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- Considering that tourism is a composite of activities & industries that deliver a travel experience.


Figure 12.1 extracts the supply components of activities, policies, services &


INTRODUCTION - Considering that tourism is a composite of activities & industries that deliver a travel



- Natural resources that any area has

available for the use and enjoyment of visitors - Basic elements includes: air and climate, physiographic of the region, landforms, terrain, flora, fauna, bodies of water, beaches, natural beauty, water supply for drinking, etc

- A great variety of combinations of natural resources can create

environments attractive to the tourism development (most noticeable factors temperature

zones and changes in demand for

recreational use)

a) Location

The closer an area to it potential market, the more desirable it is & likely to have high demand.

(user-oriented areas; golf course)

By contrast: an area with superb natural beauty should locate away from it major market & yet have satisfactory level of demand.

(e.g.: US national park)

b) Productivity of natural resources

~It will be affected by intensity of

use. ~Concentrations of use under consideration and planning accordingly for permanent aesthetic appreciation will help maintain the quality of natural resources (e.g.: terrain, vegetation, beaches)

c) Quality of natural resources

~ It must be maintained to sustain

tourism demand ~ Proper level of quality must be considered when planning

~ Maintenance of quality standards is

necessary for continued satisfaction of visitors

~ Ecology and environmental

considerations are vital



  • - This component have been developed within or upon the natural environment

  • - Infrastructure; consists of all underground and surface development construction

(e.g.: water supply system, drainage

systems, roads, communication

networks, gas & electric lines)

- Superstructure; facilities constructed primarily to support visitation and visitors activities

(e.g.: airports, road, drives, parking lots, parks, hotels, restaurants, etc)

a) Infrastructure and Superstructure

~ The ground & service installations (infrastructure) are paramount importance to successful tourism and

it must be adequate. ~ Hotel/Lodging structures are among the most important parts of superstructure. ~ Goal should produce an architectural

design & quality of construction that

results in a distinctive permanent environment.

~ A tourist is often attracted to:

  • facility design in conformance with local architecture as a part of the local landscape

: because people often travel to

immerse themselves in an environment different from their own

  • Interior design should be stimulating and attractive

  • Lodging structures need local décor & atmosphere as well as comfort

b) Auto Traveler Services

~ In developed countries, automobile transportation is most common.

~ Roads should be hard, all-weather surfaced, properly graded & drained and built to international standards for safe


~ Auxiliary services needed for successful

tourism. (gas stations, motels, roadside eating facilities, rest parks with toilet

facilities, marked points of interest within easy access of the road, etc)

c) Roadside Parks

~ Auto tourists use and enjoy

roadside parks, picnic tables, rest

areas and similar roadside


~ Sometimes these facilities being

abused by inconsiderate motorists who litter the area with

their trash

~ Some states provide deluxe roadside parks with a fine information building, free refreshments, tourist hosts and rest


~ Equipped with supplies of folders, maps, pictures for a refreshing, informative stop.


a) Accommodations

~ sufficient quantity to match demand ~ Hotel facilities must meet expectations, wants and needs of


i) Types of accommodations Hotels Condominium apartments Timesharing

b) Hotel Management

Local Charm cultures, local costumes, retention of unsophisticated charm, friendliness, cleanliness

Inspection relate to water supplies, sewage, general cleanliness, safety

Regulations fairness, minimum standards

Hotel Classification using a number of different system

Promotion through Referral and Franchise Groups

c) Types of Transportation

Air airport facilities must be adequate

Motorcoach facilities, multilingual guide/ tape recording with earphones

Ship and Boat reliable weather forecasting, ready availability of

needed supplies, repair services

Rail frequent schedules of trains, high-speed trains

Taxis- clean appearances, multilingual driver



  • - most important factor in tourism

  • - finest physical facilities will be worthless

if the tourists feel unwelcome

  • - favorable attitude

a) Activities Tourist Enjoy Most ~ done by questionnaires

~ hosting visitors provide the

requested entertainment facilities

b) Shopping

~ important tourist activity ~ authentic & local made products (native handicraft)

Native marketplaces rich in ethnicity, much local color

Shops and Clerks should be amiable & courteous, sufficient language ability

Prices and Unethical Practices consistent, avoid unethical method of selling

c) Entertainment, Recreation, and other


Entertainment native to the area Special Events attract visitors during off-season Museums and Art Galleries provide

some of the highlights in many of the

world’s most important tourist


Sports extra activities that satisfying the tourists, convenience and accessibility