves and the boundary where the waves are confined must be such that there is a multiple of half wavelengths formed between them .

i.) • Antinodes – points of max amplitude (c.• Stationary waves are characterised by alternating nodes and antinodes.i.) • Distance between two successive nodes is ½ λ . • Nodes – points of zero amplitude (d.

Stationary waves on string .

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Stationary sound wave .

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Standing wave in one close end and one open ended pipe Standing wave in both open ended pipe .

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D and s is changed .summary • Able to define interference • Use principle of superposition to determine resultant amplitude • State conditions for interference and for clear interference pattern • Calculate fringe spacing • Describe change to pattern when λ.

• Define diffraction • Draw diffraction of waves when passing gap • Calculate the wavelength from diffraction pattern of a diffraction grating .

• Describe how a stationary wave is formed. • Calculate wavelength from a series of nodes and antinodes • Calculate fundamental frequency and harmonics. .

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