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Management Tools in TQM

 Why,

Why analysis Field Analysis Group Technique Digraph (ID) diagram

 Force

 Nominal  Affinity

 Interrelationship  Tree

diagram diagram Matrices Decision Program Chart (PDPC) network diagram
GE 71 - Total Quality Management

 Matrix

 Prioritization  Process  Activity


Additional tools that are very effective for teams and in some case for individual too  Called as new 7QC tools  These tools do not use hard data rather rely on subjective information.  Application of these tools has been proven useful in process improvement, cost reduction, policy deployment, and new product development

GE 71 - Total Quality Management


Tools  Tools and techniques are practical methods, skills, means or mechanisms that can be applied to particular tasks  Used to facilitate positive change and improvements  Narrow in focus and is usually used on its own  Examples of tools are 7 QC tools Technique  It has a wider application than a tool.  Needs more thought, skill and training to use  It can be thought of as a collection of tools  Eg., statistical process control (SPC) employs a variety of tools such as charts, graphs and histograms
GE 71 - Total Quality Management


 Plays a key role in a company-wide approach to continuous improvement. A mindset of continuous improvement to be developed   GE 71 . They allow:   Processes to be monitored and evaluated. Everyone to become involved in the improvement process.Total Quality Management 5 . People to solve their own problems.

Backup and support from improvement facilitators. Some of these are:       Full management support and commitment. Defined aims and objective for use. GE 71 . A co-operative environment. Effective. A genuine need to use the tool or technique. timely and planned training.Total Quality Management 6 . Requires attention to be paid to a number of “critical success factors” to make their use and application effective and efficient.

 Procedure is to describe the problem in specific terms and then keep asking why.  For example.Total Quality Management 7 .Can be a key to finding the root cause of a problem by focusing on the process rather than on the people.  GE 71 .Customer requested them  Develops critical thinking and a quick method of solving a problem.  Why did we miss delivery date? Wasn’t scheduled in time  Why it wasn’t scheduled in time? There were a lot of engineering changes  Why there was lot of changes? .

Used to identify the forces and factors that influence the problem or goal.  Helps us to better understand promoting or driving and restraining or inhibiting forces so that the positives can be reinforced and the negatives reduced or eliminated.  GE 71 . determine criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the action. and  Take action to strengthen the promoting forces and weaken the inhibiting forces.  Brainstorm the forces that promote and inhibit the goal  Prioritize the forces from greatest to least.  Procedure  Define the objective.Total Quality Management 8 .

and identify the root causes. GE 71 . encouraging people to agree and prioritize the competing forces.Total Quality Management 9 .Addiction  Poor Example ------- ------Taste  Cost ------- ------Stress  Impact on others ------- ------Advertisement  The benefits are the determination of the positives and negatives of a situation. Objective: Stop smoking  Promoting forces Inhibiting forces  Poor Health ------- ------Habit  Smelly Clothing ------- ------.

For example.  Collect the papers  List all problems on a flip chart. GE 71 .  Procedure  Ask everyone in the team to write on a piece of paper the problem they think is most important.  Ask each member of the team to use another piece of paper to rank the problems from least important to most important. This technique provides for issue/idea input from everyone on the team and for the effective decisions.Total Quality Management 10 . let us assume that the team wants to decide which problem to work on.

 Procedure – contd.  Points for each problem are totaled and the time with the highest number of points is considered to be the most important.Total Quality Management 11 .  The rankings are given a numerical value starting at 1 for least important and continuing to the most important.. GE 71 .

 Brainstorm using short sentences on self-adhesive notes  Post them for the team to see (Refer to figure 2)  Sort ideas into logical groups (Refer to figure 3)  Create concise descriptive headings for each group GE 71 .  Procedure  State the issue in a full sentence.Total Quality Management 12 . It allows the team to creatively generate a large number of ideas/ issues and then logically group them for problem understanding and possible breakthrough solution.

Total Quality Management 13 .  This tool encourages team creativity and break down barriers.  Facilitates break throughs and stimulate ownership of the process.  All stand-alone should be treated as headers or placed in a miscellaneous category. Large groups should be divided into smaller groups with appropriate headings. GE 71 .

GE 71 .Total Quality Management 14 .

GE 71 .Total Quality Management 15 .

It clarifies the interrelationship of many factors of a complex situation.Total Quality Management 16 .  It allows the team to classify the cause and effect relationships among all the factors so that the key drivers and outcomes can be used to solve the problem. preferably in a circle.  GE 71 . The procedure is somewhat more complicated than the previous tools.  Procedure  The team should agree on the issue or problem statement  All of the ideas or issues from other techniques or from brainstorming should be laid out.

E. Issue B is stronger than Issue A. Now the first iteration is complete  The second iteration is to compare Issue B with Issues C. It is found that only Issue B and E have a relationship with Issue A. and F  GE 71 . and evaluate the cause-and-effect relationship with “Lack of awareness of impact” (B). E and F and the third iteration is to compare Issue C with Issues D.Start with the first issue. “Lack of respect for others” (A).Total Quality Management 17 . In this situation. therefore the arrow is drawn from Issue B to Issue A as shown above  Similarly each issue in the circle is compared to Issue A. D.

Total Quality Management 18 . GE 71 . The issue with highest incoming arrows is Issue E. It is a good idea to obtain information from other people on upstream and downstream processes. is to compare Issue E with Issue F The entire diagram should be reviewed and revised where necessary. The diagram is completed by tallying the incoming and outgoing arrows and placing this information below the box as shown below Issue B is the “driver” because it has zero incoming arrows and five outgoing ones.     The fourth iteration is to compare Issue D with Issues E and F. while in fifth iteration. It is a meaningful measure of success. It is usually the root cause.

Total Quality Management 19 . Eg: What are the issues related to reducing litter? GE 71 .

encourages members to think multi-directionally. and develops team harmony and effectiveness GE 71 . systematically explores cause and effect relationships. A relationship diagram allows a team to identify root causes from subjective data.Total Quality Management 20 .

 Ask “what needs to be addressed to achieve the objectives?” (Refer figure )  Repeat this question each level.Total Quality Management 21 . affinity diagram. team mission statement and so on.  Using brainstorming choose the major headings  Generate the next level by analyzing the major headings.  This tool is used to reduce any broad objective into increasing levels of detail in order to achieve the objective Procedure  Choose an action oriented objective statement from the interrelationship diagram. brainstorming. GE 71 .

make large project manageable.   Three levels below the objective are usually sufficient to complete the diagram and make appropriate assignments.Total Quality Management 22 . GE 71 . and generate a problem solution. This tool encourages team members to think creatively. The diagram should be reviewed to determine if these actions will give the results anticipated or if something has been missed.

Total Quality Management 23 .Increase workplace suggestions Create a workable process Create capability Measure results Provide recognition GE 71 .

GE 71 .Total Quality Management 24 .

which can be symbols with or without numerical values. X-shaped.    It allows individuals or teams to identify. Here data are presented in table form and can be objective or subjective. For example. T-shaped. There are at least five standard formats . C-shaped. analyze and rate the relationships among two or more variables. GE 71 .Total Quality Management 25 . Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a perfect example of the use of the matrix diagram. Y-shaped.Lshaped.

Total Quality Management 26 .     Select the factors affecting a successful plan Select the appropriate format based on the above list Determine the relationship symbols – Any symbols can be adopted. their strengths. It clearly shows the relationship of two variables. provided the diagram contains a legend. GE 71 . Numerical values are also associated with the symbol. and any patterns. Complete the matrix by analyzing each cell and inserting the appropriate symbol. It encourages the team to think in terms of relationships.

effective decisions can be made. however. There are four implementation criteria. Prioritization matrices are the most difficult of the tools GE 71 . only the first three. It utilizes a combination of tree and matrix diagrams as shown in figure. characteristics. and the last one “purchase fork-trucks” are shown in the diagram. There are 15 implementation options. based on weighted criteria Once prioritized. as shown at the top of the matrix. and so forth.Total Quality Management 27 . Prioritization matrices are designed to reduce the team’s options rationally before detailed implementation planning occurs. however. beginning at “train supervisors”.       These tools prioritize issues. tasks.

Prioritization matrix for improving shipping efficiency GE 71 .Total Quality Management 28 .

GE 71 .– – Construct an L-shaped matrix combining the options. Using NGT. Those criteria with the greatest value are the most important.Total Quality Management 29 . and team members submit another piece of paper rank ordering those listed on the flip chart. each team member submits the most important criteria on a piece of paper. Determine the implementation criteria using the nominal group technique (NGT) or any other technique that will satisfactorily weight the criteria. The team decides how many of the criteria to use. which are the lowest level of detail of the tree diagram with the criteria. They are listed on flip chart.

Total Quality Management 30 .GE 71 .

rank order the options in terms of importance by each criterion.00.Total Quality Management   31 . Thus. average the results. Prioritize the criteria using the NGT. and the results are totaled for the entire team as shown below: Using NDT. Those criteria with the greatest value are the most important. GE 71 . The team decides how many of the criteria to use. this ranking should be from 1 to the number of options. and round to the nearest whole number. Each team member weights the criteria so the total weighs equals 1.

Total Quality Management 32 . The options with the highest total are those that should be implemented first. Compute the option importance score under each criterion by multiplying the rank by the criteria weight as shown in the Table 1. GE 71 .

Total Quality Management 33 .GE 71 .

and unexpected developments may have serious consequences. The process decision program chart (PDPC) helps to avoid surprises and identifies possible countermeasures Procedure – Ask the team to state the objective .Total Quality Management 34 .say to plan a successful refresher course. which is the refresher course activities of registration. GE 71 . Only the presentation activity is shown here.   Program to achieve particular objectives do not always go according to plan. – That activity is followed by the first level. presentations. and facilities. In some cases a second level of detailed activities may be used.

 Countermeasures are brainstormed and placed in a balloon in the last level.Total Quality Management 35 .  GE 71 . and these are shown as the “what-if” level. Place and X under those that are rejected. The example has used a graphical format.  The last step is to evaluate the countermeasures and select the optimal ones by placing an O underneath. PDPC can also use an outline format with the activities listed. The team should brainstorm to determine what could go wrong with the reference course.

complex. that a “what-if” will occur can be included in the box. PDPC should be used when the task is new or unique. or potential failure has great risks.    The probability in percent.Total Quality Management 36 . GE 71 . It provides the mechanism to effectively minimize uncertainty in an implementation plan. This tool encourages team members to think about what can happen to a process and how countermeasures can be taken.

Total Quality Management 37 .GE 71 .

Total Quality Management 38 . The diagram shows completion times.  arrow diagram. and  activity on node (AOD). GE 71 . simultaneous tasks. such as  program evaluation action and review technique (PERT). and critical activity path.  critical path method (CPM). It allows the team to schedule a project efficiently.   This tool has different names and deviations.

 Failure to lead by example.Total Quality Management 39 .  Inappropriate use of tools and techniques.  Resistance to the use of tools and techniques.  Not sharing and communicating the benefits achieved.  Being able to apply what has been learnt. The common difficulties associated with the use and application of tools and techniques include:  Poorly designed training and support.  Poor measurement and data handling. GE 71 .

 Why. Why analysis Field Analysis Group Technique Digraph (ID) diagram  Force  Nominal  Affinity  Interrelationship  Tree diagram diagram Matrices Decision Program Chart (PDPC) network diagram GE 71 .Total Quality Management  Matrix  Prioritization  Process  Activity 40 .