You are on page 1of 46

CHAPTER 6 SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS

PREPARED BY: FAZLI HISHAM BIN FAUZI NOR ASIAH BINTI MOHAMAD 168718 161884

SITI NOOR AZNIE BINTI YAZID
NORFAIZAH BINTI RIFIN NUR ASILAH BINTI MOHD SARMAN UMMU 'ATIAH BINTI DAUD

163843
163545 170930 162474

NUR'NAQIBAH BINTI MUSU
YOO PHEI YING

162481
161536

Theories Of Social Relationship
 Social relationship : dynamic, recurrent patterns of interactions with others.  Theories :  Attachment Theory  The Convoy Model  Socioemotional Selectivity Theory  Evolutionary Psychology

Attachment Theory
 Attachment : strong effectional bond formed by an infant to her primary caregiver and inferred by behavior.

 Key underlying features :
 Feeling of security  Increased during times of stress

 Attempts to avoid, or to end, separation from the attachment figure

Attachment
 Internal working model or attachment orientation.
 Attachment relationship – which are a set of beliefs and assumptions about the nature of all relationship  Attachment behaviors – ways an underlying is expressed  Attachment orientation – patterns of expectation, needs and emotion one exhibit in interpersonal relationship  Caregiving orientation – system that is activated in adults when they interact with infants and young children

 Networks serve to shape and protect  Networks effect how world is experienced. .The Convoy Model  Convoy Model : ever-changing network of social relationships throughout life.

 Outer circle.for names of people who are part of the respondent's personal network but not as close as the other two groups.Social networks in the Convoy Model  Social network divided into three parts like inner circle.  Inner circle.for names of people who are so close and important to the them. . but not as close as those in the inner circle. middle circle. outer circle.  Middle circle -for people who are also close.

. Convoys differ by individual’s age. race.  Other social networks is on health. and SES and may act as stress buffers.

Socioemotional Selectivity Theory  Socioemotional selectivity theory – more meaningful social relationships are preferred with age.  As an individual ages. he uses his resources on activities and items that have more emotional importance.  trying to broadly spend life in pursuit of varied experiences or simple pleasures. . he becomes more selective about how he spends resources such as time and money.

access to food and insulation from cold.  Relationships provide protection from predation.  Human species to day have manifested in “need to belong”.Evolutionary Psychology  Evolutionary psychology – social relationships play important role in human evolution. biological system .

.  Cohabitating couples with heterosexual and same-sex partners.Intimate Partnerships  Married couples.  Gay and lesbian couples in civil unions.

.  The process of choosing such partnership also known as mate selection.2005). 90% of people in the world will marry at some point in their lives (Campbell & Ellis.Establishing an Intimate Relationship  The process of choosing a life partner and formalizing the relationship is found in every known.

intense focused attention on a preferred individual. obsessive thinking. emotional dependency .Mate Selection  Majority of people select their own mates and do it on the combination of subjective feelings include:-  Euphoria.

Fisher (2000.2004) suggest that mate selection depend on: Lust  Attraction  Attachment .Mate Selection  Helen L.

 Lust system powered by androgens in both genders and sometimes viewed as accelerator of romantic love.  Freud believed that libido was the foundation of all intimate relationships. .Lust  Lust system causes men and women to experience sexual desire (libido) and seek out sexual opportunities.

 The experience of attraction is also known as romantic love.Attraction  Attraction system directs men and women to attend specific potential mates and to desire an emotional relationship with them. passionate love and limerance.  The attraction system is associated with increased levels of dopamine and norepinephrine and decreased levels of serotonin. . obsessive love. passion. all neurotransmitters in the brain.

What Attracts One Person To Another?  Filter Theory – a large pool of potential mates are filter out those who do not fit the specifications (Care & Lloyd. 1992).  Exchange Theory – exchange certain assets to offer in a relationship.  Evolutionary perspective – based on our ancient ancestors’ need to increase their chances of reproducing and providing for their children until they old enough to fend for themselves. .

But first a little biology  Attraction associated with increased levels of dopamine and norepinephrine and decreased levels of serotonin (brain neurotransmitters)  Patterns of brain activation for new romantic love different depend on individual perspective. .

Filter Theory  Begin with large pool and gradually filter out those who do not fit specifications.  Describes mate selection as a series of steps that rule out more and more potential partners until only one is left .

 In choosing a mate.Exchange Theory  Each person has some assets to offer a prospective partner. . we try for the best exchange we can manage.

. healthy genes. b) Women.qualities that signal economic resources. look for sings of good health and fertility.What about the evolutionary perspective?  Evolutionary perspective  Preferences are genetically based a) Men – someone to bear and feed children . and protector ability.

What does recent research tell us?  Different preference for mates depends on interest in long-term or short-term relationship .

 Bartholomew developed four categories :  Secure  Dismissive  Preoccupied  fearful .Creating a Relationship : The Role of Attachment  Researcher suggest that adult romantic relationship styles are reflections of attachment bond the adults had with their parents in childhood.

Thinking About Attachment  How does Bowlby’s attachment theory match recent theories that attachment between romantic partners is an evolved mechanism to keep parents together long enough to raise children? .

Types Of Marriage  Validating marriage  Volatile marriage  Avoidance marriage  Hostile negative marriage  Emotionally unexpressive marriage .

Long Term Marriages  What makes marriage “work” (Gottman. 1994)  Validating marriage  Volatile marriage  Avoidance marriage .

2002)  Hostile negative marriage  Emotionally unexpressive marriage .When marriages fail  Types of unsuccessful marriages (Gottman & Levenson.

particularly an emotionally or sexually intimate in a long-term or permanent basis. .Cohabitation  Is an arrangement where two people who are not married live together in an intimate relationship.

Factors Of Cohabitation  Parent’s attitude  Lack of religious education  Economic  The influences of foreign cultures .

and the risk of physical and sexual abuse for children.  Higher levels of conflict.  Living together outside of marriage increases the risk of domestic violence for women.  Unmarried couples have lower levels of happiness and wellbeing than married couples.  People who lived together before marriage have a higher rate of divorce than those who did not live together .The Negative Effect  Living together before marriage increases the risk of breaking up after marriage.

 In their essential psychological respects. these relationships are regarded as equivalent to opposite-sex relationships. to non-romantic homosocialy-close relationships.Same Sex Partnership  is a relationship between two persons of the same sex and can take many forms. from romantic and sexual.  For example : gay and lesbian. .

.  Can have different kinds of viruses or get sick that can affect your reproductive organs when you have sexual intercourse to your partner.Disadvantages  It is that you and your partner cannot have or make your own child not unless you and your partner adopted one.

.

What is Family? .

General Patterns of Family Interaction  1970s & 1980s : Social scientist grappled with the idea that nuclear families (parents and their children)  In United States were in danger of being isolated from their extended families (grandparents. aunts and uncles and cousins)  Young families moving across the country to seek out job opportunities that were not available in their hometown.  Families had begun using communication technology – to keep in touch with each other and to keep their family relationships strong. .

Affectional solidarity ~the type and degree of positive sentiment held about family members. Intergenerational solidarity theory states that family relationships depend on: i. and the degree of reciprocity of these sentiments. Associational solidarity ~ the frequency and patterns of interaction in various types of activities ii.  The quality of any family relationship cab be evaluated on 6 dimensions. .Relationships with Other Family Members.

iv.iii. 1982) . Normative solidarity ~ the perception and enactment of norms of family solidarity. attitudes. Functional solidarity ~ the degree to which family members exchange services or assistance. Consensual solidarity ~the degree of agreement on values. vi. (Bengtson & Schrader. and beliefs among family members. Intergenerational family structure ~ the number. type and geographic proximity of family members. v.

not declines. • Adults substitute symbols of parents and supplement symbolic relationship. .Parent-Child relationships in Adulthood Bowl by and Weiss • Parental bonds should attenuate and end. Cicirelli • Parent-child attachment changes. • Relinquished parental attachment central in individuation-achieving process of late adolescence and early adulthood • Communication becomes important.

Estrangement ii. Financial challenges immediately after divorce. . iii. Financial challenges in parents late-life through increased caregiving burdens on children.The Effect of Late-life Divorce  Divorce increasing among older adults.  Effect may be experienced by adult children: i.

 Problem include children’s divorce. .Problem Children in Adulthood  Children’s problems primary cause for depressive symptoms for older adults. financial crises and drug or alcohol problem.

 Many adult grandchild view their relationship with grandparents as a “safety net”.  Relationships provide important emotional meaning. .  Racial/ethnic differences.Grandparent-Grandchild Relationship  Age makes a difference and relationships change as ages of both parties increase.

caregiving. and knowledge transmission.  Social groups with more grandparents had more help in birthing. .What Is The “Grandmother Effect”?  Presence of grandmothers predictive of children’s survival through recorded history.

and resources provided.Relationships With Grandparents  Figure 6.5 3 Mean Rank 2. time spent together.2: Students rate grandparents based on emotional closeness. Mother's mother 3.5 2 1.5 Mother's father Father's mother Father's father 0 Time Resources Type Of Investment Emotional Closeness .5 1 0.

death of a parent). .Relationships With Siblings  Moderate emotional closeness is most common pattern of siblings relationships in adulthood. life events often bring siblings together (e..  Evidence suggests sibling relationships become more significant in later life.  In middle adulthood.g.

5 13 12. 14 Total Difficulties Score 13. and Single Parent Homes  Figure 6.5 11 10.5 Low Medium Involvement Lone-parent Two-parent High . Grandparents.Teens.3: When teenagers live in single-parent home.5 12 11. a good relationship with grandparents is related to fewer difficulties and distress.

men’s friendships are marked by doing. .  Friends appear to become less central with age.Friendships in Adulthood  Friendship – voluntary social relationship carried out within a social context.  Women’s friendships are based on talk.

THANK YOU .