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Artificial Intelligence
Juland Kilpatrick Brandon Schaffer Brian Ferlino Eugene Peterson Jared Wolf Phillip Anderson

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Modern History of Artificial Intelligence
Jared Wolf

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History of Artificial Intelligence
• Mankind has often pondered how the mind functions and utilizing computer technologies.

The real emergence of AI (in computer technology) came during the • years 1945-1956. •
• Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, and • J.C. Shaw were founders and pioneers of Artificial Intelligence. These innovators of AI broke away from conventional approaches and • examined how to implement human thought in computers. •
Jared Wolf

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History of Artificial Intelligence (cont.)
• The first term of Artificial Intelligence was first applied in 1956 by John McCarthy during the Dartmouth Conference.

The Dartmouth Conference was the first gathering of all researchers to develop and focus on applying intelligence to computers.

• Logic Theorist was considered the first AI program. (In 1956)
• Logical Theorist embodied the problem as a tree model, in which the program would attempt to choose the branch that would lead to the correct answer.

Jared Wolf

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History of Artificial Intelligence (cont.)
• LISP was developed by John McCarthy. • Expansion of programming methods with advanced computers • for AI. • • • • • • Edward Feigenbaum researched on expert systems of AI. Roger Schank advanced language analysis in new AI practices. Marvin Minksy promoted the area of knowledge representation by implementing mental components. Douglas Lenat explored automatic learning and researched optional solutions.
Jared Wolf

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History of Artificial Intelligence (cont.)
• 1970’s - PROLOG language offered appropriate higher programming • for AI research.

• 1980’s - XCON was the first expert system implemented into the AI • industrial world.
• XCON represented the growing aspects of real AI applications.

• The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) • was founded in 1980.

• • • •

The AAAI supports:

AI research AI researchers, practitioners, scientists, and engineers AI ideas, methods, and lessons. Learning tools for people interested in AI.

Jared Wolf

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Uses of Artificial Intelligence
Juland Kilpatrick

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Topics
• Robotics • Medical • Video games

Juland Kilpatrick

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Robotics
• Data Mining
▫ A application that allows to the computer to learn from its environment

▫ Ex. Smart Cars, self-parking cars can parallel park themselves with out hitting any other objects around it.

Juland Kilpatrick

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Medical
• Diagnostic programs
▫ Doctors input the symptoms of the patience and the AI helps decide what medications are best.
 Disease symptoms  Medical history  Test results of a patient

Juland Kilpatrick

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Video Games
• AI
▫ What you do in the game will determine how the computer reacts ▫ Ex. An enemy see’s your character, the computer’s reaction is to attack your character.

Juland Kilpatrick

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Social Effects of AI
Brandon Schaffer

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I Think Therefore I am
• Is it sentient or is it a program
▫ Alan Turing proposed what is now called the Turing Test ▫ John Searle replied that a computer can mimic a human’s response but cannot understand anything it does

Brandon Schaffer

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Implications of Sentience
• If a computer can be sentient than…
▫ It is equal to a human beings ▫ It would arguably be wrong to “kill” it ▫ It could not be used as a “slave”

Brandon Schaffer

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Jobs and Employment
• Smarter computers and robots increases the amount of jobs they can do • Decreasing the amount of people needed for different jobs • Increasing unemployment

Brandon Schaffer

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The Fear of Robots
• Will Robots Take Over the World? • How will robots be treated by humanity

Brandon Schaffer

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Types of AI
Phillip Anderson

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Classifications of AI
• Classified by design
▫ Symbolic AI – Designers explicitly program all of the AI “knowledge.” ▫ Connectionist AI – Designers “teach” an artificial neural network what the AI needs to “know.” ▫ Evolutionary AI – Designers give the AI the ability to refine itself.
Phillip Anderson

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Symbolic AI
• AI which have “knowledge” explicitly written into the AI’s coding. • Uses symbols, aka variables, to perform it’s work. • Strength:
▫ Working with logical problems.

• Weakness:
▫ Working with imperfect data.
Phillip Anderson

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Connectionist AI
• Designed to be a network of connected simulated neurons. • Similar to a natural mind. • “Taught” by a series of adjustments. • Strength:
▫ Working with imperfect data.

• Weakness:
▫ Working with logical problems.
Phillip Anderson

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Evolutionary AI
• Designed to be able to modify themselves.

• The AI will constantly try to improve its efficiency by testing a modified version against an unmodified version.
• Whichever has the best efficiency is the one that is used from then on.
Phillip Anderson

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Components/ Software of AI
Eugene Peterson

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3 Main Components of A.I.
• Speech Synthesis • Speech Recognition • Logical Reasoning

2 Main Software/Programming Languages
• Prolog • Lisp
Eugene Peterson

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Speech Synthesis
• The artificial creation of human speech through a speech synthesizer. • It then uses a process called text-to-speech which changes the text into speech. • The quality of speech synthesis is often judged by how well its understood, and how well it resembles actual human speech. • Speech synthesis is also used with speech recognition in other A.I. technologies.
Eugene Peterson

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Speech Synthesis Process

Eugene Peterson

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Speech Recognition
• Converts audio signals into text, or takes spoken input and changes it to written output. • It maps the audio signals to form an abstract meaning of the spoken input.

Eugene Peterson

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Speech Recognition Process
Spoken Input Converted into a digital format

Digital input is then broken down in (x) number of phonemes

*Phoneme-symbol or unit that represents sounds of speech.

Program then compares the phonemes to words in its database

Program then decides what it thinks the word is and displays the best choice

Eugene Peterson

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Logical Reasoning
• The logical reasoning process calculates results from specific variables in the problem. • More or less the variables have to be definite rather than a slight chance or good chance of being accurate. • The only results suitable are those that logically follow the inputted variables.
Eugene Peterson

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PROLOG (PROgramming in LOGic)
• Where other programming languages tell the computer how to do something, PROLOG tells the computer what to do. • PROLOG does this by reasoning out the variables and parameters stored in the computers memory. • The key to PROLOG programming is writing clear, precise parameters. • With these precise variables and parameters PROLOG is able to use its built-in reasoning mechanism called “backtracking” to solve any user-entered queries.
Eugene Peterson

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LISP (LISt Processor)
• List- Important information arranged in an ordered sequence.

• The flexibility of LISP allow the programmer to use a wide range of things from system programs to system processes without having to state them in advance.
• This flexibility is allowed because LISP doesn’t use a backtracking mechanism, however one can easily be equipped to the processor. • In today's world LISP has several features that make development easier, which has it viewed as a programming standard.
Eugene Peterson

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Future of AI
Brian Ferlino

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Ideal Future of AI
• Want to be as smart as Humans • Use this AI to help Human in there daily lives

Brian Ferlino

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What AI needs to be able to do
• This kind of AI needs to know how to use common sense • Needs to understand our reasoning

Brian Ferlino

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Theory Matrix

Brian Ferlino

Advanced Parking Guidance System

(no sound)

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Work Reference
"Artificial Intelligence." Encarta. 28 Oct. 2008 <http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761567118/artificial_intelligence.html >. Artificial Intelligence. 18 Dec. 2003. 23 Oct. 2008.<http://www.danielnewman.com/final/history.html>. Buchanan, Bruce G.. “A (Very) Brief History of Artificial Intelligence.” AI Magazine Winter 2005: 59. Buchanan, Bruce G.. Timeline: A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence. 17 Oct. 2008. AAAI. 23 Oct. 2008. <http://www.aaai.org/AITopics/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/AITopics/BriefHistory>. Damer, Bruce. "Predicting the Future of AI." 27 Feb 2004 <http://www.g4tv.com/screensavers/features/633/Predicting_the_Future_of_ AI.html>.

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Work Reference
Damer, Bruce. "Predicting the Future of AI." 27 Feb 2004 <http://www.g4tv.com/screensavers/features/633/Predicting_the_Future _of_AI.html>.

Microsoft Corporation, "Artificial Intelligence". Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2008. Oct 26 2008 <http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761567118/Artificial_Intelligence. html>. Minsky, Marvin. "Future of AI Technology." Vol 47, No. 707,Jul 1992 30 Oct 2008 <http://web.media.mit.edu/~minsky/papers/CausalDiversity.html>

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Work Reference
Schmuller, Jospeh. "LISP." September/October 1991. PCAI. 25 October 2008 <http://www.pcai.com/web/ai_info/pcai_lisp.html> Schmuller, Joseph. "PROLOG." September/October 1991. PCAI. 26October 2008 <http://www.pcai.com/web/ai_info/pcai_prolog.html> Reingold, Eyal. "Artificial Intelligence Tutorial". University of Toronto. 26 Oct 2008 <http://www.psych.utoronto.ca/users/reingold/courses/ai/ai.html>.

"Speech Recognition." PCAI. 28 October 2008 <http://www.pcai.com/web/ai_info/speech_recognition.html>
"Speech Synthesis." Nation Master. 25 october 2008 <http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/artificial-intelligencesystems-integration>

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Work Reference
The History of Artificial Intelligence. 23 Oct. 2008. ThinkQuest. < http://library.thinkquest.org/2705/history.html#begin>.

Thomas, Peggy. Artificial Intelligence. Farmington Hills: Thomson Gale Corporation, 2005.
Whitby, Blay. Artificial Intelligence a Beginner's Guide. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2003. Wos, Larry, et al. "Logical Reasoning." 1992. 25 october 2008 <http://www.compinfo.co.uk/ai/artificial_intelligence.htm>.