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P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
I I T Delhi
An appropriate combination of Shocks & Expansion Waves…
Supersonic Flow Over Flat Plates at Angle of Attack
Review: Oblique Shock Wave Angle
tan u ( )=
2tan  ( ) M
1
sin  ( )
¸
(
¸
2
÷1
{ }
tan
2
 ( ) 2 + M
1
2
¸ + cos 2 ( )
¸
(
¸
¸
(
¸
=
2 M
1
2
sin
2
 ( )÷1
{ }
tan  ( ) 2 + M
1
2
¸ + cos 2 ( )
¸
(
¸
¸
(
¸
PrandtlMeyer Expansion Waves
u<0 .. We get an expansion wave (PrandtlMeyer)
u = v(M
2
) ÷v(M
1
) ÷v(M) =
¸ +1
¸ ÷1
tan
÷1
¸ ÷1
¸ +1
M
2
÷1
( )
¦
´
¦
¹
¦
¹
`
¦
)
¦
÷ tan
÷1
M
2
÷1
• Compare to Flat Plate
C
L
=
p
l
p
·
÷
p
u
p
·
¸
(
¸
(
¸
2
M
·
2

\

.

coso
C
D
= 0
Fp
Lift
Drag
o
o
Wings At Zero Angle of Attack
• Subsonic Wing in Subsonic Flow • Subsonic Wing in Supersonic Flow
M< 1
M> 1
• Supersonic Wing in Supersonic Flow
M > 1
M > 1
• Supersonic Wing in Subsonic Flow
Flow Separation
• Wings that work well subsonically generally Don’t work well
supersonically, and viceversa
Supersonic Airfoils
• A leading edge in Supersonic Flow has a finite maximum wedge angle
at which the oblique shock wave remains attached
¸=1.4
¸=1.1
¸=1.3
¸=1.4
¸=1.3
¸=1.2
¸=1.1
¸=1.05
• Beyond that angle shock wave becomes detached from leading edge
Supersonic Flow Over an Airfoil
• Normal Shock wave formed off the front of a blunt leading
causes significant drag
¸=1.1
¸=1.3
Detached shock wave
Localized normal shock wave
Supersonic Airfoils
¸=1.1
¸=1.3
• To eliminate this leading edge drag caused by detached bow wave Supersonic
wings are typically quite sharp at the leading edge
• Design feature allows oblique wave to attach to the leading edge eliminating
the area of high pressure ahead of the wing.
• Double wedge or “diamond” Airfoil section
Supersonic Airfoils : Positive Angle of Attack
Dull Oblique Shock
Intense Oblique Shock
2
6
1
4
5
3
Supersonic Airfoils : Positive Angle of Attack
¸=1.1
¸=1.3
• A supersonic airfoil at positive angle of attack :
• A dull shock at the top leading edge.
•An intense shock at the bottom.
• The airflow over the top of the wing is now faster.
• Further acceleration through the expansion fans.
• The Expansion fan on the top is more intense than the one on the
bottom.
• Combined result is faster flow and lower pressure on the top of the
airfoil.
• We already have all of the tools we need to analyze the flow on
this wing
Supersonic Airfoils : Negative Angle of Attack
¸=1.1
¸=1.3
•When supersonic airfoil is at negative angle of attack at the top
leading edge there is a expansion fan and oblique shock at the
bottom.
• Result is the airflow over the top of the wing is now faster.
• Airflow will also be accelerated through the expansion fans on
both sides.
• Result is much faster flow on top surface and therefore lower
pressure on the top of the airfoil.
Supersonic Flow on Finite Thickness Wings at zero o
• Symmetrical Diamondwedge airfoil, zero angle of attack
D
r a g
=
2 b p
2
l s i n (
c
)
÷
p
3
l s i n (
c
)  
¬
s i n (
c
)
=
t / 2
l
D
r a g
=
b p
2
÷
p
3
  t
p
2
> p
1
Supersonic Wave Drag
• Finite Wings in Supersonic Flow have drag .. Even
at zero angle of attack and no lift and no viscosity…. “wave drag”
• Wave Drag coefficient is proportional to thickness ratio (t/c)
• Supersonic flow over wings
… induced drag (drag due to lift) + viscous drag + wave drag
C
D
wave
=
D
rag
bcq
_
=
p
2
÷ p
3
 
¸
2
p
·
M
2
t
c

\

.

Symmetric Doublewedge Airfoil … Drag
C
D
wave
=
D
rag
bcq
_
=
p
2
÷ p
3
 
¸
2
p
·
M
2
t
c

\

.

Thickness ratio
• Look at mach number
Effect on wave drag
• Mach Number tends
to suppress wave drag
Increasing mach
Thickness ratio
Induced drag
+
=
Wave drag
o=0°
• How About The
effect of angle of
attack on drag
Increasing t/c
Mach constant
Total drag
+
=
Lift Coefficient Climbs Almost Linearly with o
The effect of angle of attack on Lift
+
=
• For Inviscid flow
Supersonic
Lift to drag ratio
almost infinite
for very thin
airfoil
t/c = 0.035
• But airfoils do not
fly in inviscid flows
+
=
t/c = 0.035
• But contribute
significantly
to reduce the
performance of
supersonic wings
• Friction effects
have small effect
on Nozzle flow
or flow in “large
“ducts”
• Problem with sharp leading edges is poor performance in
subsonic flight.
• Lead to very high stall speeds, poor subsonic handling
qualities, and poor take off and landing performance for
conventional aircraft
Disadvantages of Sharp Edged Wings
Wing Sweep Reduces Wave Drag
• One way to augment the performance of supersonic
aircraft is with wing sweep …
• Lowers the speed of flow
Normal to the wing …
• Decreasing the strength
Of the oblique shock wave
• Result is a Decrease in wave
Drag and enhanced L/D
Geometrical Description of Wing Sweep
Equivalent 2D Flow on Swept Wing
• Freestream Mach number resolved into 3 components
i) vertical to wing …
ii) in plane of wing, but tangent to leading edge
iii) in plane of wing, but normal to leading edge
i)M
vert
= M
·
sino
ii)M

= M
·
cososinA
ii)M
±
= M
·
cosocos A
• Equivalent Mach Number normal to leading edge
M
eq
= M
±
2
+ M
vert
2
= M
·
sino
( )
2
+ M
·
cosocosA
( )
2
=
M
·
1÷ cos
2
o
( )
+ cos
2
o 1÷ sin
2
A
( )
= M
·
1÷ sin
2
Acos
2
o
• Equivalent angle of attack normal to leading edge
tan o
eq
( )
=
M
vert
M
±
=
M
·
sino
M
·
coso cos A
=
tan o ( )
cos A
• Equivalent chord and span
• Chord is shortened
• Span is lengthened
c
eq
= c cos A
 
b
eq
=
b
cos A
• Equivalent 2D Lift Coefficient
C
L
eq
=
L
¸
2
p
·
M
eq
2
c cos A
 
b
cos A
¸
(
¸
(
=
L
¸
2
p
·
M
eq
2
cb
=
L
¸
2
p
·
M
·
2
cb 1÷ sin
2
Acos
2
o
( )
=
C
L
1÷ sin
2
Acos
2
o
( )
• Equivalent 2D
Drag Coefficient
C
D
eq
=
D / cos A
¸
2
p
·
M
eq
2
c cos A
 
b
cos A
¸
(
¸
(
=
D / cos A
¸
2
p
·
M
eq
2
cb
=
D / cos A
¸
2
p
·
M
·
2
cb 1÷ sin
2
Acos
2
o
( )
=
C
D
/ cos A
1÷ sin
2
Acos
2
o
( )
• Solve for C
L
, C
D
, L/D
C
L
= C
L
eq
1÷ sin
2
Acos
2
o
( )
C
D
= C
D
eq
cos A 1÷ sin
2
Acos
2
o
( )
÷
L
D
=
L
D

\

.

eq
cos A
• Unswept Wing
C
L
: 0.205
C
D
: 0.3606
L/D: 5.68441
• 30
°
Swept Wing
C
L
: 0.2533
C
D
: 0.03909
L/D: 6.4799
• WOW! … 14% IMPROVEMENT IN PERFORMANCE
F14 Tomcat
The F14's wing sweep can be varied between 20 and 68° in flight, and is
automatically controlled by an air data computer.
This maintains the wing sweep to give the optimum lift/drag ratio as the
Mach number varies.
The system can be manually overridden by the pilot if necessary.
When the aircraft is parked, the wings can be swept to 75°, where they
overlap the tail to save space on tight carrier decks.
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