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Presentation on Spectrum of ocean freight services

Presented by Jorden Simick (2012B03) Privendra Singh (2012B16) Ankit Bajaj ( 2012B37)

Why Ocean? Cheap mode of transport. Tried and tested Safety Merchant shipping is the lifeblood of the world economy. Carrying 90% of international trade with 102,194 commercial ships worldwide.

Types of Ocean Freight Services


FCL (Full Container Load) LCL (Less-than-Container-Load) NCL (Non-Containerized Load)

FCL (Full Container Load)


FCL - Full Container Load.
Loaded and unloaded under the risk and account of

one shipper and only one consignee. FCL container shipment tends to have lower freight rates than an equivalent weight of cargo in bulk. Intended to designate a container loaded to its allowable maximum weight or volume but in practice does not always mean a full payload or capacity.

LCL(Less than container load)


Type of shipment that is not large enough to fill a

standard cargo container. Consolidation of customers cargo with cargo from similarly situated merchants LCL keeps goods moving in your supply chain because you can send them as soon as they are ready. Why wait???? Economical usage-based costing.

NCL (Non-Containerized Load)


This kind of service offers the perfect solution for an

oversized or OOG (Out of Gage) cargo. Most suitable for shipments which do not fit in standard size shipping containers due to weight or dimensions. Goods can be tailor-made product for oversized loads which cannot be fitted into a container. This service is most suitable for complex projects such as: turbines, vehicles, rig platforms, or any other rigid cargo. The service provider assign a dedicated team of experts with the experience and resources to match the customers exact requirements.

Seaport terminals handle a wide range of maritime cargo:-

Project cargo and the heavy lift cargo : Include items like manufacturing equipment, air conditioners, factory components, generators, wind turbines, military equipment, and almost any other oversized or overweight cargo which is too big or too heavy to fit into a container.

Break bulk cargo: Material stacked on pallets and lifted into and out of the hold of a vessel by cranes.

Bulk cargo: Usually defined as commodities that are neither on pallets nor in containers. Ex. Salt, Oil, Scrap metal.

Neo-bulk cargo : Comprises individual units that are counted as they are loaded and unloaded, in contrast to bulk cargo that is not counted, but that are not containerized. Ex. Cars.

Merchant vessel : Ship that transports cargo or passengers.


Merchant navy : A merchant navy or merchant marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a country.

Most modern merchant ships can be placed in one of a few categories, such as: Bulk carriers. Container ships : Cargo ships that carry their entire load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization.

Tankers : cargo ships for the transport of fluids, such as crude oil, petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas and chemicals, also vegetable oils, wine and other food - the tanker sector comprises one third of the world tonnage.

Refrigerated ships : (usually called Reefers) are cargo ships typically used to transport perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled transportation, mostly fruits, meat, fish, vegetables, dairy products and other foodstuffs.

Ferries : Carrying (or ferrying) passengers and sometimes their vehicles

Roll-on/roll-off ships : Cargo ships designed to carry wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trailers or railway carriages. RORO (or ro/ro) vessels have built-in ramps which allow the cargo to be efficiently "rolled on" and "rolled off" the vessel when in port.
Cruise ships : Passenger ships used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. Ocean Liner : Passenger ship designed to transport people from one seaport to another along regular longdistance maritime routes according to a schedule.

Cable layer : Deep-sea vessel designed and used to lay underwater cables for telecommunications, electricity, and such. Tugboat : Boat used to manoeuvre, primarily by towing or pushing other vessels (see shipping) in harbors, over the open sea or through rivers and canals. They are also used to tow barges, disabled ships, or other equipment like towboats.
Dredger : Ship used to excavate in shallow seas or fresh water

Incoterm 2010

ExportCustoms declaration

Loading Carriage Unloading of charges to port of truck in port in port of export of export export

Carriage (Sea Freight/Air Freight) to port of import

Unloading charges in port of import

Insurance

Loading on truck in port of import

Carriage to place of destination

Import customs clearance

Import taxes

EXW FCA FAS FOB

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CPT
CFR

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CIF (By Sea only)

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CIP
DAT DAP

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DDP

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Regulations
The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea apply to vessels at sea. The Code Europen des Voies de la Navigation Intrieure applies to vessels navigating Europe inland. The International Sailing Federation has published Racing Rules of Sailing.

Environmental impact of shipping:


Greenhouse gas emissions. Oil pollution. Sound pollution. Ship impacts. Ballast water. Exhaust emissions. Sewage. Solid waste.