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M.Rogers WI 3.

Welding Inspection

Weld Procedures
Course notes section reference 5
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Welding Procedures
Example Code: BS EN 288

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Welding Procedures
Producing a welding procedure involves:
Planning the tasks Collecting the data Writing a procedure for use of for trial

Making a test welds


Evaluating the results

Approving the procedure


Preparing the documentation
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Welding Procedures
In most codes reference is made to how the procedure are to be devised and whether approval of these procedures is required. The approach used for procedure approval depends on the code: Example codes:

AWS D.1.1: Structural Steel Welding Code BS 2633: Class 1 welding of Steel Pipe Work API 1104: Welding of Pipelines BS 4515: Welding of Pipelines over 7 Bar
Other codes may not specifically deal with the requirement of a procedure but may contain information that may be used in writing a weld procedure EN 1011Process of Arc Welding Steels
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Welding Procedures
Components of a welding procedure
Parent material Type (Grouping) Thickness Diameter (Pipes) Surface condition) Welding process Type of process (MMA, MAG, TIG, SAW etc) Equipment parameters Amps, Volts, Travel speed

Welding Consumables Type of consumable/diameter of consumable Brand/classification Heat treatments/ storage


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Welding Procedures
Joint design Edge preparation Root gap, root face Jigging and tacking Type of baking Welding Position Location, shop or site Welding position e.g. 1G, 2G, 3G etc Any weather precaution Welding Variables Run sequences Back gouging Interpass temperatures Thermal heat treatments Preheat, temps Post weld heat treatments e.g. stress relieving
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Welding Procedures
Approving the procedure:
When the data has been collected, the procedure must be validated by producing a test weld, weld procedure test (WPT). A number of standards provides information with regards to approving a procedure, but normally this will require the WPT to be tested by NDT and mechanical testing. The locations and tests required will be given in the applicable code or standard Most codes and standards provide a report format to record the results
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M.Rogers WI 3.1

Welding Procedures
Examination and testing requirements of a WPT for procedure approval (BS EN 288)

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Welding Procedures
After the testing is completed and all the relevant results collated, the results need to be assessed in accordance with the relevant code/standard. The results are then generally recorded. pWPS: Preliminary Welding Procedure Specification Before procedure approval. WPS: Welding Procedure Specification After procedure approval

WPAR (WPQR): Welding Procedure Approval Record


Welding procedure test record

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M.Rogers WI 3.1

Welding Procedures
Once the welding procedure has been approved, If any essential variable is changed during production the WPS may require re-approval. Most codes/procedures dealing with procedure qualifications provide a list of what is an essential or non-essential variable. Object of a welding procedure test

To give maximum confidence that the welds mechanical and metallurgical properties meet the requirements of the applicable code/specification. Each welding procedure will show a range to which the procedure is approved (extent of approval) If a customer queries the approval evidence can be supplied to prove its validity
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Example: Welding Procedure

Specification
(WPS)

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Welder Approval
Example Code: BS EN 287

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Welder Approval
Numerous codes and standards deal with welder qualification, e.g. BS EN 287. Once the content of the procedure is approved the next stage is to approve the welders to the approved procedure. A welders test know as a Welders Qualification Test (WQT).

Object of a welding qualification test . To give maximum confidence that the welder meets the requirements of the approved procedure (WPS). The test weld should be carried out on the same material and same conditions as for the site welds The welder who carries out the procedure qualification weld would automatically qualify when the procedure qualifies
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Welder Approval
Information that should be included on a welders test certificate are: 1. Welders name and identification number 2. Date of test and expiry date of certificate 3. Standard/code e.g. BS EN 287 4. Test piece details 5. Welding process. 6. Welding parameters, amps, volts 7. Consumables, flux type and filler classification details 8. Sketch of run sequence, welding positions 9. Joint configuration details 10. Material type qualified, pipe diameter etc 11. Test results, remarks 12. Test location and witnessed by 13. Extent (range) of approval
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BS EN 287

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Range of approval according to electrode flux type

Range of approval according material groups BS EN 287

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Welder Approval
The inspection of a welders qualification test. It is normal for a qualified inspectors usually from an independent body to witness the welding. Under normal circumstances only one test weld per welder is permitted If the welder fails the test weld and the failure is not the fault of the welder e.g. faulty welding equipment then a re-test would be permitted. The testing of the test weld is done in accordance with the applicable code, but it is not normal to carry out test that test for the mechanical properties of welds e.g. tensile, charpy and hardness tests.
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M.Rogers WI 3.1

Welder Approval
Tests methods required for welder qualification (BS EN 287)

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Example: Welder Approval

Qualification
Certification

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Stages in Welding and Welder Approval


Application standard Contract Project specifications DEVELOPMENT OF PROCEDURE

pWPS
BE 288 ASTM IX AWS D1.1 APPROVAL OF PROCEDURE

WPAR/WPQR
WELDER APPROVAL CERTIFICATE
6 MONTHS + PROLONGATION

FINALISATION OF PROCEDURE

Welding Procedure Specification


RELEASE WPS FOR PRODUCTION

WORK INSTRUCTIONS
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Any Questions

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Questions
Welding Procedures
QU 1. State six essential variables in a welding procedure. QU 2. What do you understand by the term extent of approval and give four examples. QU 3. Describe what you understand by a welding procedure specification, A welding procedure approval record and a welder certificate QU 4. What is the reason for approving a welding procedure and a welder QU 5. Give three reasons why a welder may require requalification.
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