Wireless/Mobile Communication
By
Dr. Sanjay Kumar Soni
(Associate Professor)
Electronics and Electrical Communication Engg.
Delhi Technological University
Delhi110042
• Introduction
• Basic propagation model
• Empirical Model
• Ray Tracing model
• Modeling of direction channel parameters
Outline
Propagation Model  Mechanisms
• Reflection
• Diffraction
• Scattering
Q1:What is propagation model ?
I t is a mathematical representation of the actual
physical phenomenon in the channel.
General Intuition
• Two main factors affecting signal at receiver
– Distance (or delay) ¬ Path attenuation
– Multipath ¬ Phase differences
Green signal travels 1/2ì farther than
Yellow to reach receiver, who sees Red.
For 2.4 GHz, ì (wavelength) =12.5cm.
Objective
• Invent models to predict what the field
looks like at the receiver.
– Attenuation, absorption, reflection, diffraction...
– Motion of receiver and environment…
– Natural and manmade radio interference...
– What does the field look like at the receiver?
• Maxwell’s equations
– Complex and impractical
• Free space path loss model
– Too simple
• Ray tracing models
– Requires sitespecific information
• Empirical Models
– Don’t always generalize to other environments
• Simplified power falloff models
– Main characteristics: good for highlevel analysis
Path Loss Modeling
Wireless Multipath Channel
Channel varies at two spatial scales:
• Large scale fading: path loss, shadowing.
• Small scale fading: Multipath fading (frequency selectivity,
coherence b/w, ~500kHz), Doppler (timeselectivity, coherence
time, ~2.5ms).
MultiPath Interference: Constructive &
Destructive
Mobile Wireless Channel Multipath
Three Broad classes of Channel Modeling
• Empirical Modeling
• Statistical Modeling
• Sitespecific Deterministic Modeling
Ray Tracing Algorithm
 Field Integral Method
Example of some real Urban Scenario for
Channel Modeling
Fig 3: Real Urban Scenario 1
Empirical Models for Mobile
Communication
2
4 R
A G P
P
R T T
R
t
=
2
4
ì
t
R
R
A
G =
P
R
= Received power
P
T
= Transmitted power
G
T
= Gain of the Transmitting Antenna
R = distance between Tx and Rx
G
R
= gain of the Receiver Antenna
ì = Wavelength
Free Space Model
2
4
) (

.

\

=
R
G G P P
R T T R
t
ì
loss path Space Free
4
2
= =

.

\

s
L
R
ì
t
L
s
= 92.47 + 20 log R + 20 log f R in Km
dB f in GHz
If antennas are included, the loss
L
s
(modified) = L
s
 G
T
 G
R
dB
• Note: effect of frequency f: 900 Mhz vs 5 Ghz.
– Either the receiver must have greater sensitivity or the
sender must pour 44W of power, even for 10m cell radius!
dB (Decibel) = 10 log 10 (Pr/Pt)
Logratio of two signal levels. Named after Alexander Graham Bell. For
example, a cable has 6 dB loss or an amplifier has 15 dB of gain. System
gains and losses can be added/subtracted, especially when changes are in
several orders of magnitude.
dBm (dB milliWatt)
Relative to 1mW, i.e. 0 dBm is 1 mW (milliWatt). Small signals are ve
(e.g. 83dBm).
Typical 802.11b WLAN cards have +15 dBm (32mW) of output
power. They also spec a 83 dBm RX sensitivity (minimum RX signal level
required for 11Mbps reception).
For example, 125 mW is 21 dBm and 250 mW is 24 dBm.
(commonly used numbers)
dBi (dB isotropic) for EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power)
The gain a given antenna has over a theoretical isotropic (point
source) antenna. The gain of microwave antennas (above 1 GHz) is
generally given in dBi.
Decibels: dB, dBm, dBi
REFLECTION
2  Ray Model ( GROUND REFLECTION)
SINGLE DIRECT PATH BETWEEN MS AND BS HARDLY
EXISTS HENCE THE FREE SPACE MODEL IS HIGHLY
INACCURATE. NEXT IMPROVISION : 2 RAY MODEL
÷ DIRECT PATH
÷ GROUND REFLECTED PROPAGATION PATH
• REASONABLY ACCURATE FOR PREDICTING LARGE
SCALE SIGNAL STRENGTH (MEAN SIGNAL STRENGTH FOR
ARBITRARY Tx  Rx SEPERATION  USUALLY IN KM)
ASSUMPTION : EARTH TO BE FLAT
Path loss = 40 log d (10 log G
T
+ 10 log G
R
+ 20 log h
t
+ 20 log h
r
)
Classical 2ray Ground Bounce model
h
b
d
d
d
r
h
m
Direct path (line of sight)
Ground reflected
path
d
Fig 4
v/m
~
2 2
2
0 0
d
k
d
h h
d
d E
E
r t
TOT
÷ ~
ì
t
and
4
2 2
d
h h
G G P P
r t
r t t r
=
( )
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
= =
2 2
2
2
4
120
using
d
G G P
A
E
A P P
r t t
e e d r
t
ì
t
( )
r t r t
h h G G d log 20 log 20 log 10 log 10 log 40 Loss Path and + + + ÷ =
Ex TR separation = 5 km (mobile located 5 km away from BS).
Mobile uses a vertical ì/4 monopole antenna (gain = 2.55 dB).
Efield at a distance of 1 km = 10
3
v/m, f
c
= 900 MHz.
Find the received power at the mobile, assuming
h
t
= 50 m, h
r
= 1.5 m.
d >> \(h
t
h
r
) is satisfied
( )
( ) ( )
( )
v/m 10 * 1 . 113
10 * 5 * 333 . 0
5 . 1 * 50 * 2
10 * 5
10 * 1 * 10 * 2
v/m
~
2 2
~
6
3 3
3 3
2
0 0
÷
÷
=
(
¸
(
¸
=
÷ ÷
t
ì
t
d
K
d
h h
d
d E
d E
r t
R
Power received
( )
( )
( ) ( )
dBm 68 . 92 w 10 * 5
4
333 . 0 8 . 1
*
377
10 * 1 . 113
4
A
120
13
2
2
6
2
e
2
÷ = =
=
= =
÷
÷
t
t
ì
t
G
A
d E
d P
e
R
r
• The electric field flips in sign canceling the
LOS field (unlike in freespace model), and
hence the path loss is O(d
4
) rather than O(d
2
).
• The frequency effect disappears!
– Similar phenomenon with antenna arrays.
• Nearfield, farfield detail explored in next
slide:
– Used for celldesign
2ray model observations
2ray model: distance effect, critical
distance
• d < h
t
: constructive i/f
• h
t
< d < d
c
:
constructive and
destructive i/f
(multipath fading upto
critical distance)
• d
c
< d: only
destructive
interference
“Enlist the number of scenarios where 2Ray model is
applicable”
2ray model example, cell design
• Design the cell size to be < critical distance to get O(d

2
) power decay in cell and O(d
4
) outside!
• Cell radii are typically much smaller than critical
distance
Q1:Enlist the number of scenarios where 2Ray model is
applicable.
Q2: Explain how the 2Ray Model is useful in network
planning.
Diffraction
• Diffraction occurs when waves
hit the edge of an obstacle
– “Secondary” waves propagated
into the shadowed region
– Excess path length results in
a phase shift
– Fresnel zones relate phase shifts
to the positions of obstacles
T
R
1st Fresnel zone
Obstruction
Fresnel Zones
• Bounded by elliptical loci of constant delay
• Alternate zones differ in phase by 180°
– Line of sight (LOS) corresponds to 1st zone
– If LOS is partially blocked, 2nd zone can
destructively interfere (diffraction loss)
Fresnel zones are ellipses with the T&R at the foci; L
1
= L
2
+ì
Path 1
Path 2
Concentric Circles which define the boundaries of Successive
Fresnel Zones
Fig 10
• Radius of n’th Fresnel zone is given by:
2 1
2 1
n
r
d d
d d n
+
=
ì
This approximation is valid for d1,d2 >> r
n
• Fresnel zone will have maximum radii if the plane is midway
between the transmitter and receiver and the radii becomes smaller
when plane is moved towards either Tx or Rx.
• This explain how shadowing is sensitive to the frequency as well as
the location of the obstruction with relation to the Tx or Rx.
Fresnel Zone for different knifeedge diffraction scenarios
Fig 11
•Phase difference between a direct LOS and diffracted path is a
function of height and position of obstruction, as well as transmitter
and receiver locations.
•DIFFRACTION LOSS as a function of path difference around an
obstruction is explained by FRESNEL ZONES.
•Fresnel Zones: Successive regions where secondary waves have a
path length which are nì \ 2 greater than the total path length of a
LOS.
•Phase difference
2
2
2
v
t
ì
t
 =
A ×
=
where A = excess path length
v = Fresnel  Kirchoff diffraction
parameter given as
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
2( ) 2
( )
d d d d
h
d d d d
v o
ì ì
+
= =
+
The diffraction gain due to the presence of a knife edge
) ( log 20 ) ( v F dB G
d
=
( )
edge knife and ground both the of absence in the strength field space Free
strength field diffracted edged  Knife
0
where = =
E
d
E
F v
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
>

.

\

s s ÷ ÷ ÷
s s ÷
s s ÷ ÷
÷ s
=
4 . 2
225 . 0
log 20
4 . 2 1 ) 1 . 0 38 . 0 ( 1184 . 0 4 . 0 log( 20
1 0 )) 95 . 0 exp( 5 . 0 log( 20
0 1 ) 62 . 0 5 . 0 log( 20
1 0
) (
2
v
v
v v
v v
v v
v
dB G
d
Fig 12
Example: Compute diffraction loss for the three cases shown in Fig( 11).
Assume λ=1/3 m, d1=1Km, d2=1Km.
(a) h =25 m (b) h =0 (c) h=25 m. To compare the answers using
values from Fig ( 12) as well as approximate solution given by G
d
(B)
formulation.
Solution:
(a) h =25m
Fresnel diffraction parameter
using this Fresnel value and from Fig ( ), the diffraction loss is 22 dB.
Using numerical approximation, the diffraction loss is equal to 21.7 dB.
74 . 2
1000 * 1000 * ) 3 / 1 (
) 1000 1000 ( 2
25 ] d d / ) d [2(d h
2 1 2 1
=
+
= + = ì v
The path length difference between the direct and diffracted rays is
given as :
To find Fresnel zone in which the tip of the obstruction lies, we
need to compute n which satisfies
Hence, the tip of the obstruction completely blocks the first three
Fresnel zone.
(b) h=0 it implies . Hence from Fig , diffraction loss is obtained as
6 dB. Using numerical approximation, the diffraction loss is 6 dB.
For h =0, we have . Hence, tip of the obstruction lies in the
middle of the first Fresnel zone.
m 625 . 0
1000 * 1000
) 1000 1000 (
*
2
) 25 ( ) (
2
h
2
2 1
2 1
2
=
+
=
(
¸
(
¸
+
= A
d d
d d
2 / *ì n = A
75 . 3 / 2 n , m 0.625 , 3 / 1 = A = ¬ = A = ì ì
0 = A
(c ) h =25 m it implies from Fig , the diffraction loss is
approximately 1 dB, using numerical approximation, diffraction
loss is 0 dB. Since absolute value of h is same as in part (a), the
excess path length and hence n will also be same. Hence though
the tip of the obstruction completely blocks the first three Fresnel
zones, the diffraction loss are negligible since obstruction is below
the lineofsight (h is negative).
Free Space Path Loss
reconsidered
• Path Loss is a measure of attenuation based
only on the distance to the transmitter
• Free space model only valid in farfield;
– Path loss models typically define a “closein”
point d
0
and reference other points from there:
2
0
0
) ( ) (

.

\

=
d
d
d P d P
r r
       
0 0
( ) ( ) ( ) 2* 10*log( / )
r
dB dB dB
PL d P d PL d d d = = +
Shadowing
43
Average received Signal power decreases logarithmically with
distance.The path loss
where ¸ is the path loss exponent which indicates the rate at which the
path loss increases with distance ,
d
o
= close in reference distance
d = T
X
 R
X
separation
NOTE: when exponent is taken to be free space path loss exponent
2,then, this model converts into free space path loss model
   
0
0
0
PL(d)  : ensemble average
i.e. PL(d) PL(d ) 10 log
dB dB
d
d
d
d
¸
o
¸
 

\ .
 
= +

\ .
LOG  DISTANCE PATHLOSS MODEL
44
Path loss exponent for different environment
45
LOG NORMAL SHADOWING
Surrounding environment clutter image be vastly different at different
locations having same T
X
R
X
separation (This has not been considered
in previous model). If so, measured signals would vary from the average
value given above.
Path loss PL(d) at a particular location is a log  normal distributed r.v.
(normal is dB) about the mean distance dependent value.
( ) ( ) PL d PL d X
o
= +
0
0
( ) 10 log
d
PL d X
d
o
¸
 
= + +

\ .
46
L t r
P P d P ÷ = ) (
and
dBm
dBm
dB
X
o
= zeromean Gaussian r.v. with standard deviation o(in dB)
The log normal distribution describes the random SHADOWING
effects( due to different levels of clutter on the propagation path).
• Okumura model
– Empirically based (site/freq specific)
– Awkward (uses graphs)
• Hata model
– Analytical approximation to Okumura model
• Cost 136 Model:
– Extends Hata model to higher frequency (2 GHz)
• Walfish/Bertoni:
– Cost 136 extension to include diffraction from rooftops
Empirical Models
48
Okumura Model :(1968)
Curve fitting experimental procedure,
Okumura model: 150 1920 MHz range
1 Km 100 Km Tx Rx distance
30 m 1000 m base station heights.
49
Empirical curves of variation of median attenuation (relative to
free space) in an urban area over a quasismooth terrain vs.
frequency is given. Curves obtained from extensive measurements
using vertical omni  directional antennas at both the BS and MS.
L (dB) = L
F
+ A
mu
(f,d)  G(h
te
)  G(h
re
) G
AREA
L : path loss value
L
F
: Free space propagation loss
A
mu
: median attenuation relative to free space
50
G(h
te
) : Base station antenna height gain factor
G(h
re
): MS Antenna height gain factor
G
AREA
: Gain due to the type of environment
m h G
m h G
m h G
re
re
te
3 h 10m
3
h
log 20 ) (
3 h
3
h
log 10 ) (
30 h m 1000
200
h
log 20 ) (
re
re
re
re
te
te
> >

.

\

=
s

.

\

=
> >

.

\

=
Okumura model : Simple and fairly accurate
Major disadvantage : Slow response to rapid change in
terrain. (not good for rural areas)
51
MEAN ATTENUATION RELATIVE TO FREE SPACE
52
CORRECTION FACTOR
53
Ex Find the path loss using Okumura’s model for d = 50 km,
h
te
= 100 m, h
re
= 10 m in a suburban environment.
If Base Station transmitter radiates an EIRP of 1 kw at
ƒ
c
= 900 MHz, find P
R
(assuming unity gain receiving antenna)
Free space path loss
( )
( )
( ) ( )
dB 5 . 125
10 * 50 * 4
10 * 900 / 10 * 3
log 10
4
log 10
2
3
2
2
6 8
2
2
2
=
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
¸
(
¸
=
t
t
ì
d
L
F
54
Okumura’s curve for 50 km distance at 900 MHz gives
A
mu
= 43 dB
and G
AREA
= 9 dB for suburban area
( )
( ) dB 46 . 10
3
10
log 20
3
log 20
dB 6
200
100
log 20
200
log 20
=

.

\

=

.

\

=
÷ =

.

\

=

.

\

=
re
re
te
te
h
h G
h
h G
L(dB) = L
F
+ A
mu
(ƒ, d)  G(h
te
) G(h
re
)  G
AREA
= 125.5 + 43  (6)  10.46  9 dB
= 155.04 dB
55
Therefore, the received power
P
r
(d) = EIRP(dBm)  L(dB) + G
r
(dB)
= 60 dBm  155.04 + 0
=  95.04 dBm.
Using tworay model, the received power is given by:
4
2
r
2
t
r t t R
d
h h
G G P P =
P
t
G
t
=EIRP=1kW=1*10
6
mW=60dBm, G
r
=1, h
t
=100m, h
r
=10m,
d=50Km
Hence, received power(dB) is:
P
r
(dB)=60dBm+0dB+40dB+20dB187.6dB
= 67.6dBm
Hence, tworay model predicts the received power to be far
greater than that predicted by Okumura model.
57
HATA MODEL :150 – 1500MHz
(1980)
Urban area propagation loss model
L(urban,dB) = 69.55 + 26.16 log f
c
 13.82 log h
te
a(h
re
)
+ (44.96.55 log h
te
)log d
f
c
= frequency in MHz; 150 s f s 1500 MHz ;
h
te
= effective base station antenna height ; m in range 30 m to 200 m
h
re
= effective mobile receiver antenna height ; m in range 1 m to 10m
d = T
x
 R
x
separate distance ; Km
a(h
re
) = correction factor for effective mobile antenna height ;
a function of coverage area size.
58
( ) ( )
( )
( )
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
)
¦
`
¹
> ÷
s ÷
÷ ÷
=
city large a for
300MHz
c
f 4.97dB
2
re
log11.75h 3.2
300MHz
c
f 1.1dB
2
re
log1.54h 8.29
city sized medium for dB 0.8
c
1.56logf
re
h 0.7 
c
1.1logf
) (
re
h a
For Suburban area, Hata Model for path loss is modified as
L(dB) = L(urban)2 [log (f
c
/28)]
2
 5.4
and for path loss in rural area, it is given as
L(dB) = L(urban)4.78 (log f
c
)
2
+ 18.33 log (f
c
)  40.94
Hata model compares well (very closely) with the Okumura model
for d>1 km. Well suited for large cell areas, but not for PCS ( cell
area of the order of 1 Km.)
59
Extension to Hata Model for Personal Communication service
(PCS) (COST231):The European Cooperative for Scientific and
Technical research (EUROCOST) formed the COST231 working
committee to develope an extended version of Hata model to make it
suitable for PCS cell (which is of the order of 1 Km)Cost231
proposed following formula to extend Hata model to 2GHz.
L
50
(urban) = 46.3+33.9 log f
c
13.82 log h
te
a(h
re
) + (44.9
 6.55 log h
te
)log d + C
M
centres an metropolit for dB 3
areas suburban and city sized medium for dB 0
¹
´
¦
=
M
C
For PCS, this model is extended to frequency upto 2 GHz, i.e.
f : 1500 MHz to 2000 MHz ,h
te
: 30 m to 200 m ,h
re
: 1 m to 10 m
d : 1 km. to 20 km.
Deterministic Model
Main Component of Deterministic Channel
Model
• Reflection From the Wall
• Diffraction from the Building Corners and edge
• Ray tracing
•For the large cell, the received signal mostly depends upon the
LOS path but for small cell such as urban scenario, the energy
spreading around the building also becomes very significant.
• For urban scenario, Rizk et. Al.[1] predicted the signal using
only reflection component fig (2) and found that whatever
electrical parameters taken, it never matches with measurement.
• Then, they took reflection and diffraction both in prediction
programme and found it to be very close to measurement thus
verifying the importance of diffraction fig(3).
Why diffracted signal energy is important
component for Modeling urban scenario
[1] Rizk K, Wagen JF, Gardiol F.,“ Twodimensional raytracing
modeling for propagation prediction in microcellular environments,” IEEE
Trnas Veh Technol 1997; 46:50818
Fig 2: Prediction result using only Reflection
Fig 3: Prediction result using Reflection and
Diffraction both
Ray Tracing approach is most widely used approach
for deterministic channel modeling
Why Ray Tracing ?
• Highly accurate path loss prediction
• Gives clear insight into physical phenomenon taking place
in channel
• Best for characterizing channel parameters such as
impulse response for MIMO channel, delay spread,
Doppler spread, angular spread and distribution function
of shortterm fading [4]
[4] Thomas Fugen, Jurgen Maurer, “Capability of 3D Ray tracing for Defining
parameter sets for the specification of future mobile communication systems,” IEEE
Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 54, No. 11, Nov. 2006.
Two Dimensional description of Urban environment
Image Method
I2
2
1
I3
I1
Tx
3
Rx
Tx
I1
Rx
Tx
I2
I1
Solving Ray tracing path
Lit region visibility test[1]:(1999)
Here, it is just checked if the mobile is in the
lit region (visibility region) of the facet or
not. If it comes in lit region, then, its
corresponding field at Mobile is computed
Rx
Tx
I1
2
1
First Layer
Tx
Rx
I1
3
1
1
2
3
Tx
Tree for Ray tracing
Second layer
Development of 2D Ray
Tracing tool in MATLAB
Flowchart for the ray tracing
tool
start
Check for LOS power. If
LOS exists calculate LOS
power
1
Find the facet illuminated by the
source, i.e. find the facets of the
given terrain which falls under
the lit region of the source and
are unblocked
Find the image
source/diffraction
source and
corresponding lit region
of each illuminated
facet
2
3
If the receiver lies unobstructed
in the lit region of these image or
diffraction sources find the
corresponding reflected and
diffracted fields .
Obtain the terrain geometry
Tx, Rx, linear piecewise data
points of the terrain as obtained
through plot digitizer,N =0;
Check for
shadow of path
If path
shadowed, P
N
=0,
else compute the
total power and
store it
2
1
N=N+1.
This completes one level of
child sources. Keep track of
the parent source and parent
propagation phenomena
N=Nmax?
Each source in the above
level becomes the new
transmitting source with
their lit region
Add all powers, LOS, reflected,
diffracted, multiple reflected,
multiple diffracted, reflected
diffracted combination
sto
p
3
Yes
No
1 2 3 4 5
2
Rx 3
Rx
3
Tx
Rx
Dominant Path Tree
Conversion of 2D path to 3D path
Determining Lateral rays
Twodimension path can be converted to 3D ray using 2D3D ray
path conversion. This is explained for single reflected ray as follows:
Here, AB=D2, BD=D1, BC=X2, CD=X1
In the above figure , suppose that we are given 2D ray EFG with
reflection at point F. In 3D this may represent two 3D rays with one
as EHI and another one ECI (ground reflected at C). Since F is the
reflection point hence we know
θ
Φ Φ
G
F
K
J
A B
D
C
I
E
Reflectio
n point
H
the distances AB and BD. The height of Tx and Rx are ht and
hr respectively.
1 2 1
D X X = +
2 2 1 2 2 1
tan
X D
h
X
h
X D
h
X
h
r t r
+
= ¬
+
= = 
X1 and X2can be solved as other parameters are known. To
calculate the height of reflection point
KI
KE
JI
JH
= = u tan
Hence, except JH, rest parameters are known, and hence JH can
be calculated. Thus, with the knowledge of height of both
transmitting and receiver antenna, the 3D ray can be obtained
from 2D ray.
Determining Rooftop Rays
Path loss using 2.5D Ray tracing
Work to be done
Verification of Important channel parameters
such as delay spread, Doppler spread, angular
spread, and distribution function of shortterm
fading using 2.5 D Ray tracing tool.
Why 2.5 D Ray tracing ?
• 2.5 D Ray tracing is much faster than full
3D ray tracing
Base Station (BS)
Mobile Station (MS)
multipath propagation
Path Delay
P
o
w
e
r
path2
path2
path3
path3
path1
path1
Source #2: Multipaths: PowerDelay Profile
Channel Impulse Response:
Channel amplitude h correlated at delays t.
Each “tap” value @ kTs Rayleigh distributed
(actually the sum of several subpaths)
Doppler spread
(Mathematical formulation)
Doppler: NonStationary Impulse
Response.
Impulse
response
Narro Band Channel Characterization
Complex low pass frequency response at single
frequency can be described as:
Window length T
w
to obtain average of long term fading is
related to speed of vehicle [25]
2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
LP
LP LP
D D D D HH D
t
HH
H t H f H f S f
r t
÷ ¬ =
A
Coherence time:
Time interval Δt that fulfills the following condition:
( )
1/
(0)
t
HH
t
HH
r t
e
r
A
=
Average Doppler shift and Doppler spread are given as:
2
( )
( )
( )
2
( )
D
D HH D D
D
HH D D
D HH D D
f D
HH D D
f S f df
f
S f df
f S f df
f
S f df
o
+·
÷·
+·
÷·
+·
÷·
=
+·
÷·
×
=
×
÷
}
}
}
}
.
D
f coherent
T const o × =
DispersionSelectivity Duality
Delay Spread: Wideband channel
characteristic
Mean Arrival Time:
Delay Spread
Measurement Plan
Digital Map
Channel impulse response Measurement
Objective: To obtain Powerdelay profile (PDP)
Method: 1
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
y t p t h t
Y f
H f
P f
= ©
¬ =
Method2: Spread Spectrum Channel Impulse
response measurement system
Method 3: Frequency Domain Impulse Response
Measurement
Requirement for this measurement:
• Suitable building locations for which 3D database is available
• Channel sounder to record impulse response of channel
• Vehicle mounted with antenna to move the Tx
Once impulse response found, delay spread is calculated as:
0 1 2 5
30dB
10dB
20dB
0dB
τ (μs)
P
r
(τ)
Powerdelay
Profile
→
Longfading, shortfading, Path Loss
• We need a channel sounder that can record the complex
channel transfer function H(t) with sampling time Ts
• Do the averaging of these samples for a given window
( )
LP
H t
t
Longterm fading signal (Local Mean area)
W
T
Thank you