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MIS-410: Decision Support System (DSS

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Ashis Talukder Lecturer, MIS Dhaka University

Chapter 5 DATA WAREHOUSING

Learning Objectives
• Understand the basic definitions and concepts of data warehouses • Understand data warehousing architectures • Describe the processes used in developing and managing data warehouses • Explain data warehousing operations • Explain the role of data warehouses in decision support

Ashis Talukder, MIS, DU

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Learning Objectives
• Explain data integration and the extraction, transformation, and load (ETL) processes • Describe real-time (active) data warehousing • Understand data warehouse administration and security issues

Ashis Talukder, MIS, DU

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Data Warehousing Definitions and Concepts
• Data warehouse
– A physical repository where relational data are specially organized to provide enterprise-wide, cleansed data in a standardized format – Current and historical data – Data are structured to be available in the form ready for analytical processing (OLAP), mining, querying, reporting – Subject oriented, integrated, time-variant, nonvolatile collection of data for management’s decision making.
Ashis Talukder, MIS, DU 5

DU 6 .Data Warehousing Definitions and Concepts • Characteristics of data warehousing – Subject oriented – Integrated – Time variant (time series) – Nonvolatile – Web based – Relational/multidimensional – Client/server – Real-time – Include metadata Ashis Talukder. MIS.

DU 7 . MIS.Data Warehousing Definitions and Concepts • Data mart – A departmental data warehouse that stores only relevant data – Subset of DW • Dependent data mart – A subset that is created directly from a data warehouse • Independent data mart – A small data warehouse designed for a strategic business unit or a department but its source is not an EDW Ashis Talukder.

An oper mart is a small-scale data mart typically used by a single department or functional area in an organization – Data comes from ODS Ashis Talukder. especially for customer information files – Recent form of customer info file (CIF) – Used for short term decision involving mission-critical application – Like short term memory with recent info unlike DW which is long term memory with permanent info • Oper marts – An operational data mart. MIS. DU 8 .Data Warehousing Definitions and Concepts • Operational data stores (ODS) – A type of database often used as an interim area for a data warehouse.

In a data warehouse. DU 9 . integrates data from many sources – Used to provide data for many types of DSS: • • • • • • • CRM SCM Business Performance Monitor (BPM) Business activity monitor (BAM) Product lifecycle monitoring (PLM) Revenue management Knowledge management System (KMS) • Metadata – Data about data. MIS. metadata describe the contents of a data warehouse and the manner of its use Ashis Talukder.Data Warehousing Definitions and Concepts • Enterprise data warehouse (EDW) – A technology that provides a vehicle for pushing data from source systems into a data warehouse – Large scale DW.

DU 10 . and knowledge at an increasingly accelerated rate and store them in computerized systems • The number of users needing to access the information continues to increase as a result of improved reliability and availability of network access. MIS. information. especially the Internet Ashis Talukder.Data Warehousing Process Overview • Organizations continuously collect data.

Data Warehousing Process Overview Ashis Talukder. DU 11 . MIS.

• Data are imported form various internal and external sources. • Then Data mart can be loaded for any department Ashis Talukder.Data Warehousing Process Overview • Organizations need to create data warehouses – massive data stores of time series data for decision support. MIS. cleansed and organized in a manner consentient with the organization’s need. DU 12 .

Data Warehousing Process Overview • The major components of a data warehousing process – Data sources – Data extraction – Data loading – Comprehensive database – Metadata – Middleware tools Ashis Talukder. DU 13 . MIS.

Data Warehousing Process Overview • Data sources – – – – Multiple independent operational legacy system From external data provider (Census) From OLTP or enterprise resource planning (ERP) Web data can be fed as Web logs • Data extraction: – By custom-written or commercial software • Data loading – Loaded into staging area where transformed and cleansed – Then data are ready to load in DW Ashis Talukder. MIS. DU 14 .

Front end application – Ex: data reporting. with web tools • Middleware tools – Enables access to DW – May use SQL queries. OLAP. • Metadata – Includes software programs about data and rules for organizing data summaries that are easy to index or search. MIS. DU 15 . visulizing tool Ashis Talukder. mining. reporting tools.Data Warehousing Process Overview • Comprehensive database – This is EDW to support all decision analysis by providing relevant summarized and detailed information from different sources.

Data Warehousing Architectures • Three tire architecture • Two Tire Architecture • One tire Architecture Ashis Talukder. DU 16 . MIS.

and loads them into the data warehouse – Client (front-end) software that allows users to access and analyze data from the warehouse Ashis Talukder.Data Warehousing Architectures • Three parts of the data warehouse – The data warehouse that contains the data and associated software – Data acquisition (back-end) software that extracts data from legacy systems and external sources. consolidates and summarizes them. MIS. DU 17 .

MIS. DU 18 .Data Warehousing Architectures Ashis Talukder.

Data Warehousing Architectures Ashis Talukder. DU 19 . MIS.

DU 20 .Data Warehousing Architectures Ashis Talukder. MIS.

MIS.Data Warehousing Architectures • Issues to consider when deciding which architecture to use: – Which database management system (DBMS) should be used? – Will parallel processing and/or partitioning be used? – Will data migration tools be used to load the data warehouse? – What tools will be used to support data retrieval and analysis? Ashis Talukder. DU 21 .

DU 22 .Data Warehousing Process Overview Ashis Talukder. MIS.

DU 23 .Data Warehousing Process Overview Ashis Talukder. MIS.

DU 24 . MIS.Data Warehousing Process Overview Ashis Talukder.

MIS.Data Warehousing Process Overview Ashis Talukder. DU 25 .

Data Warehousing Process Overview Ashis Talukder. MIS. DU 26 .

MIS. DU 27 .Data Warehousing Process Overview Ashis Talukder.

Data Warehousing Process Overview Ashis Talukder. DU 28 . MIS.

3. DU 29 2.Data Warehousing Architectures Ten factors that potentially affect the architecture selection decision (Ariyachandra & Watson 2005): 1. Strategic view of the data warehouse prior to implementation 7. Information interdependence between organizational units Upper management’s information needs Urgency of need for a data warehouse Nature of end-user tasks 5. Perceived ability of the inhouse IT staff 9. 4. . Technical issues 10. Constraints on resources 6. MIS. Compatibility with existing systems 8. Social/political factors Ashis Talukder.

– data federation. and – change capture.Data Integration and the Extraction. • When these three processes are correctly implemented. DU 30 . and Load (ETL) Process • Data integration Integration that comprises three major processes: – data access. data can be accessed and made accessible to an array of ETL and analysis tools and data warehousing environments Ashis Talukder. MIS. Transformation.

and Load (ETL) Process • Enterprise application integration (EAI) A technology that provides a vehicle for pushing data from source systems into a data warehouse Ashis Talukder. Transformation. DU 31 . MIS.Data Integration and the Extraction.

Transformation. Web services. DU 32 . and Load (ETL) Process • Enterprise information integration (EII) An evolving tool space that promises realtime data integration from a variety of sources. and multidimensional databases Ashis Talukder. MIS.Data Integration and the Extraction. such as relational databases.

Data Integration and the Extraction. and load (ETL) A data warehousing process that consists of – Extraction: • reading data from a database – Transformation: • converting the extracted data from its previous form into the form in which it needs to be so that it can be placed into a data warehouse or simply another database. MIS. and Load (ETL) Process • Extraction. Transformation. transformation. DU 33 . and – Load: • putting the data into the data warehouse Ashis Talukder.

and Load (ETL) Process Ashis Talukder.Data Integration and the Extraction. MIS. DU 34 . Transformation.

DU 35 . and Load (ETL) Process • Issues affect whether an organization will purchase data transformation tools or build the transformation process itself – Data transformation tools are expensive – Data transformation tools may have a long learning curve – It is difficult to measure how the IT organization is doing until it has learned to use the data transformation tools Ashis Talukder. MIS.Data Integration and the Extraction. Transformation.

MIS. DU 36 .Data Integration and the Extraction. Transformation. and Load (ETL) Process • Important criteria in selecting an ETL tool – Ability to read from and write to an unlimited number of data source architectures – Automatic capturing and delivery of metadata – A history of conforming to open standards – An easy-to-use interface for the developer and the functional user Ashis Talukder.

DU 37 . – Enhanced system performance – Simplification of data access Ashis Talukder.Data Warehouse Development • Direct benefits of a data warehouse – Allows end users to perform extensive analysis – Allows a consolidated view of corporate data – Better and more timely information. MIS.

DU 38 .Data Warehouse Development • Indirect benefits result from end users using these direct benefits – Enhance business knowledge – Present competitive advantage – Enhance customer service and satisfaction – Facilitate decision making – Help in reforming business processes Ashis Talukder. MIS.

Financial strength ERP linkages Qualified consultants Market share Industry experience Established partnerships Ashis Talukder. 5. DU 39 . 3. 2. MIS. 6.Data Warehouse Development • Data warehouse vendors – Six guidelines to considered when developing a vendor list: 1. 4.

MIS.Data Warehouse Development • Data warehouse development approaches – Inmon Model: EDW approach – Kimball Model: Data mart approach • Which model is best? – There is no one-size-fits-all strategy to data warehousing – One alternative is the hosted warehouse Ashis Talukder. DU 40 .

Data Warehouse Development • Data warehouse structure: The Star Schema – Dimensional modeling A retrieval-based system that supports highvolume query access – Dimension tables A table that address how data will be analyzed Ashis Talukder. DU 41 . MIS.

descriptive attributes for query reporting Foreign key to join dimension tables – – – • Fact Table addresses WHAT data warehouse supports for decision analysis Ashis Talukder. DU 42 . MIS.Data Warehouse Development • – A Central Fact Table Contains many rows that correspond to observed facts Attribute for decision analysis.

Data Warehouse Development • A Central Fact Table Surrounded by number of dimension tables. DU 43 . MIS. Dimension table contains – – – Classification and aggregation information Data that describe data in the fact tables One-to-many relationship • • Fact Table addresses HOW data will be analyzed Ashis Talukder.

Data Warehouse Development • Grain – A definition of the highest level of detail that is supported in a data warehouse – Whether DW is highly summarized or have detailed transaction data • Drill-down – The process of probing beyond a summarized value to investigate each of the detail transactions that comprise the summary Ashis Talukder. DU 44 . MIS.

MIS. and no single person can be an expert in each area Ashis Talukder.Data Warehouse Development • Data warehousing implementation issues – Implementing a data warehouse is generally a massive effort that must be planned and executed according to established methods – There are many facets to the project lifecycle. DU 45 .

Reconciliation process 10. Data conversion 9. End-user support Ashis Talukder. . 3. Establishment of service-level agreements and datarefresh requirements Identification of data sources and their governance policies Data quality planning Data model design ETL tool selection 6. Data transport 8. 2005) : 1. 5.Data Warehouse Development Eleven major tasks that could be performed in parallel for successful implementation of a data warehouse (Solomon. MIS. Relational database software and platform selection 7. 4. DU 46 2. Purge (Cleaning) and archive planning 11.

DU 47 .Data Warehouse Development • Some best practices for implementing a data warehouse (Weir. managers. 2002): – Project must fit with corporate strategy and business objectives – There must be complete buy-in to the project by executives. and users – It is important to manage user expectations about the completed project – The data warehouse must be built incrementally – Build in adaptability Ashis Talukder. MIS.

2002): – The project must be managed by both IT and business professionals – Develop a business/supplier relationship – Only load data that have been cleansed and are of a quality understood by the organization – Do not overlook training requirements – Be politically aware Ashis Talukder. DU 48 .Data Warehouse Development • Some best practices for implementing a data warehouse (Weir. MIS.

Data Warehouse Development • Failure factors in data warehouse projects: – – – – – – – Cultural issues being ignored Inappropriate architecture Unclear business objectives Missing information Unrealistic expectations Low levels of data summarization Low data quality Ashis Talukder. MIS. DU 49 .

DU 50 .Data Warehouse Development • Issues to consider to build a successful data warehouse: – Starting with the wrong sponsorship chain – Setting expectations that you cannot meet and frustrating executives at the moment of truth – Engaging in politically naive behavior – Loading the warehouse with information just because it is available Ashis Talukder. MIS.

MIS. perhaps. and. images. sound and video Ashis Talukder. DU 51 .Data Warehouse Development • Issues to consider to build a successful data warehouse: – Believing that data warehousing database design is the same as transactional database design – Choosing a data warehouse manager who is technology oriented rather than user oriented – Focusing on traditional internal record-oriented data and ignoring the value of external data and of text.

capacity. and scalability – Believing that your problems are over when the data warehouse is up and running – Focusing on ad hoc data mining and periodic reporting instead of alerts Ashis Talukder. DU 52 .Data Warehouse Development • Issues to consider to build a successful data warehouse: – Delivering data with overlapping and confusing definitions – Believing promises of performance. MIS.

MIS.Real-Time Data Warehousing • Real-time (active) data warehousing The process of loading and providing data via a data warehouse as they become available Ashis Talukder. DU 53 .

3. 2. 4.Real-Time Data Warehousing • Levels of data warehouses: 1. 5. MIS. Reports what happened Some analysis occurs Provides prediction capabilities. DU 54 . Operationalization Becomes capable of making events happen Ashis Talukder.

Real-Time Data Warehousing Ashis Talukder. MIS. DU 55 .

Real-Time Data Warehousing • The need for real-time data – A business often cannot afford to wait a whole day for its operational data to load into the data warehouse for analysis Provides incremental real-time data showing every state change and almost analogous patterns over time Maintaining metadata in sync is possible Less costly to develop. and secure one huge data warehouse so that data are centralized for BI/BA tools An EAI with real-time data collection can reduce or eliminate the nightly batch processes Ashis Talukder. MIS. maintain. DU 56 – – – – .

Data Warehouse Administration and Security Issues • Data warehouse administrator (DWA) A person responsible for the administration and management of a data warehouse Ashis Talukder. MIS. DU 57 .

DU 58 .Data Warehouse Administration and Security Issues • Effective security in a data warehouse should focus on four main areas: – Establishing effective corporate and security policies and procedures – Implementing logical security procedures and techniques to restrict access – Limiting physical access to the data center environment – Establishing an effective internal control review process with an emphasis on security and privacy Ashis Talukder. MIS.