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 cells extracellular matrix.

fibers (collagen, reticular, and elastic)  amorphous ground substance, which contains proteoglycans hyaluronic acid

The matrix is secreted by some of the cells in connective tissues. fibroblasts in most CTs  In cartilage. it is chondroblasts and chondrocytes that produce the matrix  while in bone.  . it is osteoblasts and osteocytes.

about 100glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) attached bottle-brush fashion around it  GAGs are made of repeating units of disaccharides. one of which is always a glycosamine (hence the name) such as glucosamine or galactosamine  . making it resilient  The ground substance of cartilage is rich in proteoglycans consisting of a core protein with numerous.a solid connective tissue that is to a certain extent pliable.

the GAGs attached to the core proteins are chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate. rigid molecules of hyaluronic acid (HA)  About eighty proteoglycans are attached to one molecule of HA  .  The proteoglycans themselves are attached.In cartilage. by special linker proteins to long.

 The repeating units of hyaluronic acid are D-glucuronic acid and Nacetylglucosamine  .The repeating units of chondroitin sufate are D-glucoronic acid and Nacetylgalactosamine-(4 or 6)-sulfate  The repeating units of keratan sulfate are galactose or galactose 6-sulfate and Nacetylglucosamine 6-sulfate.

In the adult.  .Between 60 and 80 percent of the net weight of (hyaline) cartilage is water  and this large component of water accounts for the resilient nature of cartilage  Cartilage is poorly vascularized. repair is poor. and gets most of its nutrients through diffusion.

 .Hyaline cartilage  Elastic cartilage  fibrocartilage.

5% Mineral 35% 60% Matrix Cells .

 Bone is both › resilient ( due to the organic matter (collagen) › hard (due to the inorganic minerals) .

which reduces blood calcium by suppressing bone resorption and increasing osteoid * calcification  *Osteoid is the matrix secreted by osteoblasts and osteocytes prior to mineralization .Bone serves as a storage site for calcium and phosphate  Blood calcium levels are regulated by the hormones parathormone (parathyroid hormone). which raises blood calcium levels by stimulating bone resorption. and calcitonin.

spongy bone Compact bone and spongy bone are found in specific locations.compact bone 2.1. .

Compact bone is also called dense bone and cortical bone  composed of cylindrical structures called osteons or Haversian systems  .

trabecular bone and medullary bone . Spongy bone is also called cancellous bone.

. In long bones .1. most of the thickness of the diaphysis is made of compact bone .with a small amount of spongy bone facing the marrow cavity.

principally albumin › 46 % exist as free ions and the remainder is complexed with phosphate and citrate. The free ions are the only form that is physiologically active . › 47 % is bound to proteins. Calsium is present in the plasma in the three forms.

.and calcitriol. The plasma concentration of calcium is controlled by PTH PTH is a polypeptide hormone synthesised in the parathyroid glands .