You are on page 1of 18


September 4, 2013


There are 3 division here :1. DD Lucknow is full-flathead broadcast set up.Doordarshan is a leading broadcasting service provider in india.The main function of earth station is to make contact with satellite or communicate with it. This report contains a detailed study of Doordarshan Kendra lucknow .Here the transmission of both audio and video has been made.  Earth Station :. The transmission section does the function of modulation of signal. Many serials & program are being made here and are recorded in studio. 2013 2 .  Transmitter :. 2. Studio Transmitter Earth Station  Studio :.Introduction Our training was in Doordarshan Kendra lucknow . September 4. 3.

Artificial sets are created in the studio hall according to requirements of the program to be shooted. One is used as News Room and the other one is used for shooting various programs. So if we see images at the rate more than 16 pictures/sec. Recording begins and desired camera/mike are selected through VM/Audio console as per command of producer. September 4.Doordarshan has two studio halls. Audio and placement of the cameras is arranged as per floor plan. Lighting. 2013 3 . Video signal generation:Video is nothing but a sequence of pictures. our eyes cannot recognize the difference and we see the continuous motion. Program is recorded on VCR. Procedure in reording:   Set is designed in studio as per conceptual thought of program producer.

A TV Camera consists of three sections:  A Camera lens & Optics: To form optical image on the face plate of a pick up device. September 4.   A transducer or pick up device: To convert optical image into a electrical signal. Electronics: To process output of a transducer to get a CCVS signal. 2013 4 .

DIFFERENT LIGHTING TECHNIQUES: -      Eye light. 2013 5 . Sillhoutt lighting. Kickkar light.  Light is a kind of electromagnetic radiation with a visible spectrum from red to violet i. BG is highly lit. it is an extra back on entire body at camera level. Low intensity light on camera itself to get extra sparkle to an actor's eye. to highlight actor's outline. September 4. Limbo Lighting. No light on subject. wavelength from 700nm to 380nm respectively. Extra light on shadow side of the face at an angle behind and to the side of the actor. no back ground light. Only subject is visible. Rim light.e. Light Source: Any light source has a Luminance intensity (I) which is measured in Candelas.

This is the simplest and cheapest form of dimmer. In the professional lighting industry. It consists of a wire wound resistor with a wiper . Two basic methods for dimming are :- 1. because they have higher efficiency.In the case of dimmers the capacitor can store an aequate amount of power to redused the intensity of light. Modern dimmers are built from silicon controlled resistor (SCR) instead of variable resistors.The capacitor are used to stored energy or power. Capacitor :. By decreasing or increasing the RMS voltage. Resistance :. 1. 2013 6 .It is used in series with the load. changes in intensity are called “fades”. September 4.   DIMMER:Dimmers are devices used to vary the brightness of a light.

camera basestations. This room comprises of Routine switcher. Satellite receivers. It is the engineering co-ordination center of activity for selecting & routing the signal from various sources to transmitter and earth station. It is the heart of the studio.    September 4. Most of the switching electronics are kept here e. Video/Audio distribution amplifier etc. amplifier.g. It is a room where all different sources from the outside studio comes first here and enroots transmission to different destination like transmitter & earth station. Master switching room (MSR) is used for transmission media. 2013 7 .

   A Sony BVS-3200CP vision mixer. Vision mixing involves basically four types of switching or transitions between various sources. These are cut. September 4. Vision mixing is a process of creating composite pictures from various sources. mixing. Graphics/Character Generators etc. wipe and key. A vision mixer is a device used to select between several different video sources and in some cases mix video sources together and add special effects. It has many input sources suchas cameras. 2013 8 . VCR .

the established picture fades away. Matte means internally generated BG with choice of colors from the vision mixer itself. while the new picture generates. Cut:-The cut is an instantaneous switch from one picture to another. It avoids the frame roll on picture at the moment of cutting. or chrominance of the source input. Key :. Wipe :-A wipe is a type of film transition where one shot replaces another by travelling from one side of the frame to another side of the frame. 2013 9 . Mixing :. As the faders are operated.The keyed portion can be filled with matte or external source.    September 4. This keying signal can be generated either by the luminance.It uses additive mixing.

A typical OB Van is usually divided into 5 parts:      The 1st and largest part is the production area. 2013 10 . The tape area has a collection of VTRs. OB van is used for live broadcasting like any match or any event. The 4th part is the video control area. The 3rd part of van is video tape. September 4. The 5th part is transmission where the signal is monitored by an engineer for quality control purposes. it has a sound mixer. It consist all the equipments that is present in the studio for telecasting.It also referring as mini studio. The 2nd part of a van is for the audio engineer.

The signal is up-linked from the Earth Station and received by many down link centers in TV broadcasting via PDA.aircraft etc. 11 September 4. Earth station is a purely digitization version.     The main function of earth station is to make contact with satellite or communicate with it. The earth station can be located on land. 2013 .ships. The earth station is supposed to convey the information from the user to the satellite and from satellite back to the user.

Better sound quality & better picture quality. spectrum efficient. Reduced transmission power. More programmes per channel/Transponder i.      September 4. Noise-Free Reception. Ghost elimination.e. 2013 12 . Flexibility in service planning.

2013 . 13  September 4. processes it and resend back to the earth station at a lower frequency signal (downlink). The function of the satellite is to receive a high frequency signal (uplink) . It is simply the communication of the satellite in space with large number of earth stations on the ground.

2013 14 . The transmittion and reception of satellite signals are done at a greater microwave frequencies in a perticular band.The frequency at which the signal are transmitted from earth station to satellite. The uplink frequency always greater than downlink frequency due to avoid the interference between transmitting and receving signal. Uplink frequency :.   These band are as follows below:6Ghz (uplink) / 4Ghz (downlink) 14Ghz (uplink) / 12Ghz (downlink) c-band Ku-band Ka-band 30Ghz (uplink) / 20Ghz (downlink) September 4.   Downlink frequency :.The frequency at which the signal are send to satellite back to earth station.

which is a combination of transmitter and receiver. 2013 15 . September 4.  As shown in below fig. the uplinked signal (6 GHz) at satellite is received.  The main function of transponder is frequency translation and amplification. amplified and downconverted into 4 GHz band and sent back through filter and power amplifier towards receiver earth station through a high power transmitting antenna.Satellite Transponder : A transponder is a part of a satellite.

Messaging and voice communication. 2013 16 . In the field of communication(satellite phone.satellite radio). metrological and whether information. Supporting relief and search operation in remote areas. World wide paging services. For navigation and tracking purpose.TV.      September 4.

2013 17 .Thank You September 4.

Questions/ Queries September 4. 2013 18 .