Structural Bracings

Presentation by V. G. Abhyankar For Knowledge sharing sessions

26.03.2008

Objectives • To understand various types of structures and bracing systems and their behavior • To explain the advantages of braced systems • To discuss the limitations of Braced frames • To study the method of Detailing bracing systems • To highlight advanced theories – in – bracing design .

Types of Structural Framing systems • Bare Frame (Moment Resistant / Rigid jointed frame) • In-Filled frame • Equivalent bracing system • Braced frame (Pin Jointed / Truss) .

Types of Loads • Vertical / Gravity Loads – – – – Self-weight Imposed Load Live loads Snow load • Lateral Loads – – – – Wind Earthquake Wave / Current forces Friction • Special Loads – – – – – – Lack of fit Sinking supports Tsunami Blast Load / Vibrations / Dynamic Loads Fatigue Shrinkage / Creep .

Behavior of Structural Framing Systems under various types of loads VERTICALLOAD RIGID JOINT COLUMN BEAM LATERAL LOAD COLUMN BEAM SWAY DEFLECTED SHAPE DEFLECTED SHAPE BARE FRAME UNDER GRAVITY LOAD BARE FRAME UNDER LATERAL LOAD VERTICALLOAD PIN JOINT COLUMN LATERAL LOAD COLUMN BEAM SWAY DEFLECTED SHAPE DEFLECTED SHAPE BRACED FRAME UNDER GRAVITY LOAD BRACED FRAME UNDER LATERAL LOAD .

Aesthetically appealing Economical Disadvantages 1. Easy to modify BRACED FRAME 7. 8. Stress diagram is triangular (less utilization of area) Connections are difficult to fabricate Bulky sections are required 1. simple behaviors (direct load transfer) Lesser sway Easy to analyze Capable of resisting accidental loads. Full cross sectional area is utilized as members are mainly axially loaded Simple connections. 4. 4. . More number of members Difficult to provided openings Heavy bracings are required for long spans Loads need to act essentially on joints Design load for the Bracing design is always debatable 2. 1. 2.Comparison of Rigid Jointed / Pin Jointed Framing System RIGID JOINTED FRAME Advantages 1. The flanges only resist the moment. 3. 3. 3. 6. 2. 5. 2. twisting etc. More free space (allows openings) Less numbers of Members More sway as compared to braced frame 3. 5.

X – Cross Brace (Tension / compression only) 3. Chevron Brace (K-brace) 4.Types of Braced Frames 1. Inverted chevron 6. Single Diagonal Brace (Tension / Compression Both) 2. A – Chevron brace 5. Knee brace . Braced Single Brace 8. Braced Chevron Brace 7.

A few facts regarding Bracings 1) Force in Bracings – Compression only Bracings – Concrete – Tension only Bracings – Steel – Pre-stressed bracings are also used for industrial structures (wire-ropes) – Vertical Load carrying braces – Horizontal Load carrying braces • Seismic bracing • Wind bracing 2) Slenderness of bracing – Effective length for In-Plane action – Effective length for out-of Plane action – Wind load for out-of-plane bending need not be checked (but the wind acting on braces is transferred to the connected joints) – Stiff-bracings – Flexible bracings .

Bertero ..5% to 3% Lateral loads of the respective vertical loads 6) Bracings are effective in resisting Seismic forces than bare frame. . the stiffness of Infill walls can be simulated in the structural model by means of equivalent brace.Portal frames when connected with braces demand wind braces 5) Design loads on braces are usually 2. Plays major role in seismic retrofitting 7) It is difficult to provide opening at the location of bracing 8) In case of In-filled frame. V. 3) Torsion Control with bracings is effective 4) 2D-Plane . V. .Cont /. This philosophy was proposed by Mr.

RCC BEAM WP GUSSET PLATE SLOTTED CONNECTION STEEL BRACING .Slotted connection • Slotted connections are provided if the bracing is expected to resist the load in a particular direction only.

BRACING SYSTEMS • ELEVATIONAL BRACING • SECTIONAL BRACING • PLAN BRACINGS .

3. V. 4. 2. 7. “Structures” – by Daniel Schodeck AISC Presentations Tall steel Buildings – Steel Designers Manual Steel Detailers Manual SP-40 V. Bertor’s articles Standard detail drawings . 8. 6.Technical Reference 1. 5.Toyo Engineering .

Structural Bracings Presentation by V.03. G. Abhyankar For Knowledge sharing sessions 26.2008 .

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