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**Power Factor Correction
**

Power Factor:

Power Factor is a measure of how efficiently electrical power is consumed

**Power Factor Correction
**

The power factor of an AC electric power system is defined as the ratio of the real power to the apparent power, and is a number between 0 and 1.

Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: Real power is the capacity of the circuit for performing work in a particular time. . Apparent power is the product of the current and voltage of the circuit.

Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: In alternating current circuits. . When this happens the power is said to be 'real power'. voltage and current only remain in phase if the load is purely resistive.

its will have both real and reactive power. The load is said to draw zero real power. If a load is both resistive and reactive. . instead it draws only 'reactive power'. resulting in total amount of power called the 'apparent power'. all of the power is reflected back to the generator.Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: If instead the load is purely reactive (either Capacitive or Inductive).

attached loads that store energy behave like combinations of coils (inductors) and capacitors. .Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: In AC power systems. and therefore cause advance changes in currents (current leads). Coils store power as magnetic fields and cause delay changes in the current (current lags). Capacitors store power as electric charge.

The portion of power flow due to stored energy which returns to the source in each cycle is known as reactive power.Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: The portion of power flow averaged over a complete cycle of the AC waveform that results in net transfer of energy in one direction is known as real power. .

which draws no real power itself. and consumes power because the supplied and reflected power dissipate away on the transmission line. . and energy is wasted.Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: In reality there are losses along AC power transmission lines. due to a purely reactive load.

Power Factor:The Beer Analogy kVAR Reactive Power Mug Capacity = Apparent Power (KVA) Foam = Reactive Power (KVAR) Beer = Real Power (kW) kVA Apparent Power Power Factor = Beer (kW) Mug Capacity (KVA) kW Active Power Capacitors provide the Foam (KVAR). freeing up Mug Capacity so you don’t have to buy a bigger mug and/or so you can pay less for your beer ! .

.Power Factor Correction For this reason an AC load should be designed to have as little reactive power as possible.

Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: The following terms are used to describe energy flow in a System. Each of them is assigned with a different unit to differentiate between them): .

Power Factor Correction Real power (P) [Unit: W] Reactive power (Q) [Unit: VAR] Apparent power (S) [Unit: VA] .

Apparent power is conventionally expressed in volt-amperes (VA) since it is the simple product of rms voltage and rms current. However. it is sometimes called "wattless" power).Power Factor Correction Real Power and Apparent Power: The unit for all forms of power is the watt (symbol: W). . The unit for reactive power is given the special name "VAR". which stands for volt-amperes reactive (since reactive power flow transfers no net energy to the load. this unit is generally reserved for the real power component.

This energy flowing backwards and forwards is known as reactive power. . where both the current and voltage are sinusoidal. If the load is purely resistive. then the voltage and current are 90 degrees out of phase and there is no net power flow. the direction of energy flow does not reverse. and only real power flows. If the load is purely reactive.Power Factor Correction Significance of the Power Factor Consider an ideal alternating current (AC) circuit consisting of a source and a generalized load. the two quantities reverse their polarity at the same time.

Power Factor Correction If a capacitor and an inductor are placed in parallel. . Conventionally. then the currents flowing through the inductor and the capacitor oppose and tend to cancel out rather than adding. capacitors are considered to generate reactive power and inductors to consume it.

changing polarity at the same instant in each cycle. energy storage in the loads result in a time difference between the current and voltage waveforms. . a circuit with a low power factor will have higher currents to transfer a given quantity of real power than a circuit with a high power factor.Power Factor Correction In a purely resistive AC circuit. Where reactive loads are present. voltage and current waveforms are in phase. This stored energy returns to the source and is not available to do work at the load. such as with capacitors or inductors. Thus.

0.) have a power factor of 1. etc. cooking stoves. . heaters.0. motors. Circuits containing inductive or capacitive elements (lamp .) often have a power factor below 1. etc.Power Factor Correction Circuits containing purely resistive heating elements (filament lamps.

. Power factors below 1. This increases generation and transmission costs. but bill them for watts.0 require a utility to generate more than the minimum volt-amperes necessary to supply the real power (watts).Power Factor Correction The significance of power factor lies in the fact that utility companies supply customers with volt-amperes.

An Example to understand the Power Factor Consider a canal boat being pulled by a horse. but. as the horse is positioned further away. As the horse gets closer to the barge. If the horse could walk on water then the angle (Phi) Ø would be zero and COSINE Ø=1. Meaning all the horse power is being used to pull the load. then angle Ø2 gets closer to zero and less power is wasted . angle Ø1 increases and power is wasted. However the relative position of the horse influences the power.

Now we switch towards the means and ways to solve the problem low power factor.Power Factor Correction Much of the discussion is made about Power Factor. .

.Power Factor Correction Power factor correction (PFC) is the process of adjusting the characteristics of electric loads that create a power factor that is less than 1.

Power Factor Correction Power factor correction may be applied either by an electrical power transmission utility to improve the stability and efficiency of the transmission network. or. . correction may be installed by individual electrical customers to reduce the costs charged to them by their electricity supplier. A high power factor is generally desirable in a transmission system to reduce transmission losses and improve voltage regulation at the load.

Wires have to be big enough to carry the entire current. the reactive current does dissipate power when flowing through other resistive components in the system.Power Factor Correction Why Power Factor Correction? The current through the reactive component (Ireactive) dissipates no power. and the lossy part of a transformer (Rline). not just the active component. etc. the switches. like the wires. Switches have to interrupt the total current. Therefore Correcting the power factor reduces the amount of oversizing necessary. . and neither does it register on the watt hour meter. However.

. thus minimizing wasted energy and hence improving the efficiency of a plant and reducing the electricity bill.Power Factor Correction The introduction of Power Factor Correction capacitors is a widely recognized method of reducing an electrical load.

Power Factor Correction Active Power Reactive Power Available Active Power .

draw Reactive Power (VAr) from the mains. if connected across the mains. will also draw Reactive Power [VAr(c)]. It lags behind the Active Power (W) by 90o (Figure 1). The direction of the capacitive Reactive Power [VAr(c)] is opposite to the direction of the inductive Reactive Power (VAr) (Figure 2).Power Factor Correction The inductive components. A capacitor. but it leads the Active Power (W) by 90o. .

Power Factor Correction Figure-1 .

Power Factor Correction Figure-1 .

They are employed for correcting the power factor in bulk and have the special advantage that the amount of correction can be varied by changing their excitation. These machines draw leading kVAR when they are over-excited and. especially when they are running idle. .Power Factor Correction The power factor can also be improved by synchronous Motors.

They are fitted with individual machines.Power Factor Correction The reactive power drawn by the synchronous motor is a function of its field excitation. It is started and connected to the electrical network. Its principal advantage is the ease with which the amount of correction can be adjusted. Phase advancer can also be used. it behaves like an electrically variable capacitor. It operates at full leading power factor and puts VARs onto the network . .

Typical examples of this include transformers. Most inductive loads use a conductive coil winding to produce an electromagnetic field.Power Factor Correction Most loads on an electrical distribution system fall into one of three categories. fluorescent lighting and AC induction motors. resistive. inductive or Capacitive. . allowing the motor to function.The most common is inductive load.to energise the magnetic field The operating power from the distribution system is composed of both active (working) and reactive (non-working) elements.to produce the motive force Reactive power (kvar) . All inductive loads require two kinds of power to operate: Active power (kwatts) . The active power does useful work in driving the motor whereas the reactive power only provides the magnetic field.

since most motors are only 75% to 80% efficient. should be to reduce the reactive power drawn from the supply by improving the power factor. If an AC motor were 100% efficient it would consume only active power but. they operate at a low power factor.9 results in 15% more current being required for the same load. and a power factor of 0. This means poor energy and cost efficiency because the Regional Electricity Companies charge you at penalty rates for a poor power factor.A power factor of 0. The objective. therefore.5 requires approximately 100% (twice as much) to handle the same load. A drop from 1.Disadvantages of Poor Power factor As the power factor drops the system becomes less efficient.0 to 0. .7 requires approximately 43% more current.

Disadvantages of Poor Power factor .

High power factor reduces the load currents. Most of the Utilities impose low power factor penalties. such as cables. switchgear. Therefore. substation transformers. without increasing its generation capacity. thereby allowing the Utility to supply the surplus power to other consumers. 2. Voltage regulation is improved . etc. 4. a considerable saving is made in the hardware cost. 3.Advantages of Power Factor Correction The main advantages of the Power Factor Correction are: 1. The electrical load on the Utility is reduced. By correcting the power factor. this penalty can be avoided.

but produces no useful work The utility must supply the power to produce the magnetic field and the power to produce the useful work: You pay for all of it! These two types of current are the ACTIVE and REACTIVE components .ACTIVE & REACTIVE POWERS Most plant loads are Inductive and require a magnetic field to operate: Motors Transformers Florescent lighting The magnetic field is necessary.

It does the "work" for the system--providing the motion. doesn't do useful "work. or whatever else is required. heat. Reactive Power: Normally measured in kilovolt-amperesreactive (kVAR). Apparent Power: Normally . torque." It simply sustains the electromagnetic field.Power Factor Fundamental Definitions: Working /Active Power: Normally measured in kilowatts (kW).

while a low power factor indicates poor utilization of electrical power. .0 Cosine (θ) that A power factor reading close to means = DISPLACEMENT POWER FACTOR Active Power (kW) Power Factor = electrical power is being utilized effectively. The ratio of Active Power (output) to Total Power (input) Active (Real) Power Total Power Reactive = kW Power (KVAR) Total Power (kVA) kVA = 1.Power Factor Fundamental Power Factor : A measure of efficiency.

LEADING AND LAGGING I IC R IR IL V ILOAD IC G L KVARC KW KVARL .

LEADING AND LAGGING G G KW KVAR (LAG) KW KVAR (LEAD) KW KVAR (LAG) KW KVAR (LEAD) L L INDUCTION MOTOR OVER-EXCITED SYN. MOTOR .

die.Typical Uncorrected Power Factor (Use only as a Guide) By Industry Auto parts Brewery Cement Chemical Coal mine Clothing Power Factor 75-80 76-80 80-85 65-75 65-80 35-60 65-70 75-80 70-80 75-80 60-65 65-70 80-90 40-60 55-65 75-80 60-70 65-80 65-75 60-65 By Operation Power Factor 75-80 50-80 35-60 40-60 40-60 40-65 75-90 100 Electroplating Foundry Forge Hospital Machine manufacturing Metalworking Office building Oil-field pumping Paint manufacturing Plastic Stamping Steelworks Textile Tool. jig From IEEE Std 141-1993 Air compressor: External motors Hermetic motors Metal working: Arc welding Arc welding with standard capacitors Resistance welding Machining Melting: Arc furnace Inductance furnace 60Hz Stamping: Standard speed High speed Spraying Weaving: Individual drive Multiple drive Brind 60-70 45-60 60-65 60 70 70-75 .

WHY DO WE CARE ABOUT POWER FACTOR .

MOTOR LOAD CHARACTERISTICS .

Generation Capacity & Line Losses Power Factor Correction Capacitors (PFCC) provide an economical means for improving Energy utilization .Why do we care about Power Factor? In Industrial Facilities. Mostly Induction Motor loads Energy Efficient Motors not optimized for PF Low power factor is caused by oversized or lightly loaded induction motors Low power factor results in: Poor electrical efficiency! Higher utility bills ** Lower system capacity On the Supply Side.

Why do we install Capacitors? Before After In this example. demand was reduced to 8250 kVA from 10000 kVA. 1750KVA Transformer Capacity Release. The power factor was improved from 80% to 97% .

Harmonics

• Displacement Power Factor

**• Total Power Factor
**

• Effects of Harmonics on Capacitors

**Linear vs Non-Linear
**

**Until recently, most electrical equipment drew current in a “linear” fashion:
**

v

i

• Current (i) & Voltage (v) are both “Sinusoidal”

Today, many electrical loads draw • Current (i) is periodic, but not “sinusoidal” current v in a i “non-linear” fashion:

**What produces “Non-linear” Current?
**

• Computers M • Variable Frequency Drives • Electronic Ballasts • Almost anything electronic • Fax Machines

• Copiers

5 = 0 1 3 5 7 9 1 1 .5 0 1 3 5 7 9 1 1 60 Hz f1 f3 = 3 x 60hz = 180 hz + 180 Hz 1 0.Time vs Frequency Time Domain f1 = 60 H z Frequency Domain 1 0.5 0 1 3 5 7 9 1 1 f5 f7 = 7 x 60 hz = 420 hz + 420 Hz 1 0.5 0 1 3 5 7 9 1 1 f3 f5 = 5 x 60 hz = 300 hz + 300 Hz 1 0.5 0 1 3 5 7 9 1 1 f7 D isto rted Wave = f1 + f3 + f5 + f7 1 0.

Total Harmonic Current Distortion Is Same As Total Demand Distortion (TDD) I TDD = I 2 2 + I 3 2 + I 1 2 4 +L 100 % = h = 2 Ih 2 100 % 1 I I .

Total or True Power Factor (TPF) TPF = (DPF) x (Harm Coefficient) KW DPF = KVA = Cos f 1 1 + TDD2 TPF = Total or true power factor DPF = Displacement power factor Harm coefficient = Harmonic power factor = Cos d Harm Coefficient = .

7433 TPF = .7061 .95 TDD = 90% ( No Line Reactor) Harm coefficient = 1 1 + .Total Power Factor Example VFD ( Six Pulse ) DPF = .92 = .95 x .7433 = .

M VFD M M M M . the harmonic currents they produce can flow back to the point of lowest impedance: the capacitor! This will cause premature failure of the capacitor.Applying Capacitors: Caps at Motors or at SWBD / MCC: Disadvantage: If Drives are present anywhere.

How Harmonics Affect Capacitors Capacitors are naturally a low impedance to high frequencies: Caps absorb harmonics Caps do not generate harmonics As capacitor absorbs harmonics. the capacitor heats up Reduced life expectancy Voltage harmonics stress the capacitor dielectric Reduced life expectancy Parallel combination of capacitors with motor or transformer can cause resonance condition .

Resonance The installation of standard capacitors can magnify harmonic currents on the network .

How Harmonics Affect Capacitors: Resonance: fr = f 1 XL XC Resonance XL ( XL-Xc ) X L = 2fl Z XC = 1 2 fc fr XC .

Capacitor Resonance Resonant Point likely to amplify dominant harmonic (typically 5th) Magnification of Harmonic Current when Standard Capacitor are Added to the Network .

2 Harmonic (252 Hz) I<h5> Z Ih5 f A f1 f3 f5 f7 f9 We control the impedance of these two elements .Power Factor Correction With Harmonics: De-tuning a network: “Force” the resonant point away from naturally occurring harmonics 4.

UTILITY RATE & PFCC .

Most utilities penalize for bad Power Factor. Switchgear.etc. If the consumer does not correct the power factor. penalties are imposed for PF < 95%. Thousands of Customers across the country are currently unaware that they are being penalized for low power factor!!! . Many different rate structures across the country. the utility may have to Build more power plants Install New/ Large transformers Use larger utility cables/ Wires.. Typically..

typically in the form of a multiplier applied to kW demand. 2004) .14 per kVAR leading (April 1.46 per kVAR lagging. $1..50 . kVAR Reactive Demand charge: A direct charge for use of magnetizing power. (example:$ 4.$5.50 per kW Demand to 95% pf TVA (Tennessee) $1.50/kVAR) Two utilities recently introduced substantial Power Factor Penalties TXU (Texas) $3. kW demand billing with Power factor adjustment: utility charges according to kW demand and adds a surcharge for power factor.How do utilities charge for Power Factor? Utilities recoup the cost of providing reactive power in different ways…. kVA billing: utility measures and bills every ampere of current including reactive current.

MOST COMMON POWER FACTOR RATE CLAUSE BILLING KW DEMAND = ACTUAL KW DEMAND X BASE PF/ ACTUAL PF .

272 / apfa = (KW2-KW1) x $1.19 / apfa = (KW2-KW1) x $0.Penalty Calculation From Utility Bills In TX BILLING DEMAND (apfa) = KW2 Due to PF Adjustment. KW2 > KW1 *Distribution System Charge = M1 *Nuclear Decommission Charge = M2 *Transition Charge-1 = M3 *Transition Charge-2 = M4 *Transmission Service Charge = M5 *Transmission Cost Recov Factor /apfa =M6 = (KW2-KW1) x $3.27103 & ACTUAL DEMAND = KW1 .044/apfa = (KW2-KW1) x $0.177/ apfa = (KW2-KW1) x $0.55 / apfa = ( KW2-KW1) x $0.

CAPACITOR LOCATION & TYPE .

Variable Speed Drive .Capacitor Locations Three Options for Applying Power Factor Capacitors: A) Fixed capacitors @ individual motors or @ MCC B) Automatic Banks at Main Switch Board C) De-tuned Automatic Capacitor Bank at Main Switch Board M A B C A M M M M Harmonic Source e.g.

Fixed Capacitors .Low Voltage Main Benefit pf correction Side Benefit voltage support Small I2R reduction Correcting pf on individual loads such as motors Overcompensation (correct past unity) Not to be used on non-linear loads Unable to track minute by minute load changes occurring on noncompensated feeders Usage Disadvantages .

Standard Automatic Capacitor Systems Main Benefit pf correction voltage support Small I2R reduction Correcting pf on entire MCC’s or substations Not to be used on non-linear loads Side Benefit Usage Application alert .

.2 or 4. Bank with a reactors in series Reactors tuned to 4.4 Use where Non-Linear Loads less than 50% of total loads.Anti-Resonant Automatic Cap. Bank Automatic Cap.

Banks For sensitive networks Similar to Anti-resonant Automatic Capacitor System except solid state switching Reactor tuned to 4.4 .2 or 4.Transient Free De-Tuned Automatic Cap.

Electronic Switch –Transient L1 L2 L3 Free Fuses SCR-Diode De-tuned Inductor .

**Rule Of Thumb For PFCC Applications
**

* When Non-Linear Loads < 15% Of Total Loads Select Standard Automatic Cap. Bank * When Non-linear Loads >15% But < 50% Of Total Loads Select Anti-Resonant (Detuned) Auto. Cap. Bank * When Non-Linear Loads > 50% Of Total Loads Select Active Harmonics Filter For VAR Correction * When Transformer KVA To Cap. KVAR Ratio < 3 Select Anti-Resonant ( Detuned) Auto. Cap. Bank

* When Soft-Starters are present, select Detuned Auto. Cap. Bank

ACTIVE FILTER in VAR Correction Mode

Cyclical Loads & Loads With Dynamic VAR Movements

CAUSES

WELDING OPERATIONS LARGE HP MOTOR STARTING PROCESS LOADS (i.e. MIXERS, CRUSHERS, CHIPPERS, SHREDDERS) ARC FURNACES

RESULTING IN

VOLTAGE FLICKER VOLTAGE SAGS POOR POWER FACTOR INABILITY TO START MOTORS

Active Filter (AHF) For Power Factor Correction For System where Non-Linear Loads > than 50% of Total Loads. When Fast VAR Movements Necessary AHF-New breed of power quality product Harmonics cancellation Power factor correction VAR compensation Resonance elimination Independent or simultaneous modes of operation .

Active Harmonics Filter Electronic filtering up to the 50th harmonic I source I load Power source Non-linear load I conditioner Active Harmonic Conditioner .

Combination of passive & active technologies Hybrid Filters + .

13. 13.MV HVC Banks – General Layout MAIN INCOMING INTERFACE WITH CUSTOMER'S NETWORK 15kV HVL LINEUP NEMA 3R 4000kVA.8kV/480V NEMA 3R 5000A. DE-TUNED NEMA 3R 4x300A 4x300A ACCUSINE ACCUSINE 4x300A ACCUSINE 4x300A 4x300A ACCUSINE ACCUSINE POWER ZONE HOUSE 1 POWER ZONE HOUSE 2 24X300A ACCUSINE -> 6000kVAR PASSIVE ACTIVE . 480V MAINS NEMA 1 2000A.8kV. 60Hz FIXED. 480V NEMA 1 4x300A ACCUSINE 6000kVAR.

HVC Banks – General Marriage of two technologies Fixed capacitor banks and AHF Auxiliaries: MV/LV SWGR HVC 15000 Vars Leading/Lagging 10000 Fixed Kvar 5000 0 Load Accusine Result Kvar 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 -5000 -10000 Time in cycles 18 .

LOAD CHARACTERISTIC NEEDS . MIXERS. CRUSHERS. NETWORK.Cyclical Loads & Loads With Dynamic VAR Movements CAUSES SOLUTIONS APPLICATION OF: HYBRID VAR COMPENSATION (HVC) WELDING OPERATIONS LARGE HP MOTOR STARTING PROCESS LOADS (i.e. SHREDDERS) ARC FURNACES RESULTING IN VOLTAGE FLICKER VOLTAGE SAGS POOR POWER FACTOR INABILITY TO START MOTORS DYNAMIC VAR INJECTION ON PER CYCLE BASIS PASSIVE/ACTIVE SYSTEM ARRANGEMENT WITH INRUSH OR DE-TUNED REACTORS CUSTOM-ENGINREERED FOR SPECIFIC SITE. CHIPPERS.

Reversing. Inching . Plugging Applications .CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS AT MOTOR TERMINAL > Motor Overload Protection > Re-closure Issue – Jogging .

Capacitor At Motor Terminal Motor Over Load Protection Issue .

Voltage Influenced By Capacitor Ratings .

Reclosed Breaker & Net Voltage .

CAPACITOR APPLICATION ISSUES .

5 MW) Residential photovoltaic system (6 kW) Residential Fuel cell (7 kW) Utility-owned wind turbine site (1 MW) Substation Small wind turbine (10 kW) Utility-owned Photovoltaic site (500 kW) Factory with natural gas fuel cell (100 kW to 5 MW) .Multi-Energy Power System of the Future ? Hospital with cogeneration (1.

89 1818 KVA 1537 KVA 1537 KVAR 1537 KVAR .Utility & Customer Owned Solar Power System Working In Parallel 1000 KW 3000 KW Cos Ø2= 0.55 Cos Ø1= 0.

chippers.kW. Power Factor)? Do you have a large number of drives. or other large cyclical loads? Do you have problems with voltage sags or “flicker”? How sensitive is your equipment to these power issues? Do you have capacity issues on any of your substations? Do you have HID lighting or critical processes with low tolerance to “brownouts”? Have you been experiencing poor weld quality? Do you have Soft Starters in the System? .ask Customer Applications Are you being charged for poor power factor by your For Capacitor utility (ask for a copy of their electric bill . rectifiers or other harmonic generating equipment? Do you have nuisance tripping of overloads ? Do you have welders. kVA.

Standards Capacitor NEMA CP-1 for Shunt Capacitors UL 810 Standard for Capacitors NFPA 70. National Electrical Code IEEE Standard 399. Recommended Practice for Electrical Power Distribution for Industrial Plants . Shunt Power Capacitors IEEE Standard 141. Power System Analysis ANSI / IEEE Standard 18.

Other Capacitor Application Issues NEC & NEMA : * The Ampacity of Capacitor Circuit Conductors shall not be less than 135% of rated Capacitor Current * Breaker Rating based on 135% Rated Capacitor Current * Fuse Rating based on 165% Rated Capacitor Current for Class R Time Delay * Fusible Switch Rating based on 165% Rated Capacitor Current .

* Avoid sustained Over Voltage . Conditions that affect the Life of Capacitor: * Ambient Temp.Capacitor Operating Environment Issues Capacitor When Properly Applied Will Have Long Life. of Capacitor < 55Deg C or 131 Deg F * Shunt Capacitor designed to operate at 110% Rated Voltage. < 46Deg C or 115Deg F * Case Temp.

You can calculate the savings Off-load transformers Defer buying a larger transformer when adding loads Reduce voltage drop at loads Only if capacitors are applied at loads (minimal benefit at best) A2 .Summary of Benefits: Reduced Power Costs: Since Capacitors supply reactive power. you don’t pay the utility for it Depending up on location of Cap. Bank. Line Loss can be reduced.

Thank You ! Questions? .

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