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New Technology used in sports

BY
JEES JOSE 47 R7A

IS UMPIRE DECISION ENOUGH???

Contents
INTRODUCTION
ABILITIES PRINCIPLE TECHNOLOGY USED

STEPS FOLLOWED APPLICATIONS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES CONCLUSION REFERENCES

Introduction
Hawk-Eye is a computer system used

in cricket, tennis, snookers and other sports to visually track the path of the ball and display a record of its most statistically likely path as a moving image
Hawk-Eye as the most innovative technology provider

in sports broadcasting and is a development that will reinforce the group's presence and influence.

The hawk eye technology was invented by Dr Paul

Hawkins who used to be a cricketer and played for country side Buckinghamshire. He has a PHD in Artificial Intelligence.

It is primarily used by the

majority of television networks to track the trajectory of balls in flight.


It was developed by

engineers at Roke Manor Research Limited of UK


A patent was submitted

by Dr Paul Hawkins and David Sherry.

Abilities
Hawk-eye can track any

type of bounce, spin, swing and seam movement of the ball.


Give a prediction as

accurate as 99.99 percent


Hawk-Eye was used for

referring decisions to the third umpire in LBW.

Principle of Hawk-Eye
A Hawk-Eye system is based

on the principle of Triangulation


Triangulation is the process

of determining the location of a point by measuring angles to it from known points at either end of a fixed baseline

Technology
Hawk-Eye takes 2 inputs 1. Video provided by 6 different cameras placed at 6 different places. 2. The speed of the ball. The system rapidly processes

the video feeds by a high speed video processor.

Hawk Eye incorporates both image analysis and radar

technology.
The six fixed JAI monochrome cameras, with a 120

MHz frame rate, are placed around the playing field


They track the balls entire trajectory, right from the

point where it is released from the bowlers hand to the point the ball is considered dead.

Features of Hawk-Eye technology


The Hawk-Eye system consist of 2 significant parts. a) Tracking System b) Video Replay System

Tracking system
There are 6 high speed vision processing cameras that track the ball from the bowlers hand to batsman. The system will automatically calculate the following step:
1. 2. 3. 4.

5.
6. 7.

The speed of the ball leaving the bowlers hand. The reaction time for the batsman. The swing of the ball from the bowlers hand to where the ball pitched. Where the ball was bowled from. How much the ball bounced How much the ball deviated sideways off the wicket(i.e. seam or spin). A prediction of where the ball would have passed the stump.

Video replay system


though the tracking data

provides the coaches and players with the information for how they have performed. The hawk-eye cricket System can incorporate more video replay camera for better analysis from different camera angles, which can be controlled remotely. The video is captured and stored digitally in hard disk.

Processor follows 4 Steps


(a) identify each frame from each camera, and groups the corresponding pixels to the image of the ball
(b) compute for each frame the 3D position of an image thus identified using ball image data from at least two different cameras

(c)predict a ball flight-path from the said 3D ball position as computed in successive frames

(d) map the predicted path on the modeled area so as to identify any interaction with one or more of the said characteristic features

The images captured are then processed by software

to produce a 3-D image.


This is updated 100 times every second. The system is able to locate the ball in 3-D and can

predict the motion with a claimed accuracy of 5 mm

The system generates a

graphic image of the ball path and playing area by using which umpires take decisions.
The same can be provided

to the television viewers and coaching staff.

Applications
Its applications are mainly in sports

Cricket Tennis Snookers and In some games

Cricket

Used in the third umpire decision(Referral system) At the end of an over, all six deliveries are shown

simultaneously to show a bowler's variations such as bounce, speed variations and ball deviation. To view the deviation of the ball from actual track.

BOWLERS See how fast they can bowl Watch each delivery back in virtual reality Measure how far they are turning the ball through spin, seam or swing. BATSMEN Analyse their play against spin, seam or swing. Improve awareness of their footwork and positioning against different bowling.

Tennis
In tennis Hawk-Eye generates the impact of the ball

whether the ball is IN or OUT Costs around $20,000-$25,000 per court for one week

10 high-speed cameras at different angles and

positions around the court Creates a 3D trajectory of the path of the ball Uses the 3D trajectory to determine the exact touch area the ball made with the court when it bounced

Football
Hawk Eye install 7 cameras per goal, the most common

location is on the roof of the stadium, however there is a great deal of flexibility in the camera positions.

The images from each of the cameras are

processed to find the ball within the image and also identify areas which are definitely not the ball. The system is able to find the ball if only a small part of the ball is visible in the image.

GOAL ALERT As soon as the system detects that the ball has crossed the goal line, it instantaneously sends a signal to the official watch. The watch has been developed exclusively for Hawk-Eye by industry leaders Adeunis. It is technically possible to also provide a near-miss signal to the watches so the referee also receives a positive confirmation that the ball did not cross the line.

Snookers
This technology is useful in cases where the cue ball

touches the specified ball first or any other ball.

Games
Some games such as EA Cricket 2011also support this

technology.

STRENGTHENING MILITAY POWER


It is used to receive enemy location from far way

distance without coming to their notice. E- 2C aircraft used by US army uses this technology.

AUTOMOBILE FIELD
Hunter engineering company

introduced Hawkeye to offer shops the multiple benefits of precision, high speed alignment and greater productivity. Hawkeye alignment system significantly reduces service time by providing alignment in less than two minutes.

Advantages
ACCURACY
BENEFICIAL REDUCES HUMAN EFFORTS

Disadvantages
VERY EXPENSIVE

CHALLENGES UMPIRES DECISIONS

Conclusion
This technology has met the high reality and accuracy

features. Hawk-Eye is currently developing a system for Football This technology helps to have correct decisions in any kind of game.

References: GOOGLE.COM
YAHOO.COM MSN.COM SCRIBD.COM

Thank you