# Design Of Offshore Structures

3.2 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR CYLINDRICAL MEMBERS 3.2.1 Axial Tension The allowable tensile stress, Ft, for cylindrical members subjected to axial tensile loads should be determined from: Ft = 0.6 Fy (3.2.1-1) where Fy = yield strength, ksi (MPa). 3.2.2 Axial Compression 3.2.2.a Column Buckling The allowable axial compressive stress, Fa, should be determined from the following AISC formulas for members with a D/t ratio equal to or less than 60:

5-3 in the AISC Specification should not be used for design of primary bracing members in offshore structures. l = unbraced length. This equation may be used only for secondary members such as boat landings. r = radius of gyration. ksi (MPa). etc . in. Section 3. For members with a D/t ratio greater than 60. (m). in.1d.3. Equation 1.where E = Young’s Modulus of elasticity. whichever is smaller) for Fy in determining Cc and Fa. K = effective length factor. stairways. (m). substitute the critical local buckling stress (Fxe or Fxc.

1( Table 8. with wall thickness t > 0. 3. (6 mm).25 in. Overall column buckling should be determined by substituting the critical local buckling stress (Fxe or Fxc. Fxc.2-3 and Eq. 3.2. Elastic Local Buckling Stress.4-1—Structural Steel Plates )should be investigated for local buckling due to axial compression when the D/t ratio is greater than 60. 3.2. The elastic local buckling stress.2. However. t = wall thickness.2. Fxe.b Local Buckling Unstiffened cylindrical members fabricated from structural steels specified in Section 8.2.2. a reduced value of C = 0. 2.1. in. (m).2-1 and in the equation for Cc. The theoretical value of C is 0.6. should be determined from: Fxe = 2CE t/D (3. 1.3. D = outside diameter. 3. both the elastic (Fxe) and inelastic local buckling stress (Fxc) due to axial compression should be determined from Eq. Inelastic Local Buckling Stress.2-3) where C = critical elastic buckling coefficient.2-3 to account for the effect of initial geometric imperfections within API Spec 2B tolerance limits. whichever is smaller) for Fy in Eq. should be determined from: .2-4.2. in.3 is recommended for use in Eq. (m). The inelastic local buckling stress. When the D/t ratio is greater than 60 and less than 300.

3 Bending The allowable bending stress.2.3.2. for cylindrical members is: .a Beam Shear The maximum beam shear stress.4 Shear† 3.2.4. should be determined from: 3. fv. Fb.

Fvt.4 Fy .4 (m4). in. should be determined from: Fvt = 0.Ip = polar moment of inertia. and the allowable torsional shear stress.

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For installation. z is positive measured downward from the still water surface.where z = depth below still water surface including tide. ft (m). z should be the maximum submergence during the launch or differential head during the upending sequence. plus a reasonable increase in head to account for structural weight tolerances and for deviations from the planned installation sequence. .

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No guarantee that design will cover all cases • Arbitrary choice of SF .Design Philosophies • WSD/ASD-Working Stress Design • LSD –Limit state Design • LRFD-Load and Resistance Factor Design • PD-Plastic Design WSD/ASDService loads are calculated as expected in service Linear Elastic analysis is performed • Allowable Stress= Material Strength/FS • Design is satisfied if the Maximum Stress ˂ Allowable Stress • Limitations –No 100%sure load effects will not exceed strength • Case specific .

Refer Stress-strain Curve 60%of yield stress =Axial Stress 40%of yield stress=shear stress .

Estimated Loads Design Loads Adjusted Resistance Tested Material Strength Design Values Theoretical Margin Applied to Material Stress .

• Design Loads are calculated for each effect and combined appropriately • Compression • Tension • Bending • Shear • Torsion • Hoop • Allowable Stresses taken as a fraction (FS) of yielding including the geometric effect such as slenderness . torsional buckling etc • Design state defined for the most worst combined case and a decision is made based on design load stresses and allowable stresses Design Procedure .local and global buckling .

Design Loads • Design loads are taken as maximum occurring during the life • No variability or probability of accidents are included • At times .suitable values is taken from historical data .hind cast data and may reflect the real/true loads during its life time • Allowable stresses:-Design yield strength assumed to be constant • FS is chosen for each load effect • Allowable stress is taken as a fraction of yield strength with assumed FS .

Plastic Design • Service loads are factored by a Load Factor • The structure is assumed to fail under these loads with plastic hinges formed • The cross section is designed to resist the Plastic Analysis • Members are safe as they will only be subjected to service loads • Limitations :• Preclude other stability .fatigue etc • Neglecting the uncertainty in material strength • Arbitrary choice of material factor .

Drift . Deflections . Permanent deformation Could be conceptual : Plastic Hinge or Mechanism formation .Fracture or instability .cracks .Limit State Design • LSD is condition at which a structure or some part of that structure ceases to perform its intended function. Vibration . • Functional Requirements : Max.

Buckling .Fracture .it is based on the limit state philosophy • Service loads are multiplied by load factors (ɣ)and linear elastic analysis is performed • Material strength is reduced by multiplying the nominal material strength by a resistance factor (Φ) . overturning. • LRFD:.Limit States of Strength • Safety against extreme loads during the intended life of the structure • Based on safety or load carrying capacity • Plastic strength . Fatigue .

Basis of LFRD specification • Probabilistic models of loads and resistance • Calibration of LFRD criteria to the Established ASD specification for selected members • The evaluation of the resulting criteria by judgment and past experience aided by comparative design office studies of representative structures • LFRD Checking Eqn ∑ɣi Qi˂=ΦiRn • Rn –Nominal Strength and Qi-Load Effect Partial Safety Factors .

Fire .Accidental Limit States – Collision . Imperfections in analysis theory . Dropped Object .FLS.Fatigue Limit States – Fatigue and Fracture behavior • 3.SLS – Serviceability Limit States – Displacements and Deflections • ALS. Resistance factors to account for -: Geometry and material property variability .ULS –Ultimate Limit States –Ultimate strength behavior • 2.Consequence of Failure • Limit states in DOS • 1.LFRD advantages • Statistical calculations • Uniform FS as both load and Resistance • Load factors account for Variability (Uncertainty ) in loads . Blast .

3-1.4 The material partial Safety factors vary with material type • Ultimate strength Design :.Partial Safety Factors • • • • Dead Load :1.2 Variable Load :1.4 Environmental Load : 1.ULS A and ULS B • ULS A – Extreme permanent loads with regular environmental conditions • ULS B – Large permanent loads with extreme environmental conditions .3-1.0-1.

API RP 2A WSD • Operating – Dead Loads and Live Loads (Max/Min ) Combined with environment – appropriated to normal operations (Typical 1year to 5 year storm ) • Design .Dead Loads and Live Loads (Max/Min ) Combined with environment –appropriated to Extreme Conditions (Typical 50year to 100 year storm ) .

60Fy Axial Compression ---.0.4 Fy Hoop Buckling SF =2.0 Connections SF=1.75Fy Shear ----.60Fy Bending ----<0.API RP 2A WSD • • • • • • • • Allowable stress for Cylindrical Members Loading Type ---Allowable Stresses Axial Tension --.0.<0.7 .

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