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Theories Of Social Relationship
 Social relationship : dynamic, recurrent patterns of interactions with others.  Theories :  Attachment Theory  The Convoy Model  Socioemotional Selectivity Theory  Evolutionary Psychology

Attachment Theory
 Attachment : strong effectional bond formed by an infant to her primary caregiver and inferred by behavior.

 Key underlying features :
 Feeling of security  Increased during times of stress

 Attempts to avoid, or to end, separation from the attachment figure

 Internal working model or attachment orientation.
 Attachment relationship – which are a set of beliefs and assumptions about the nature of all relationship  Attachment behaviors – ways an underlying is expressed  Attachment orientation – patterns of expectation, needs and emotion one exhibit in interpersonal relationship  Caregiving orientation – system that is activated in adults when they interact with infants and young children

 Networks serve to shape and protect  Networks effect how world is experienced. .The Convoy Model  Convoy Model : ever-changing network of social relationships throughout life.

 Outer circle.for names of people who are part of the respondent's personal network but not as close as the other two groups.Social networks in the Convoy Model  Social network divided into three parts like inner circle.  Inner circle.for names of people who are so close and important to the them. . but not as close as those in the inner circle. middle circle. outer circle.  Middle circle -for people who are also close.

. Convoys differ by individual’s age. race.  Other social networks is on health. and SES and may act as stress buffers.

Socioemotional Selectivity Theory  Socioemotional selectivity theory – more meaningful social relationships are preferred with age.  As an individual ages. he uses his resources on activities and items that have more emotional importance.  trying to broadly spend life in pursuit of varied experiences or simple pleasures. . he becomes more selective about how he spends resources such as time and money.

access to food and insulation from cold.  Relationships provide protection from predation.  Human species to day have manifested in “need to belong”.Evolutionary Psychology  Evolutionary psychology – social relationships play important role in human evolution. biological system .

.  Cohabitating couples with heterosexual and same-sex partners.Intimate Partnerships  Married couples.  Gay and lesbian couples in civil unions.

.  The process of choosing such partnership also known as mate selection.2005). 90% of people in the world will marry at some point in their lives (Campbell & Ellis.Establishing an Intimate Relationship  The process of choosing a life partner and formalizing the relationship is found in every known.

intense focused attention on a preferred individual. obsessive thinking. emotional dependency .Mate Selection  Majority of people select their own mates and do it on the combination of subjective feelings include:-  Euphoria.

Fisher (2000.2004) suggest that mate selection depend on: Lust  Attraction  Attachment .Mate Selection  Helen L.

 Lust system powered by androgens in both genders and sometimes viewed as accelerator of romantic love.  Freud believed that libido was the foundation of all intimate relationships. .Lust  Lust system causes men and women to experience sexual desire (libido) and seek out sexual opportunities.

 The experience of attraction is also known as romantic love.Attraction  Attraction system directs men and women to attend specific potential mates and to desire an emotional relationship with them. passionate love and limerance.  The attraction system is associated with increased levels of dopamine and norepinephrine and decreased levels of serotonin. . obsessive love. passion. all neurotransmitters in the brain.

What Attracts One Person To Another?  Filter Theory – a large pool of potential mates are filter out those who do not fit the specifications (Care & Lloyd. 1992).  Exchange Theory – exchange certain assets to offer in a relationship.  Evolutionary perspective – based on our ancient ancestors’ need to increase their chances of reproducing and providing for their children until they old enough to fend for themselves. .

But first a little biology  Attraction associated with increased levels of dopamine and norepinephrine and decreased levels of serotonin (brain neurotransmitters)  Patterns of brain activation for new romantic love different depend on individual perspective. .

Filter Theory  Begin with large pool and gradually filter out those who do not fit specifications.  Describes mate selection as a series of steps that rule out more and more potential partners until only one is left .

 In choosing a mate.Exchange Theory  Each person has some assets to offer a prospective partner. . we try for the best exchange we can manage.

. healthy genes. b) Women.qualities that signal economic resources. look for sings of good health and fertility.What about the evolutionary perspective?  Evolutionary perspective  Preferences are genetically based a) Men – someone to bear and feed children . and protector ability.

What does recent research tell us?  Different preference for mates depends on interest in long-term or short-term relationship .

 Bartholomew developed four categories :  Secure  Dismissive  Preoccupied  fearful .Creating a Relationship : The Role of Attachment  Researcher suggest that adult romantic relationship styles are reflections of attachment bond the adults had with their parents in childhood.

Thinking About Attachment  How does Bowlby’s attachment theory match recent theories that attachment between romantic partners is an evolved mechanism to keep parents together long enough to raise children? .

Types Of Marriage  Validating marriage  Volatile marriage  Avoidance marriage  Hostile negative marriage  Emotionally unexpressive marriage .

Long Term Marriages  What makes marriage “work” (Gottman. 1994)  Validating marriage  Volatile marriage  Avoidance marriage .

2002)  Hostile negative marriage  Emotionally unexpressive marriage .When marriages fail  Types of unsuccessful marriages (Gottman & Levenson.

particularly an emotionally or sexually intimate in a long-term or permanent basis. .Cohabitation  Is an arrangement where two people who are not married live together in an intimate relationship.

Factors Of Cohabitation  Parent’s attitude  Lack of religious education  Economic  The influences of foreign cultures .

and the risk of physical and sexual abuse for children.  Higher levels of conflict.  Living together outside of marriage increases the risk of domestic violence for women.  Unmarried couples have lower levels of happiness and wellbeing than married couples.  People who lived together before marriage have a higher rate of divorce than those who did not live together .The Negative Effect  Living together before marriage increases the risk of breaking up after marriage.

 In their essential psychological respects. these relationships are regarded as equivalent to opposite-sex relationships. to non-romantic homosocialy-close relationships.Same Sex Partnership  is a relationship between two persons of the same sex and can take many forms. from romantic and sexual.  For example : gay and lesbian. .

.  Can have different kinds of viruses or get sick that can affect your reproductive organs when you have sexual intercourse to your partner.Disadvantages  It is that you and your partner cannot have or make your own child not unless you and your partner adopted one.


What is Family? .

General Patterns of Family Interaction  1970s & 1980s : Social scientist grappled with the idea that nuclear families (parents and their children)  In United States were in danger of being isolated from their extended families (grandparents. aunts and uncles and cousins)  Young families moving across the country to seek out job opportunities that were not available in their hometown.  Families had begun using communication technology – to keep in touch with each other and to keep their family relationships strong. .

Affectional solidarity ~the type and degree of positive sentiment held about family members. Intergenerational solidarity theory states that family relationships depend on: i. and the degree of reciprocity of these sentiments. Associational solidarity ~ the frequency and patterns of interaction in various types of activities ii.  The quality of any family relationship cab be evaluated on 6 dimensions. .Relationships with Other Family Members.

iv.iii. 1982) . Normative solidarity ~ the perception and enactment of norms of family solidarity. attitudes. Functional solidarity ~ the degree to which family members exchange services or assistance. Consensual solidarity ~the degree of agreement on values. vi. (Bengtson & Schrader. and beliefs among family members. Intergenerational family structure ~ the number. type and geographic proximity of family members. v.

not declines. • Adults substitute symbols of parents and supplement symbolic relationship. .Parent-Child relationships in Adulthood Bowl by and Weiss • Parental bonds should attenuate and end. Cicirelli • Parent-child attachment changes. • Relinquished parental attachment central in individuation-achieving process of late adolescence and early adulthood • Communication becomes important.

Estrangement ii. Financial challenges immediately after divorce. . iii. Financial challenges in parents late-life through increased caregiving burdens on children.The Effect of Late-life Divorce  Divorce increasing among older adults.  Effect may be experienced by adult children: i.

 Problem include children’s divorce. .Problem Children in Adulthood  Children’s problems primary cause for depressive symptoms for older adults. financial crises and drug or alcohol problem.

 Many adult grandchild view their relationship with grandparents as a “safety net”.  Relationships provide important emotional meaning. .  Racial/ethnic differences.Grandparent-Grandchild Relationship  Age makes a difference and relationships change as ages of both parties increase.

caregiving. and knowledge transmission.  Social groups with more grandparents had more help in birthing. .What Is The “Grandmother Effect”?  Presence of grandmothers predictive of children’s survival through recorded history.

and resources provided.Relationships With Grandparents  Figure 6.5 3 Mean Rank 2. time spent together.2: Students rate grandparents based on emotional closeness. Mother's mother 3.5 2 1.5 Mother's father Father's mother Father's father 0 Time Resources Type Of Investment Emotional Closeness .5 1 0.

death of a parent). .Relationships With Siblings  Moderate emotional closeness is most common pattern of siblings relationships in adulthood. life events often bring siblings together (e..  Evidence suggests sibling relationships become more significant in later life.  In middle adulthood.g.

5 13 12. 14 Total Difficulties Score 13. and Single Parent Homes  Figure 6.5 11 10.5 Low Medium Involvement Lone-parent Two-parent High . Grandparents.Teens.3: When teenagers live in single-parent home.5 12 11. a good relationship with grandparents is related to fewer difficulties and distress.

men’s friendships are marked by doing. .  Friends appear to become less central with age.Friendships in Adulthood  Friendship – voluntary social relationship carried out within a social context.  Women’s friendships are based on talk.